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Japanese  Exterior  and  Interior 

Village  Street,  Asama  Hot  Spring,  and  Room  in  Inn,  Miyanoshita 

Water  colors  by  Bunzo  Watanabe,  1882 


1877,  1878-79,  1882-83 













Published  October  zqrj 


XIII.  The  Ainus .      .      1 

XIV.  Hakodate  and  the  Return  to  Tokyo     ....     44 
XV.  A  Japanese  Winter .___^_.     77 

XVI.  To  Nagasaki  and  Kagoshima 129 

XVII.  Travels  in  the  South 164 

XVIII.  Lectures  and  Social  Functions 200 

XIX.  Japan  in  1882 208 

XX.  Overland  to  Kyoto 239 

XXI.  The  Inland  Sea 263 

XXII.  Pottery-hunting  in  and  about  Kyoto    .      .      .      .  281 

XXIII.  Customs  and  Superstitions 305 

XXIV.  The  Caves  of  Kabutoyama 319 

XXV.  Tokyo  Notes 327 

XXVI.  Falconry  and  Other  Matters 381 

Index 437 




We  were  told  by  a  servant  of  the  house  that  just  back  of  the 
town  a  dance,  or  ceremony,  was  going  on  in  an  Ainu  hut.  I 
had  not  entered  an  Ainu  hut,  though  one  meets  Ainus  in  the 
street,  so  we  all  went  to  the  place  and  were  invited  into  the 
hut,  which  consisted  of  one  large  room.  There  were  three 
Ainus  in  the  room,  all  with  heavy  black  beards  and  tangled 
mops  of  long  hair,  their  faces  strongly  resembling  those  of 
our  race.  Not  a  trace  of  Mongolian  was  detected.  These 
men  were  sitting  cross-legged  on  the  floor  around  a  large  dish 
of  sake.  One  of  them  was  performing  a  monotonous  dance, 
making  a  curious  gesture  of  the  hands  as  if  bowing  to  the  win- 
dow, to  a  glint  of  sunlight  on  the  floor,  to  everything  about  the 
room,  and  to  the  shrine  outside,  which  consisted  of  a  dozen 
bear  skulls  stuck  on  the  ends  of  long  poles.  They  were  all  really 
intelligent-looking  men,  with  their  long,  dignified  beards,  and 
it  was  impossible  to  realize  that  they  were  low,  unlettered 
savages  without  moral  courage,  lazy,  and  strongly  given  to 
drunkenness,  supporting  themselves  by  hunting  with  bow  and 
arrow  and  fishing.  One  of  the  Japanese  with  me  asked  them 
where  I  came  from,  and  they  answered  that  I  was  the  same  as 
the  Japanese! 


One  old  fellow,  who  was  very  drunk,  showed  me  a  quiverful 
of  their  terrible  poisoned  arrows;  another  one  told  him  to  be 
careful,  and  I  felt  rather  nervous  as  he  walked  behind  me  with 
an  arrow  in  his  hand,  performing  in  curious  gestures  and  sing- 
ing a  monotonous  chant.  One  man  strung  his  bow  to  show  me 
how  they  shoot  the  arrow,  and  when  he  took  the  arrow  from 
his  quiver  he  first  very  carefully  removed  the  poisoned  point. 
This  point  consists  of  a  blade  of  bamboo,  and  I  noticed  a  white 
powder  on  it.  The  poison  used  is  said  to  be  aconite  of  some 
form,  and  so  virulent  is  it  that  the  Ainu  bear  is  killed  by  it. 

We  gave  them  twenty  cents  to  replenish  their  vessel  of  sake, 
and  when  it  was  brought  we  had  to  drink  with  them.  It  was 
worse  than  eating  worms  to  drink  out  of  their  dirty  dishes. 
The  Ainus,  in  turn,  poured  out  a  large  lacquer  cup  full  of  sake, 
and,  resting  a  long,  thin  piece  of  wTood  resembling  a  carved 
paper-cutter  across  the  cup,  sat  down  and  went  through  a 
series  of  movements,  first  taking  the  stick  and  dipping  the  end 
of  it  into  the  liquor  and  sprinkling  a  few  drops  in  front  of 
them.  They  made  a  movement  such  as  one  would  make  in 
removing  a  speck  or  a  fly  from  milk.  This  they  did  several 
times,  offering  the  drops  to  different  points  of  the  compass; 
but  I  observed  how  slight  were  their  offerings  of  the  precious 
liquor  to  the  gods.  They  then  stroked  their  full  beards  and 
made  a  peculiar  upward  movement  of  the  hands  toward  their 
beards  as  a  sign  of  thankfulness.  After  this  long  introductory 
they  raised  the  cup  toward  the  mouth,  and  taking  the  stick 
lifted  the  heavy  mustache  away  from  the  wine  as  they  drank. 
These  sticks  are  known  as  mustache  sticks,  and  many  had 
interesting  Ainu  designs  carved  upon  them. 


The  hut  was  simply  a  large,  square  room  literally  black  with 
soot.  The  fireplace  was  a  square  area  in  the  middle  of  the  dirt 
floor,  over  which,  hanging  from  the  roof,  was  a  simple  device 
to  suspend  a  pot  or  kettle.  Most  of  their  household  effects 
were  in  round  Japanese  lacquer  boxes.  In  many  things  the 
evidence  of  Japanese  contact  could  be  seen:  in  the  quavering 
voice  in  singing,  in  their  dance,  and  in  other  behavior;  or  pos- 
sibly the  Japanese  may  have  derived  some  of  these  features 
from  the  Ainu  centuries  ago  when  the  Ainus  occupied  the 
whole  country.  There  were  one  or  two  openings  in  the  hut 
besides  the  door,  but  the  place  was  too  dark  to  make  out 
details.  Figure  365  is  the  merest  apology  of  a  sketch  made  in 
the  dark.   I  hope  to  get  more  details  of  the  Ainu  huts  later. 

While  we  were  in  the  hut  an  Ainu  woman  came  in.  She  had 
large,  coarse  features  and  a  wild,  untamed  look  in  her  eye. 

Fig.  365 


She  was  working  on  some  kind  of  a  garment  and,  between 
stitches,  scratching  for  fleas.   I  have  seen  three  Ainu  women 
thus  far,  and  they  all  had  an  indigo-colored 
<St?  <Sb         area  resembling  a  mustache  painted  about 
their  mouths  (fig.  366).  It  is  a  curious  cus- 
tom, and  though  bad  enough  looking,  it  was 
not  half  so  hideous  as  the  blackened  teeth 
Fig  366  °^  tne  Japanese  married  women. 

On  the  29th  of  July  we  left  Otaru  for  Sap- 
poro. The  specimens  we  had  collected  at  Otaru  were  packed 
in  large  sake  kegs.  These  objects  consisted  of  a  hundred 
shells  of  the  big  scallop,  a  big  oil  can  of  alcohol  in  which 
was  the  material  we  had  dredged,  a  pile  of  ancient  pottery 
from  the  shell  heap,  etc.  Our  horses  were  brought  to  the 
inn,  two  of  them  having  foreign  saddles  for  Professor  Yatabe 
and  me,  the  others  with  pack-saddles  which  required  a  lot 
of  blanket  padding.  Our  pack  consisted  of  two  large  willow 
baskets.  The  driver  of  the  train  rode  another  horse,  while 
Mr.  Sasaki  and  the  servant  preferred  to  walk,  thirty  miles 
being  nothing  to  a  Japanese.  As  there  are  no  wheeled  ve- 
hicles, or  jinrikishas,  we  had  before  us,  after  leaving  Sapporo 
to  ride  across  Yezo  on  horseback,  one  hundred  and  fifty 
miles,  or  walk.  I  must  admit  to  a  feeling  of  apprehension 
about  this  long  ride  on  horseback  over  a  ragged  roadway 
with  different  horses  each  day,  —  wild  devils  some  of  them 
too,  —  though  we  were  told  that  from  Sapporo  to  the  east 
coast  of  Yezo  the  roads  were  fairly  good.  It  was  a  curious 
fact  that  I  had  never  been  on  the  back  of  a  horse  before.  The 
recollections  of  friends  with  broken  arms,  broken  heads,  and 


accounts  of  others  dragged  to  death  with  foot  entangled  in 
stirrup  came  up  to  haunt  me  with  their  terrors.  However,  I 
was  in  for  it,  and  there  was  no  time  to  walk,  and  if  I  broke  my 
head  I  would  not  im- 
piously accuse  Provi- 
dence, but  look  upon 
it  as  a  result  of  my 
neglected  education. 
Not  caring  to  exhibit 
myself  before  the  na- 
tives, I  had  my  horse 
led  beyond  the  bound- 
ary of  the  town  while 
I  walked.  This  was 
so  enjoyable  that  I 
walked  four  or  five  miles  before  mounting  the  nag.  The  road 
for  ten  miles  led  along  the  coast.  In  two  places  the  bluffs 
had  been  tunneled  through,  and  in  figure  367  is  a  view  of 

Otaru  through  one  of 

Fig.  367 


these  tunnels.  A  fresh 
breeze  blew  in  from  the 
sea  and  the  waves  beat 
out  their  "everlasting 
anthem."  Fishermen 
off  shore  were  busy  get- 
ting seaweed,  a  large  Laminaria  which  is  dried  and  exported- 
to  China  in  bales.  The  fishermen  use  a  kind  of  fork  on  a 
pole  ten  feet  long  with  a  cross-bar  at  the  end  of  the  pole. 
The  pole  is  thrust  down  into  the  forest  of  seaweed  and  then 

Fig.  368 


turned  a  number  of  times,  twisting  the  seaweed  in  such  a 
manner  that  it  can  be  pulled  from  its  moorings  (fig.  368). 

In  the  distance  we  saw  our  steamer  on  its  way  back  to  Hako- 
date. Such  beautiful  precipices  we  passed,  over  one  of  which 
a  broad  cascade  fell.  Such  chances  for  an  artist  I  have  not  seen 
elsewhere  in  the  country;  there  were  so  many  exquisite  bits  for 

Fig.  369 

the  pencil  and  the  brush.  In  figure  369  is  one  of  these  views, 
a  place  called  Kamakotan  with  a  long,  curved  beach  in  front 
and  great  basaltic  cliffs,  eight  hundred  feet  in  height.  In  some 
places  these  cliffs  showed  the  most  contorted  structure,  the 
basalt  perfect  in  its  crystallization.  The  lava  had  poured 
down  in  great  masses  which  had  cooled  and  crystallized  in 
successive  fiery  floods.  It  was  too  complex  a  structure  to 

After  a  few  miles  I  got  upon  my  horse  for  the  first  time.  I 
mounted  with  an  air  as  if  I  had  always  ridden  a  horse,  and  what 
a  manly,  commanding  sort  of  feeling  it  gave  me.  It  is  true  the 


horse  was  slow  and  persisted  in  walking  unless  urged  into  a 
violent  trot,  but  nevertheless  I  felt  like  a  commander,  and  it 
seemed  as  if  I  were  at  the  head  of  an  expedition  for  the  survey 
of  the  world.  It  was  some  little  time  before  I  got  accustomed 
to  the  motion,  but  after  a  while  matters  became  easier,  and 
from  contemplating  the  horse  with  considerable  anxiety,  I 
could  contemplate  the  landscape  with  some  serenity.  The 
sides  of  the  road  everywhere  were  strewn  with  large  fronds  of 
seaweed,  drying.  For  ten  miles  it  was  a  rugged  path  and  very 
steep  in  some  places.  Along  the  sides  of  alarming  cliffs  "a 
false  step,"  as  the  books  say,  might  have  precipitated  me  a 
hundred  feet,  but  the  horse  knew  better  than  to  do  such  a 
thing,  though  my  uncertain  seat  in  the  saddle  made  me  somer 
what  nervous.  After  a  while,  getting  on  a  level  road,  I  had  the 
hardihood  to  give  the  horse  a  gentle  hint.  Instantly  I  re- 
gretted it,  for  such  a  painful  jolting  I  got;  each  individual  step 
by  each  individual  leg  bumped  me  up  and  down  with  a  dozen 
rebounds  and  I  instantly  pulled  the  horse  up  again.  Before  I 
reached  Sapporo  I  had  acquired  the  art  of  synchronizing  my 
movements  with  the  rigid  bounce  of  the  horse,  and  though 
very  lame  and  sore  I  managed  to  trot  mildly  after  a  fashion. 

Our  first  resting-place  was  a  collection  of  sleepy  houses 
forming  the  village  of  Genibaku  (fig.  370).  At  the  inn  where 
we  stopped  were  signs  of  former  activity  and  importance. 
Long  suites  of  unoccupied  rooms  recalled  the  daimyo  proces- 
sions that  used  to  pass  across  the  island.  Now  the  house  was 
in  a  moribund  state,  the  rice  was  poor,  and  I  had  hard  work 
to  supply  my  "chemical  laboratory"  with  anything  palat- 
able. After  leaving  the  place  the  road  became  wider  and  led 



Fig.  370 

away  from  the  coast.  The  heat  now  became  oppressive,  and 
a  huge  horsefly,  much  larger  than  those  in  our  country, 
swarmed  by  hundreds.  I  dreaded  them,  for  I  was  told  that 
their  sting  was  fearful.  The  horse  repeatedly  stumbled,  nearly 
throwing  me  over  his  head,  he, was  so  occupied  in  switching 
and  kicking  them  off.  At  times  he  would  strike  my  legs  a  hard 
rap  with  his  nose  as  he  swung  his  head  back,  and  I  found  it  a 
difficult  matter  to  sit  straight  and  keep  the  horse  straight  too. 
When  we  got  within  two  miles  of  Sapporo  we  passed  large 
military  barracks,  the  houses  built  in  foreign  style.  It  was  an 
odd  sight  to  see  these  long  rows  of  one-story  houses  with  win- 
dows and  chimneys.  The  soldiers  live  here  the  year  through 
and  have  their  families  with  them.  After  passing  this  station 
we  were  met  by  a  very  polite  Japanese  officer,  who  spoke  Eng- 
lish very  well,  and  who,  receiving  word  from  Otaru  that  we 
were  on  the  way,  had  come  to  escort  us  to  town  —  Professor 
Yatabe  to  the  best  inn  and  me  to  the  house  of  Professor 
Brooks,  one  of  the  officers  in  the  Agricultural  College,  who  was 
to  take  care  of  me.   As  we  approached  the  town  I  noticed  a 


large  building  surmounted  by  a  dome  similar  to  our  Capitol 
buildings  at  home;  it  looked  like  home  in  fact,  and  on  inquiry 
I  found  it  was  really  the  capitol  building  of  Yezo. 

The  streets  of  Sapporo  are  wide  and  cross  one  another  at 
right  angles.  The  whole  town  suggests  a  new  but  thriving  vil- 
lage in  our  Western  States.  There  are  a  number  of  houses 
occupied  by  Government  officials  built  in  our  style,  but  the 
other  houses  were  purely  Japanese  in  character.  Professor 
Brooks  gave  me  a  cordial  welcome,  and  after  brushing  up  he 
conducted  me  to  the  college  and  farm.  The  college  had  the 
appearance  of  our  usual  country  college:  common  buildings 
without  the  slightest  taste  shown  in  their  design  or  construc- 
tion. In  one  room  was  an  interesting  collection  of  vessels  and 
fragments  from  the  shell  heaps  of  Otaru.  How  I  wanted  them ! 
In  certain  features  of  decoration  they  reminded  one  of  the 

Fig. 371 


Omori  pottery,  but  in  form  they  were  entirely  unlike  (Fig. 
371).  After  examining  these  and  other  objects  on  the  shelves, 
principally  minerals,  I  was  conducted  to  the  farm,  where  I 
saw  a  huge  barn  modeled  after  one  at  the  Amherst  Agricul- 
tural College  in  Massachusetts.  Last  year  I  had  chanced  to 
see  a  report  of  the  college  with  a  picture  of  this  model  barn. 
It  seemed  too  absurd  to  erect  such  a  structure  for  the  Japa- 
nese, as  their  requirements  were  so  different  from  ours.  But 
after  riding  through  the  country  and  learning  more  about  the 
climate,  I  realized  that  farming  in  our  sense  might  be  done 
and  in  our  way  too,  and  therefore  not  only  implements  such 
as  we  use,  but  barns  of  our  kind,  were  necessary.  In  the  barn 
were  tons  of  hay.  We  climbed  to  the  cupola  and  had  a  fine 
view  of  the  surrounding  country,  and  in  coming  down  had  a 
big  jump  from  a  beam  to  the  hay  below.  All  this,  with  the 
odor  of  cows,  made  me  homesick.  At  Professor  Brooks's  I  had 
a  quart  of  fresh  milk.  It  was  difficult  to  realize  that  I  was  in 
the  heart  of  Yezo  and  that  only  eight  years  ago  this  place  was 
a  howling  wilderness  frequented  by  savage  bears.  That  they 
still  exist  in  the  region  is  attested  by  the  account  of  Professor 
Brooks  that  last  year  a  bear  was  killed  which  had  eaten  four 
men  one  after  the  other,  in  one  case  breaking  into  a  house  to 
get  the  victim.  It  is  to  the  highest  credit  of  the  Japanese  that 
they  not  only  conceived  the  idea  of  the  Agricultural  College, 
but  sent  to  a  Massachusetts  Agricultural  College  for  a  man  to 
establish  the  farming  part  of  it.  It  is  a  rapidly  growing  town. 
A  lager-beer  brewery  is  making  the  finest  lager  beer,  bottled 
for  immediate  use,  as  I  was  informed  when  a  dozen  bottles 
were  presented  to  me. 


The  mountains  seen  from  Sapporo  are  rugged-looking, 
though  not  high.  Figure  372  represents  the  mountains  looking 

Fig.  372 

northwest.  The  highest  of  these  peaks  is  about  three  thousand 
feet;  a  volcanic  mountain,  still  smoking,  is  also  seen  from 
Sapporo  (fig.  373).  Professor  Brooks  called  my  attention  to 
some  low  mounds  near  the  school,  the  largest  one  being  twenty 

Fig.  373 

feet  in  diameter  and  two  and  a  half  feet  high.  We  dug  out  two 
of  them,  reaching  the  original  level  of  the  ground,  but  found  no 
pottery  and  but  a  few  fragments  of  bones.  Figure  374  shows 
their  general  appearance. 

Fig.  374 

The  next  morning,  though  stiff  and  lame  from  the  ride,  I 
walked,  in  the  broiling  sun,  to  some  woods  a  few  miles  away, 
hoping  to  find  some  land  shells  under  the  dead  leaves.  The 
forest  of  beech  and  hard-wood  was  an  ideal  place  for  snails, 


and  I  found  a  number  of  species  that  seemed  identical  with 
certain  species  I  had  found  in  New  England.  In  hunting  for 
these  creatures  one  has  to  get  down  on  his  hands  and  knees 
and  crawl  about  overturning  layers  of  damp  leaves  and  bits  of 
bark.  I  had  been  searching  for  these  little  objects  for  some 
time  when  I  heard  a  number  of  shouts,  as  if  of  warning.  Look- 
ing up  I  saw,  at  a  distance  of  fifty  or  seventy-five  yards,  a 
number  of  hairy  Ainus,  in  a  row,  shouting  at  me  and  gesticu- 
lating. I  waved  my  hand  in  recognition  of  their  call  and 
shouted  back  to  them  a  Japanese  word,  "Yoroshii"  (All 
right),  as  they  all  understand  a  little  Japanese,  whereupon 
they  became  more  violent  in  their  gestures  and  one  pulled  his 
bow  and  arrow  in  a  series  of  jerks  in  what  seemed  to  be  a 
threatening  manner.  Then  it  suddenly  occurred  to  me  that 
they  thought  I  was  hunting  for  their  graves,  which  they  defend 
even  to  the  extent  of  murder,  and  recalling  the  deadly  poison 
of  the  arrow  tips  I  reluctantly  got  up  and  walked  away.  With 
Professor  Yatabe  I  visited  the  settlement  from  which  these 
men  had  come,  to  inquire  into  the  meaning  of  their  hostile 
demonstrations  and  to  explain  to  them  that  I  was  only  hunt- 
ing under  the  leaves  for  little  snails,  when  they  explained  that 
one  of  their  men  had  been  killed  and  eaten  by  a  bear  a  few 
days  before,  and  that  they  had  set  a  bear  trap  with  a  huge 
poison  arrow,  and  they  were  warning  me  that  I  might  get  shot 
if  I  did  not  get  out.  This  the  Ainu  had  tried  to  express  to  me 
by  pulling  his  own  bow.  They  were  afraid  of  coming  nearer, 
not  knowing  quite  where  the  string  was  which  would  spring 
the  bow;  and  I  on  my  hands  and  knees  crawling  about  like 
a  bear  with  the  hidden  trap  ready  to  shoot  me! 


The  next  morning  our  pack-horses  and  saddle-horses  were  at 
the  door.  On  one  were  loaded  two  cases  of  lager  beer;  on  an- 
other two  large,  square,  willow  baskets  filled  with  specimens. 
The  Governor  had  kindly  loaned  us  two  foreign  saddles  until 
we  should  get  to  Hakodate.  The  horse  provided  for  me  was  a 
huge  fellow,  and  when  I  mounted  and  started  off  the  lameness 
from  the  ride  the  day  before  only  made  his  triphammer  bounc- 
ing and  rigidity  more  noticeable,  and  I  felt  completely  and 
literally  broken  up.  I  stuck  to  him  for  some  time,  however, 
and  then  gave  up  in  despair  and,  dismounting,  walked  for 
miles  before  I  had  the  courage  to  remount.  In  crossing  a  large 
truss  bridge  I  noticed  a  ponderous  staging  erected  the  entire 
length.  Wondering  what  it  was  for,  I  learned  that  the  bridge 
was  to  be  painted.  In  some  things  the  Japanese  are  remark- 
ably dull,  for  at  home  a  man  with  a  ladder  would  have  accom- 
plished the  whole  thing  in  the  time  they  were  building  the 

After  all,  there  is  luxury  in  riding  along  and  overlooking  the 
low  bushes  beside  the  road  with  the  woods  and  marshes  be- 
yond. We  traveled  fifteen  miles  before  we  changed  horses. 
I  got  a  beast  then  that  kicked  and  reared  whenever  I  struck 
her  with  a  stick,  though  by  considerable  urging  I  got  her  into  a 
gallop,  and  then  she  tore  along  at  a  great  rate.  In  my  igno- 
rance, it  was  the  first  time  I  had  dared  to  venture  on  a  gallop, 
and,  to  my  surprise,  I  found  it  much  easier  than  any  other 
way.  I  was  out  of  my  saddle  twenty  times  during  the  next 
ten  miles  to  get  some  snails  to  study,  for  the  habits  of  the 
larger  snails  here  are  quite  different  from  those  of  ours  at 
home.  Here  they  seem  to  live  on  the  leaves  of  bushes,  and 


you  pick  them  off  as  you  would  ripe  fruit.  On  this  ride  we  got 
two  specimens  of  fresh-water  mussel,  apparently  like  the  pearl 
mussel,  Margaritana,  and  the  common  New  England  Unio 

We  reached  Ghitose,  our  resting-place  for  the  night,  and 
found  there  our  German  friend  the  doctor,  who  came  on  the 
steamer  with  us  from  Yokohama  and  who  was  now  on  his  way 
across  the  island.   I  opened  one  of  our  boxes  of  beer  and  gave 

Fig.  375 

him  six  bottles,  and  you  may  imagine  his  delight.  He  could 
not  thank  us  enough.  Figure  375  shows  the  inn  at  Chitose, 
an  old-fashioned  one  that  used  to  be  at  the  disposal  of  the 
daimyo  and  his  retainers  on  their  way  from  the  west  coast  to 
the  capital.  Now  its  rooms  are  unoccupied  save  by  an  occa- 
sional visitor.  A  row  of  water  tubs  on  the  ridge  of  the  roof 
gives  the  appearance  of  chimneys,  which  the  Japanese  house 
never  has.  The  next  morning  we  were  up  early,  this  time 
for  a  thirty-mile  ride  with  one  change  of  horses.  My  attention 
was  so  completely  occupied  with  minding  my  horse  and  get- 
ting him  into  a  gallop  that  I  recall  hardly  anything  from  sta- 
tion to  station,  except  that  toward  noon  the  road  became  more 
level  and  sandy  and  we  realized  we  were  approaching  the  east 

AN  OLD   INN  15 

coast.  At  noon  we  came  in  sight  of  the  sea  at  a  place  called 
Tomokomai.  Here  we  made  a  long  stop  waiting  for  Sasaki  and 
a  servant  who  had  elected  to  walk.  I  envied  them  and  should 
have  preferred  walking  the  entire  distance,  but  it  was  such  a 
fine  opportunity  to  learn  to  ride  that  I  could  not  resist  it. 

Fig.  376 
Figure  376  is  an  old  inn  in  Tomokomai,  its  roof  grass-grown 
as  are  most  of  the  houses  we  see.  It  is  odd  to  see  yarrow 
and  other  wild  weeds  and  plants  growing  on  the  roof  in  luxu- 
rious profusion.  On  the  beach  I  got  a  sketch  of  a  few  Ainu  huts 
and  an  outlook  (fig.  377).   Here  were  a  few  Ainu  fishermen 

Fig.  377 


making  nets  and  curing  fish.  All  along  the  road  the  Ainus  we 
met  were  in  the  service  of  the  Japanese,  taking  care  of  their 
horses  in  particular.  When  the  Ainus  ride  they  sit  cross-legged 
and  perched  up  high  on  the  saddle,  and  whenever  I  saw  them 
they  were  going  at  full  gallop. 

Fig.  378 

On  the  beach  was  a  Japanese  fishing  boat,  twenty-five  feet 
long,  made  after  the  model  of  a  junk,  its  unpainted  wood 
immaculate  in  cleanliness  with  a  few  ornamental  designs  in 

Fig.  379 

black  at  the  bow  and  stern.  A  large  interspace  in  the  stern  for 
the  rudder  is  a  curious  feature  about  the  model ;  it  is  peculiar 
to  all  their  junks.  As  before  mentioned,  there  are  no  rowlocks; 


simply  short  loops  of  rope  hang  down  at  the  sides  through 
which  the  oar  is  passed.  Hanging  just  inside  the  bow  is  a 
tassel  of  shavings  having  some  fancied  effect  in  warding  off 
danger  or  in  insuring  good  luck;  evidently  derived  from  the 
god-stick  of  shavings  of  the  Ainu  from  which  the  Shinto 
gohei  is  supposed  to  be  derived.  The  boat  was  finished  like  a 
bit  of  cabinet-work,  perfectly  fitting  joints,  and  so  clean  and 
attractive  that  I  had  to  make  a  careful  drawing  of  it.  Figure 
378  is  a  view  of  the  boat  from  the  stern;  figure  379  is  the  stern 
from  the  side;  and  figure  380  represents  the  bow.  The  boat  is 
loaded  with  a  large  fishing  net  and  is  waiting 
for  the  tide  to  float  her. 

All  along  the  shore  at  intervals,  or  rather  at  every  little 
settlement,  is  a  rude  sort  of  lookout  erected  on  tall  poles  and 
used  by  the  fishermen  to  see  schools  of  fish  at  a  distance  or  to 
burn  lights  at  night.  Figure  381  shows  one  of  these  lookouts 
at  Tomokomai.  The  rough  shelter  on  top  seems  to  be  made  of 
odd  pieces  of  wood,  either  fragments  of  wrecks  or  other  stuff 

Fig.  381 


thrown  up  on  the  beach.  Another  characteristic  structure 

on  the  shore  is  a  huge 
windlass  to  drag  boats 
up  from  the  water  (fig. 

The  dogs  of  the  coun- 
try are  of  two  types. 
One  resembles  the  Es- 
kimo dog  in  form  and 
color,  while  the  other 
type  is  almost  precisely 
like  a  fox  in  color,  form, 
motion,  and  bushy  tail. 
If  it  is  possible  to  get  a  cross  between  a  dog  and  a  fox  there 
is  certainly  fox  blood  in  these  creatures.  Every  village  has 
a  pack  of  dogs,  and 
at  night  they  are  very 
noisy,  making  sounds 
like  cats,  but  more  in- 
fernal; they  howl  and 
squeal,  but  never  bark. 
Darwin  has  observed 
in  his  work  on  domes- 
ticated   animals    that 

when  dogs  relapse  from  their  cultivated  state  to  a  semi- 
savage  one,  they  lose  the  bark  and  take  on  the  howl  again. 
Wild  creatures  to  which  they  are  related  never  bark,  but 
From  Tomokomai  a  curious  mountain  is  seen  known  as 

Fig.  382 


Tarumae.  Figure  383  is  a  rough  sketch  of  it,  but  it  gives  one  an 
idea  of  the  curiously  formed  mountains  in  Yezo.  There  were 
several  Ainu   houses 
in  the  place,  but  we 
had  little  time  to  ex- 
amine them,  and  be- 
ing told  that  our  stop-  FlG  383 
ping-place  for  the  next 

night  was  an  Ainu  village  we  pushed  on  to  Shiraoi.  The 
road  now  led  along  the  sand  beach,  the  road  itself  white  and 
sandy,  the  broad  Pacific  on  one  side,  with  the  constant  roar  of 
its  breaking  waves,  and  on  the  other  side  mountains  of  bizarre 
forms,  probably  all  volcanic  in  origin.  Despite  blue  glasses, 
the  glare  of  the  sun  from  the  white  sand  became  painful  and 
after  a  few  miles  the  ride  became  monotonous.  We  passed 
several  small  clusters  of  Ainu  houses,  and  at  one  place  over- 
took an  Ainu  with  his  little  girl  and  boy  and  two  dogs.  The 
children  were  entirely  naked,  and  the  little  girl  carried  by  a 
head  band  a  bundle  resting  on  her  back  while  the  man  led  her 
by  the  hand.  It  seems  strange  to  see  the  women  and  girls 
doing  all  the  work  while  the  man  takes  it  easy.  The  women 
are  all  rather  coarse  in  looks,  but  kind  and  good-natured  and 
with  manners  of  extreme  diffidence.  In  nearly  every  instance 
when  I  saw  them  they  persistently  held  their  hands  to  their 
mouths  as  children  do  when  bashful.  In  every  case  their 
mouths  were  bordered  with  an  area  of  black,  as  before  men- 
tioned, and  in  some  cases  their  arms  were  painted  with  a  series 
of  rings  like  bracelets.  I  learned  definitely  that  the  material 
they  use  for  this  coloring  is  simply  soot  from  the  kettle.  The 


children  resemble  very  closely  European  children,  having 
large  eyes  and  pleasant  faces,  but  are  ex- 
ceedingly timid  and  bashful.  As  the  women 
habitually  hold  the  hand  to  the  mouth  in 
the  presence  of  strangers,  one  gets  the  idea 
that  they  are  hiding  the  paint  about  the 
mouth,  but  such  delicacy  is  hardly  credi- 
ble, particularly  as  the  children  have  this 
gesture.  Figure  384  represents  a  woman 
carrying  a  load  with  the  head 
band;  figure  385  represents  two 
Fig.  384  Ainu  women ;  fig- 

ure 386  is  a  child, 

showing  the  red  cloth  earrings  and 
the  peculiar  bang 

Fig.  385 

of  the  hair;  and 
figure  387,  three 
children  sitting. 
They  were  in  a 
dark  hut  and  re- 
mained fixed  like  statues  while  we  were 
present.  A  mop  of  coarse  black  hair  is 
combed  down  straight  about  the  head, 
cut  short  about  the  neck,  hanging  long 
over  the  ears,  with  a  large  bang  in  front. 
I  had  some  difficulty  in  making  sketches 
of  the  Ainus,  as  among  some  of  them  there 
is  a  superstitious  dread  of  having  their 
pictures  made.  So,  while  sketching  them,  I  pretended  to  be 

Fig.  386 


interested  in  something  else,  now  and  then  getting  in  a  glance 
when  their  attention  was  directed  elsewhere. 

Their  huts  are  very  dark  and  also  very  dirty.  When  we 
entered  they  would  light  a  roll  of 
birchbark  to  enable  us  to  see  about, 
but  even  with  this  illumination  the 
hut  was  too  dark  to  make  out  de- 
tails. Figure  388  is  an  attempt  to 
show  the  general  arrangement  of 
objects  within.  There  was  no  end 
to  them,  —  bundles,  rolls  of  dry 
fish,  and  a  number  of  fish  fins  of 

large  size  hung  up  to  dry,  and  bows  and  quivers.  Over  the 
fire  were  parts  of  fish  hanging  to  be  smoked.  The  sleeping- 
place  was  simply  a  slightly  raised  platform  on  one  side  of  the 
room,  and  on  this  platform  was  a  round  lacquer  box  with 

Fig.  387 

Fig.  388 



cover,  standing  on  four  short  legs.  These  boxes  are  made  by 
the  Japanese  evidently  for  the  Ainu  trade,  as  in  every  Ainu 
house  I  saw  a  few.1  In  these  boxes  the  Ainu  keeps  his  treas- 
ures. On  the  wall  are  very  old  Japanese  short  knives  or  dag- 
gers, quivers  full  of  poison  arrows,  and  other  implements  of 
hunting.  The  entire  contents  of  the  hut  are  browrn  with  smoke 
and  the  roof  and  rafters  are  black.  The  floor  is  mother  earth, 
but  on  this  they  do  spread  a  straw  mat  to  sit  upon.  Whenever 
we  entered  their  huts  they  would  take  down  from  the  rafters 
above  a  rolled  mat  in 
which  had  been  worked 
some  simple  design  in 
brown  and  yellow  straw 
and  place  it  on  the 
ground  for  us  to  sit 
on.  Most  of  the  Ainu 
sketches  I  made  at  Shi- 

raoi,  where  there  is  quite  an  Ainu  village  (fig.  389).  The  Ainu 
houses  are  symmetrically  made  and  the  ribbed-straw  roof  is 
very  neat  and  even  attractive.  I  went  through  a  number  of 
Ainu  villages  and  could  find  no  evidence  of  alignment,  or  even 
street  area.  Narrow,  irregular  paths  led  through  the  grass 
from  one  house  to  another,  but  there  wTere  no  cleared  areas  and 
no  ground  trodden  down  as  if  children  played  there.  Most  of 
the  houses  were  surrounded  by  a  high  fence  composed  of  bun- 
dles of  sedge,  or  reeds  such  as  their  houses  are  made  of.  We 

1  In  the  Peabody  Museum  there  are  three  of  these  boxes,  and  I  have  had  distin- 
guished Japanese,  old  and  young,  give  their  opinion  as  to  the  uses  of  the  object,  and 
all  vary,  though  the  majority  believe  it  to  be  a  box  to  hold  the  shells  used  in  a  liter- 
ary game. 

Fig.  389 



Fig.  390 

were  told  that  their  houses  last  only  six  or  eight  years.  The 
villages  consist  of  thirty  or  forty  houses;  at  least  we  saw  many 
of  that  number.  Many  of  the  houses  had  a  sort  of  ell,  or  porch, 
and  this  gave  a  better  appearance.  The  roof  is  often  thatched 
in  such  a  way  as  to  form  a  series  of  horizontal  ridges,  with  a 
steep  ridge  running  up  vertically  nearly  two  feet,  and  sur- 
mounted by  a  round  stick.  This  was  apparently  held  in  its 
place  by  a  straw  rope  which  bound  it  to  a  transverse  beam 
running  through  the  base  of  the  ridge.  It  is  entirely  unlike  any 
roof  I  have  seen  in  Japan.  Figure  390  is  an  Ainu  house  with 
the  peculiar  ridged  roof;  figure  391  shows  another  Ainu  house 

Fig.  391 

Fig.  392 


with  porch;  and  figure  392  is  a  larger  view  of  the  porch.  The 
rake  on  top  is  not  an  agricultural  implement,  but  a  rude  de- 
vice to  rake  seaweed.    One  square  opening  admits  the  only 

light  except  what  comes 
from  the  doorway.  In  one 
house  I  saw  two  windows 
with  rough  board  shutters 
hanging  down  outside. 

The  neatness  and  general 
picturesqueness  of  the  house 
disappear  when  you  enter: 
hard,  damp  ground  beneath, 
blackened  rafters  above,  and  a  strong  fish  smell  pervading 
everything.  Near  the  square  fireplace  stands  a  big  bowl  con- 
taining the  remains  of  the  meal,  in  every  case  consisting  of 
fish  bones,  large,  sickly  looking  ones.  I  saw  nothing  else  to 
eat  in  their  huts  except 
smoked  fins  and  other 
parts  of  a  fish,  hanging 
up,  and  some  hard,  dry 
cakes  resembling  the 
wheels  of  a  child's  cart. 
From  one  pole  in  the 
house  were  suspend- 
ed (fig.  393)  a  satchel 
made  of  straw  matting, 

the  round  hard  cakes,  and  strips  of  fish.  The  utensils  were 
large  lacquer  cups,  the  kettle  over  the  fire  and  a  few  other 
objects,  all  of  Japanese  manufacture,  and  food  bowls  of  wood 

Fig.  393 



made  by  the  Ainus.  Figure  394  shows  the  fireplace  with  a 
simple  device  to  hold  the  kettle  at  different  distances  and  the 
lamp  consisting  of  a  shell  filled 
with  fish  oil  and  resting  on  a 
split  stick.  Figure  395  repre- 
sents the  gill  covers  and  fins 
of  a  horse  mackerel;  figure 
396  shows  another  way  of  cut- 
ting fish  with  skewers  put  in 
to  keep  the  cuts  apart;  it  is 
also  cut  in  long  strips.  Fig- 
ure 397  shows  two  fish  heads 
and  other  articles  and  an  air 
bladder  of  a  fish.  These  last 
were  hanging  directly  over  the 
fire.  All  these  are  suspended 
from  poles  that  hang  up  in  the 

house  and  the  smoke  of  the  fire  is  sufficient  to  cure  them. 
But  think  of  living  and  sleeping  in  a  house  always  charged 

Fig.  394 

Fig.  395 

Fig.  396 

with  smoke,  so  thick  at  times  that  one  has  to  run  out  now 
and  then  to  get  a  breath  of  fresh  air! 


A  number  of  sticks  with  curled  shavings  pendent,  known  as 
"god-sticks,"  were  in  one  corner  of  the  hut.   I  endeavored  to 

buy  one,  but  an  offer  of 
a  million  dollars  would 
be  no  more  effective 
than  the  offer  of  ten 
cents,  as  the  Ainu  has 
no  idea  of  the  value  of 
money,  or,  indeed,  any 
knowledge  of  the  sim- 
plest arithmetic.  Hang- 
ing on  the  bedside  of  the  hut  were  Japanese  daggers  in  sil- 
ver scabbards,  quite  old,  mounted  on  flattened,  oval-shaped 
tablets  of  wood,  the  wood  at  the  handle  end  ornamented  by 
flat  disks  of  lead  of  various  sizes  hammered  into  the  wood 

Fig.  397 

Fig.  398 

(fig.  398).  Whether  these  daggers  were  made  for  the  Ainu 
trade  as  we  make  objects  for  the  Indians  of  the  Northwest, 
I  could  not  learn.    The  Japanese  with  me  said  they  were 


very  old  and  the  Ainus  seem  to  hold  them  in  great  veneration. 
At  Otaru  an  old  Ainu  had  one  that  he  kept  in  a  bag.  He 
showed  it  to  me  and  seemed  to  regard  it  as  a  most  precious 
object.  The  handle  was  loose,  but  that  did  not  seem  to  impair 
its  value.  On  the  walls,  at  right  angles  to  the  wall  upon  which 
the  knives  were  hung,  were  three  Ainu  quivers  with  the  covers 
hanging  down;  from  the  shape  of  these  quivers  the  forms  of 

Fig.  399 

the  wooden  tablets  supporting  the  daggers  had  been  derived. 
Figure  399  is  a  sketch  of  them.  I  endeavored  to  buy  one  of 
the  quivers,  but  an  offer  increasing  from  one  dollar  to  five 
hundred  had  not  the  slightest  effect.  To  my  astonishment, 
however,  the  Ainu  took  down  one  of  the  quivers,  removed  one 
of  the  arrows,  and,  after  carefully  scratching  off  the  poison, 
gave  it  to  me. 

The  storehouses  in  which  they  keep  their  dried  and  smoked 
fish  and  skins  are  built  on  posts  four  or  five  feet  in  height.  In 
some  instances  a  flaring  wooden  box  was  placed  inverted  on 
the  top  of  the  post  in  the  same  manner  in  which  our  corncribs 


in  New  England  are  protected  from  rodents  by  tin  pans  on 

the  posts.  The  types  of 
these  storehouses  are 
seen  in  figures  400 
and  401.  Large  wooden 
mortars,  in  which  they 
pound  rice,  are  seen  in 
or  about  the  house. 
The  one  shown  in  fig- 
ure 402  is  about  three 
feet  in  height,  shaped 

and  hollowed  out  from  the  trunk  of  a  tree.  The  Ainu  boat 

dug  out  from  a  tree-trunk 

was  different  in  form  from 

the  other  "dug-outs"   I 

had  seen  in  Japan.   The 

one  represented  in  figure 

403    was    fourteen    feet 

long,  bow  and  stern  alike, 

with  the  walls  thin  and 

very  neatly  made,  as  is 

much  of  their  woodwork. 

Fig.  400 

Fig.  401 

Fig.  402 

At  Shiraoi,  where  I  made  many  Ainu 
sketches,  we  found  many  beautiful  white 
snails  clinging  to  the  bushes.  With  the  ex- 
ception of  one  species  the  shells  were  light 
and  delicate.  The  fresh-water  shells  are 
equally  thin  and  some  of  the  land  shells 
are  almost  colorless.  The  absence  of  lime 




1  't  JwT   C^. 



Fig.  403 


in  the  soil  is  supposed  to  be  the  reason  for  the  thinness  of 
the  shells.  We  could  hardly  tear  ourselves  away  from  the 
Ainu  village  the  morning  we  left  Shiraoi.  It  was  most  in- 
teresting roaming  through  narrow  paths,  some  of  them  al- 
most hidden  by  the  grass  and  bushes,  and  finding,  here  and 
there,  disposed  in  the  most  irregular 
fashion,  the  Ainu  huts.  Old  men  sit- 
ting at  the  doorway  would  greet  us 
with  the  peculiar  gesture  of  raising 
both  hands  toward  the  face  and  then 
bringing  them  slowly  down  over  the 
beard  as  if  stroking  it;  as  children 
make  the  same  gesture,  it  has  nothing 
to  do  with  the  beard.  The  woman's 
salutation  consists  simply  in  slowly 
rubbing  the  side  of  her  nose  with  the 

If  I  could  only  draw  a  horse  I  could 
make  an  interesting  sketch  of  our  cara- 
van. Figure  404  is  a  sketch  of  Profes- 
sor Yatabe's  assistant,  which  I  made  while  riding  behind  him. 

Fig.  404 


He  was  loaded  down  with  botanical  boxes  and  bundles,  and 
shortly  after  making  the  sketch  his  horse  suddenly  kicked  up 
in  the  air  and  off  the  assistant  went,  heels  over  head,  to  the 
ground,  the  heavy  pack-saddle,  tin  boxes,  and  bundles  making 
a  clatter.  The  man  picked  himself  up,  shook  himself  together, 
and  with  the  assistance  of  our  Ainu  leader  got  on  his  horse 
again.  Some  of  the  horses  we  have  had  are  vicious  brutes. 
The  last  one  I  had  yesterday  made  me  so  lame  that  when  we 
started  off  to-day  I  walked  a  distance  of  seventeen  and  one 
half  miles  before  mounting.  The  road  lay  along  the  beach  the 
entire  distance. 

Our  caravan  was  led  by  an  Ainu,  a  large,  black-whiskered, 
hairy  fellow  with  a  mop  of  hair  on  his  head  a  foot  in  diameter 
(fig.  405).  A  cloth  was  tied  around  his  head  to 
keep  his  hair  in  place  and  a  peculiar  Ainu 
design  was  wrought  in  the  back  of  his  gar- 
ment. He  sat  cross-legged  on  his  saddle  and 
looked  like  a  giant.  This  man  accompanied 
the  train  to  bring  back  the  horses.  To  his 
horse  was  tied  another  horse  carrying  the  two 
willow  baskets  containing  specimens,  clothes, 
etc.,  and  to  this  horse  was  tied  still  another,, 
lugging  our  cases  of  lager  beer,  given  to  us 
at  Sapporo,  which  were  rapidly  diminishing  as  we  went  on. 
With  Yatabe  and  his  assistant,  Takamine,  Sasaki,  and  me, 
this  made  a  cavalcade  of  eight  horses. 

We  went  rattling  along  the  road,  and  a  rattle  it  was,  for 
with  the  wooden  rollers  on  the  cruppers  and  the  other  things 
dangling,  we  made  a  good  deal  of  noise  and  dust  as  we  trotted 


or  galloped  along  the  white,  sandy  road.  The  beach  seemed 
interminable.  Suddenly,  for  no  apparent  reason,  three  of 
our  horses  ran  away,  and  I  was  on  one  of  them.  It  was  in 
vain  that  we  tried  to  pull  them  in.  Sasaki  was  ahead, 
Takamine  next,  I  last,  and  the  rest  of  the  cavalcade  was 
soon  left  far  behind  and  out  of  sight.  Everything  portable 
was  shed:  first  hats;  then  strings  and  straps  broke  and  tin 
botanical  boxes,  bags,  and  packages  came  off,  one  after  the 
other,  and  the  road  was  strewn  for  a  long  distance  with  these 
objects,  which  we  trusted  our  men  behind  would  pick  up. 
As  an  indication  of  the  progress  I  was  making  in  horse- 
manship I  managed  to  hold  on  to  everything:  my  pith  sun 
hat,  my  colored  eyeglasses,  and  a  cigar-holder  with  lighted 
cigar  were  undisturbed.  Just  before  the  runaway,  Takamine 
had  folded  his  red  flannel  blanket  under  him  to  ease  the  asper- 
ities of  the  pack-saddle.  He  was  directly  ahead  of  me,  and  as 
he  bounced  up  and  down,  his  black  hair  flying  in  the  wind,  his 
blanket  became  unfolded  and,  little  by  little,  sagged  on  one 
side  and  finally  came  off  in  the  road.  Had  I  been  an  experi- 
enced horseman,  I  should  have  anticipated  the  shy  that  was 
sure  to  come.  I  did  not,  however,  and  was  laughing  at  the  way 
Takamine  was  bumping  up  and  down  on  his  naked  saddle 
when  my  horse  shied  with  such  violence  that  I  was  nearly 
thrown  into  the  road.  With  every  jump  of  the  horse,  however, 
I  little  by  little  regained  my  seat.  The  wild  dash  for  some 
miles  ended  as  abruptly  as  it  had  begun:  for,  overtaking  a 
large  pack  of  horses  that  filled  the  road,  our  horses  immedi- 
ately came  to  a  walk  and  joined  them.  They  had  been  ac- 
customed to  travel  with  these  horses  and  recognized  the  odor. 


The  Ainu  pack-horse  is  an  uncertain  brute.  He  walks  more 
slowly,  I  am  told,  than  any  other  horse  in  the  world,  but  I  can- 

Fig.  406 

not  imagine  any  horse  trotting  more  painfully  or  galloping 
more  energetically  than  this  Yezo  breed.  My  experience  in 
learning  to  ride  would  have  been  more  agreeable  if  I  could 
have  learned  on  civilized  horses.  Figure  406  shows  the  typical 
Yezo  pack-horse  with  the  pack-saddle. 

As  we  approached  Mororan  the  evidences  of  upheaval  could 
be  plainly  seen.  The  bluffs  near  the  water  were  undercut  to  a 
height  of  several  feet,  as  shown  in  figure  407.  The  soil  seemed 

Fig.  407 



to  be  composed  of  pumice  which  indicated  former  volcanic 
activity.  In  our  long  ride  from  Shiraoi,  not  a  house  was 
seen,  and  the  only  signs  __ 

of  man  were  observed 
in  an  occasional  rude 
shrine,  very  dilapidated, 
though  a  few  bunches  of 
flowers  in  front  showed 
that  it  was  cared  for  in 
a  way.  The  figure  un- 
der a  rough  framework 
consisted  simply  of  two 
stones,  a  smaller  one 
representing  the  head, 

resting  on  a  larger  one.  The  head  was  covered  with  a  cloth 
cap  with  long  strings  hanging  down  on  each  side  (fig.  408). 
Before  reaching  Mororan  the  scenery  became  delightful. 
The  low  mountains  and  inlets  of  the  sea  and  the  Bay  of 
Mororan,  with  its  long,  yellow  beach,  would  have  made  a 
fine  subject  for  a  picture.  Figure  409  gives  a  rough  idea  of 
the  region.  Near  Mororan  was  a  curiously  shaped  Japanese 
house,  the  roof  unusually  high,  with  the  flat  ridge  covered 
with  lilies,   iris;  and  other  flowers.  The   roof  was  thinly 

Fig.  408 

Fig.  409 


thatched,  and  the  little  shed-like  roofs  near  the  eaves  were 
covered  with  round  stones.1  In  our  ride  we  overtook  an- 
other pack  of  twenty  horses,  filling  the  road.  Before  we 
could  get  by  them  they  turned  into  a  narrow  path.  We  were 
informed  that  that  path  was  much  shorter  to  Mororan  than 
the  regular  road,  so  we  turned  in  and  followed  the  pack, 
Yatabe  and  I  only,  as  we  were  far  in  advance  of  the  rest. 
The  path  led  to  the  top  of  a  mountainous  ridge,  at  places 
rocky  and  wet  and  at  times  very  steep.  I  wondered  what 
would  happen  if  the  horse  slipped,  for  the  path  led  along  the 
side  of  an  abrupt  precipice  and  the  path  itself  was  sloping. 
After  riding  this  way  for  half  an  hour  we  came  to  the  high- 
est portion  of  the  ridge  through  a  dense  growth  of  oak  and 
other  trees.  It  was  evening,  and  the  delicious  fragrance  of 
the  forest,  the  curious  insects  that  I  could  actually  clutch 
from  the  overhanging  leaves,  and  the  pack  of  odd-looking 
horses  and  odd-looking  drivers  as  they  rattled  along  in 
single  file  gave  me  a  delightful  hour,  and  I  enjoyed  every 
minute  of  it.  There  was  only  one  place  where  I  was  in  dan- 
ger. Yatabe  and  I  had  got  mixed  with  the  pack  in  some 
way,  and  in  one  place  where  there  was  a  sloping  wall  on  one 
side  and  a  steep  precipice  on  the  other,  one  of  the  horses 
endeavored  to  regain  his  place  in  the  file  by  attempting  to  pass 
me  on  the  inside.  The  driver  was  doing  his  utmost  to  hold  him 
in,  and  I,  realizing  the  danger,  as  he  had  two  enormous  packs 
on  his  saddle,  hit  him  a  sharp  rap  across  his  nose  which 
checked  him.  It  was  impossible  for  me  to  hurry  ahead,  for  the 
narrow  path  was  only  wide  enough  to  ride  in  single  file,  and 

1  See  Japanese  Homes,  fig.  41. 


had  the  horse  succeeded  in  his  efforts  my  horse  would  have 
been  crowded  over  the  precipice.  It  was  quite  dark  when  we 
entered  Mororan,  a  single  long  street  bordering  a  beautiful 
cove,  and  hills  and  low  mountains  in  every  direction.  We  had 
made  over  thirty  miles,  of  which  I  had  walked  seventeen  and 
one  half  miles,  had  been  run  away  with,  and  had  had  other 
experiences,  with  the  result  that  sheer  fatigue  sent  me  to  bed 

The  next  morning  we  found  it  raining  hard  and  no  steamer 
going  across  the  bay  to  Mori,  where  we  had  to  take  horses 
again  for  Hakodate.  It  gave 
me  an  opportunity  to  make  a 
few  sketches  about  the  house. 
In  the  middle  of  the  floor,  both 
in  the  front  and  back  part  of 
the  house,  is  a  large,  square  en- 
closure filled  with  sand.  These 
are  the  fireplaces  and  here 
everything  is  cooked.  Figure 
410  shows  the  kitchen  of  the 
inn.  Overhead  is  a  rack,  hang- 
ing from  which  fish  is  smoked. 
Such  a  collection  of  teapots 
huddled  around  the  hot  coals 
would  not  be  seen  in  a  pri- 
vate house.  Figure  411  repre- 
sents a  fireplace  in  the  best  room.  The  device  suspending 
the  tea-kettle  was  of  brass  and  highly  polished.  A  copper 
box  is  filled  with  hot  water,  and  in  this  is  placed  a  bottle  of 

Fig.  410 


sake  to  heat,  as  their  rice  beer  is  always  drunk  hot.   The 

tongs  are  in  the  form  of  chop- 
sticks united  above  by  a  ring, 
for  if  one  gets  lost  the  other 
would  be  useless.  Most  of  the 
servants  at  the  inn  were  men, 
and  all  of  them  wore  their  hair 
in  old-fashioned  style;  indeed, 
it  was  a  rare  sight  to  see  a  Jap- 
anese without  the  queue.  In 
Tokyo,  on  the  contrary,  the 
queue,  though  commonly  seen 
in  the  farmer  class  and  among 
the  sailors,  fishermen,  artisans, 
and  old  men,  is  rapidly  dis- 
appearing among  the  younger 
generation,   and  the   students 

Fig.  411 

have  entirely  given  it  up. 

Figure  412  represents  the 
clerk  busy  all  day  long  mak- 
ing up  the  voluminous  bills 
for  the  guests.  The  length  of 
the  bill  startles  you,  and  yet, 
when  the  items  are  translated, 
you  are  greatly  relieved  to 
hear  one  and  a  half  cents  for 
this,  one  and  three  tenths  of 
a  cent  for  that;  and  finally 
the    whole   bill    for    supper, 

Fig.  412 

Fig.  413 


lodging,  and  breakfast,  added  up,  amounts  to  less  than  twenty 
cents,  which  you  pay  without  a  murmur. 

Figure  413  shows  the  attitude  of  a  servant  as  he  comes  into 
your  room  to  receive  your  order.  It  has  taken  a  long  time 
to  get  used  to  this,  and  even 
now  I  feel  a  repugnance  to 
having  any  one  humble  him- 
self before  me  in  this  fashion. 
The  proper  way  in  kneeling 
is  to  turn  the  hands  inward, 
and  as  you  see  it  often,  you 
notice  the  failure  to  do  it,  as 
much  as  if  one  should  use 

the  left  hand  in  shaking  hands.  Mr.  Takamine,  who  was 
page  to  a  daimyo,  illustrated  the  proper  way  of  bringing  in  a 
tray  holding  food.  It  is  held  with  two  hands  on  a  level  with 
the  eyes,  and  on  approaching  the  prince  one  should  kneel  and 
present  the  tray  and  then,  still  on  the  knees,  move  backward, 
and  rising,  back  out  of  the  room. 

One  of  the  sketches  I  made  while  rainbound  in  the  house 
was  of  a  family  at  dinner  (fig.  414).   It  is  an  interesting  sight, 

though  you  may  have  seen  it 
a  hundred  times  in  walking 
through  the  streets.  The  whole 
affair  is  so  unlike  our  sitting  in 
chairs  at  the  table,  each  with 
plate,  knife,  and  fork  in  front. 
Here  they  sit  on  the  floor,  the  wooden  bucket  at  one  side  hold- 
ing the  rice  which  is  scooped  out  with  a  wooden  spatula. 

Fig.  414 


In  this  little  village  of  Mororan  there  is  a  well-furnished  fire- 
engine  house.  Figure  415  is  a  rough  sketch  of  its  appearance. 
It  is  entirely  open  on  the  street  and  all  the  utensils  immedi- 

Fig.  415 

ately  accessible.  A  list  of  the  objects  was  as  follows:  twenty- 
seven  canvas  buckets;  twenty  small  wooden  buckets;  six  large 
buckets;  two  ladders;  six  poles;  rope,  chain,  and  hook;  two 
lanterns  on  long  poles. 

The  fire  companies  always  carry  the  lanterns  on  long  bam- 
boo poles.  Figure  416  shows  the  lantern  and  the  hook,  which 
last  is  attached  to  a  long  chain  for  tear- 
ing down  buildings.  The  people  are 
very  careful  about  fire,  as  the  buildings 
are  of  wood  with  most  inflammable 
roofs  of  thin  shingles  or  thatch.  Lately, 
in  the  larger  cities,  municipal  laws  pro- 
hibit the  use  of  these  inflammable  ma- 
terials for  roof  coverings.  In  Mororan 
a  boy  goes  through  the  long  street  at  stated  hours  every  night 
having  tied  on  behind  him  three  hardwood  boards  of  varying 

Fig.  416 


sizes  which  clap  together  with  a  loud  noise  at  every  step  he 
takes.  There  is  a  rattle,  rattle,  rattle  as  he  goes  by  (fig.  417). 
This  is  to  warn  the  inhabitants  to  look 
after  their  fires  and  see  that  they  are 
extinguished;  it  indicates  also  that  the 
boy  is  attending  to  his  duties. 

Sunday  morning  we  were  up  at  half- 
past  two  to  eat  our  breakfast  and  to 
pack,  as  the  boat  was  expected  to  start 
at  four  o'clock.  It  did  not  leave  the 
wharf  till  six,  but  we  got  aboard  before 
the  sun  arose,  and  such  a  beautiful  sight 
as  the  bay  presented,  the  shore  fringed 
with  mountains!  Our  road  led  along  a  high  bluff  and  we 
looked  down  into  the  deep  gloom  of  a  valley  where  the 
bright  red  fire  of  a  forge  shone  out.  The  sun  was  just  be- 
hind the  clouds,  the  water  calm,  and  a  picturesque  crowd 
of  Japanese  was  going  along  the  road  with  us.  It  was  en- 
joyable being  the  only  foreigner  about,  nor  had  I  seen  one 

Fig.  417 


Fig.  418 


during  my  long  trip,  except  at  Sapporo,  and  the  German  doc- 
tor we  had  met.  Figure  418  is  a  hasty  sketch  of  Mororan 
from  the  boat.  The  little  steamer  we  were  on  was  crowded 
with  Japanese.  Their  pleasant  courtesies,  which  were  interest- 
ing to  watch,  we  knew  would  soon  wither  as  we  rounded  the 
headland  into  Volcano  Bay,  and  within  an  hour  they  were 

all  dreadfully  seasick, 
as  the  boat  rocked  vio- 
lently. Figure  419  is  an 
outline  of  the  headlands 
as  we  came  out  of  Mo- 
roran harbor.  In  this 
sketch  you  will  notice 
how  the  rocks  have  been 
undercut  at  the  water- 
line,  an  indication  of 
upheaval.  The  whole 
country  is  volcanic  and 
unstable.  I  made  a  few 
sketches  from  the  steamer,  but  found  that  my  condition  was 
approaching  that  of  the  other  passengers  and  so  sought  the 
cabin  for  a  little  rest.  When  we  got  near  Mori,  our  landing- 
place,  a  boiler  flue  burst,  nearly  extinguishing  the  fire,  and 
we  lay  at  the  mercy  of  the  winds  and  waves  for  some  time. 
Had  a  storm  come  up  we  should  have  been  helpless.  The 
wind  was  blowing  hard;  it  was  raining,  and  it  was  an  aggra- 
vation to  be  so  near  land  and  not  be  able  to  get  ashore. 
Finally,  we  got  under  way  and  at  noon  landed  at  Mori. 
Figure  420  is  an  outline  of  Usuyama  from  Mororan  harbor, 

Fig.  419 


and  figure  421  shows  the  volcano  Komagatake,  its  peak 
hidden  by  steam  that  continually  arises.  This  mountain  is 
easily  seen  from  Hakodate.  Its  height  is  nearly  four  thousand 

Fig.  420 

feet  and  twenty-two  years  ago  it  was  in  violent  eruption. 
After  lunch  we  engaged  our  pack-horses,  Yatabe  and  his  man 
remaining  to  climb  the  volcano,  and  Sasaki,  Takamine,  and  I 
going  on.  The  ride  over  mountain  spurs  and  through  a  wild 
region  was  exceedingly  picturesque.  The  mountain  peaks 
were  obscured  by  mists  and  at  times  it  threatened  rain.  We 

Fig.  421 

passed  a  beautiful  lake,  but  could  not  stop,  as  it  was  after 
two  and  we  had  thirty  miles  to  make  to  reach  Hakodate  again. 
The  road  was  being  repaired  the  whole  length  and  we  had  to 
be  on  the  lookout  all  the  time.  After  a  ride  of  several  miles 
from  Mori  we  entered  a  mountain  pass.  Here  the  scenery  was 
delightful.  At  one  place  the  rugged  and  conical  peak  of  the 
volcano  suddenly  loomed  above  the  clouds,  the  peak  looking 
ten  miles  high,  its  sides  being  so  precipitous.  It  had  been  rain- 


ing  for  some  time  and  had  suddenly  ceased,  and  the  air  was 
very  clear. 

Shortly  after  this  we  were  going  down  the  other  side  of  the 
pass  at  a  good  trot,  Sasaki  on  his  hard  pack-saddle  just  in 
front  of  me.  I  had  been  trying  to  fix  the  end  of  my  umbrella 
in  my  shoe  as  an  easier  way  of  carrying  it,  but  the  joggling 
of  the  horse  prevented  me.  Leaning  over  to  see  the  shoe  I 
again  attempted  rather  impatiently  to  jab  the  point  in  the 
shoe,  when,  in  some  way,  I  missed  the  mark  and  the  um- 
brella hit  the  horse  under  the  belly.  He  instantly  shied  and  I 
was  thrown  to  the  ground  striking  on  my  head  and  shoulder. 
I  remember  only  scrambling  out  of  the  way  of  his  hoof  and 
getting  my  foot  out  of  the  stirrup,  as  I  had  fallen  on  the  right 
and  dragged  the  left  stirrup  over  the  saddle.  Looking  up,  I 
found  Sasaki  on  the  ground  also,  and  supposed  he  had  jumped 
off  to  assist  me.  It  seems,  however,  that  his  horse  shied  too, 
and  he  had  been  thrown  off  his  pack-saddle  and  landed  on  his 
knees  in  precisely  the  same  position  in  which  he  had  rested  on 
his  saddle,  so  instantaneously  had  the  horse  shied.  Our  horses 
went  tearing  down  the  road  and  we  after  them.  It  meant  walk- 
ing to  Hakodate  if  we  lost  them,  but  shortly  they  encountered  a 
pack  of  horses  coming  up  the  ravine  and  their  rushing  in  among 
them  made  a  flurry  of  kicking  and  snorting.  Despite  this  we 
pushed  in  among  the  pack,  bumping  against  their  heavy  loads, 
avoiding  kicks,  and  finally  secured  our  horses.  Sasaki  was 
lame  for  six  months,  and  I  slept  on  my  left  side  for  several 

When  we  got  out  of  the  pass,  at  four  o'clock,  the  mountains 
of  Hakodate  were  in  plain  sight,  yet  it  was  nearly  midnight 


before  we  reached  the  town.  The  last  two  miles  we  walked, 
since  the  horses  stumbled  at  every  step  over  piles  of  dirt  or 
rocks  in  the  road,  and  in  our  walk  we  were  at  times  in  the  ditch 
beside  the  road,  at  others  sprawling  over  heaps  of  gravel  that 
had  not  been  smoothed  down. 



Since  our  return  to  Hakodate  we  have  had  a  number  of 
dredging  trips  in  Tsugaru  Straits,  in  one  of  which  we  went 
away  for  the  day  taking  a  fine  lunch,  Bass's  ale,  and  other 
good  things.  At  one  place  Takamine  and  I  landed  to  walk  to 
a  certain  point  about  six  miles  in  search  of  ancient  shell  heaps. 
We  could  see  our  little  steamer  ahead  of  us,  but  before  we  got 
to  the  point  a  gale  sprang  up,  and  though  we  waved  our  hand- 
kerchiefs till  our  arms  were  tired,  they  missed  seeing  us,  and 
we  had  the  misery  of  watching  the  boat  head  for  Hakodate 
leaving  us  fifteen  miles  away.  At  a  small  fishing  village  we  got 
a  bowl  of  thin  fish  soup  and  poor  rice,  thinking  of  the  delicious 
lunch  aboard  the  vessel.  Here  we  hired  two  pack-horses  with 
the  native  saddles,  and  these  were  so  intolerable  that  part  of 
the  time  we  walked,  reaching  Hakodate  at  night  tired  out  and 
lame  enough.  In  coming  back  we  had  a  magnificent  view  of 
the  volcanic  mountain,  its  outline  quite  different  from  that 
seen  at  Hakodate.  The  form  of  the  crater  could  be  clearly 

Fig.  422 


made  out,  the  slopes  a  light  brown  color  and  rich  in  the  sun- 
light. Figure  422  is  a  rude  sketch  of  its  appearance. 

Fig.  423 

Figure  423  gives  another  sketch  of  our  laboratory  from 
the  front.  We  are  packing,  preparing  to  take  our  long  trip 

Fig.  424 

across  the  straits  and  a  twelve  days'  journey  from  Aomori 
to  Tokyo.  Figure  424  shows  the  house  I  have  lived  in  since 
I  have  been  in  Hakodate.  Next  to  it  is  the  temple  gate,  and 


it  has  always  been  interesting  to  see  the  people  going  in  to 
worship,  or  even  bowing  their  heads  in  prayer  as  they  passed 
the  entrance.  To-day  I  noticed  that  the  girls  and  little 
children  were  finely  dressed,  and  that  a  great  many  flowers 
were  being  brought  into  town,  particularly  a  sort  of  blue- 
bell. This  evening  a  great  many  people  were  going  into  the 
temple,  and  I  went  into  the  temple  yard  and  watched  the 
people  as  they  ascended  the  broad  steps.  It  was  pleasant 
to  see  them,  old  and  young,  as  they  walked  up,  first  leav- 
ing their  clumsy  wooden  sandals  at  the  foot  of  the  stairs. 
When  at  the  top,  their  figures,  brightly  clothed,  stood  out  in 
sharp  contrast  to  the  darkness  of  the  temple  within.  After 
enjoying  this  sight  I  came  back  to  the  house,  when  Mr. 
Dean,  the  Danish  consul,  called  out  from  the  veranda  that 
I  had  not  seen  half  of  the  sights  and  told  me  to  go  back 
of  the  temple  up  the  hill  to  the  cemetery.  It  was  an  inter- 
esting walk  through  the  temple  grounds  to  the  cemetery 
above,  which  was  in  the  midst  of  a  sombre  forest  of  tall  cedars, 
and  here  the  people  were  making  their  offerings  to  the  dead. 
They  first  smoothed  a  place  on  the  ground  in  front  of  the 
gravestone,  then  spread  clean  white  sand  which  they  had 
brought,  and  on  it  placed  flowers  in  bamboo  tubes  which 
stood  like  little  vases,  at  the  same  time  laying  down  a  few 
reddish-colored  rice  cakes,  and  in  some  cases  quite  a  feast 
of  offerings.  Here  an  old  woman  muttering  a  prayer  was  busy 
smoothing  the  ground  around  a  stone  monument  and  taste- 
fully arranging  a  few  flowers.  It  was  a  charming  sight,  the 
quiet  shade  of  the  great  trees,  the  gray-colored  stones,  square 
and  dignified  in  design,  and  the  hundreds  of  brightly  dressed 



children  fluttering  about  like  brilliant  butterflies.  It  was  in- 
teresting to  find  that  these  people  too  had  their  religion;  that 
they  pray  just  as  fervently  and  in  their  devotion  go  even 
beyond  the  Catholics.  There  is  always  one  service  between 
five  and  six  in  the  morning,  and  at  this  early  mass  infirm  old 
men  and  women  are  borne  on  the  backs  of  some  sturdy  rela- 
tive. In  the  street  as  they  pass  the  temple  the  people  always 
bow  very  low  and  in  many  cases  utter  a  prayer. 

Since  our  return  across  the  island  we  have  had  some  re- 
markable dredging,  getting  many  Brachiopods,  and  have 
made  some  interesting  studies  of  the  living  creature.  On  the 
last  day's  dredging  the  authorities  provided  a  much  larger 
steamer  (fig.  425)  and  we  went  out  to  the  deeper  parts 
of  Tsugaru  Straits. 
Everything  has  been 
done  for  us  on  the  part 
of  the  authorities,  and 
all  our  success  in  col- 
lecting is  due  to  their 
courtesies.  In  return- 
ing overland  I  decided 
that  Prof  essor  Yatabe, 

Mr.  Sasaki,  and  Mr.  Yatabe's  gardener  should  accompany 
me,  while  Mr.  Naniya  and  Mr.  Takamine  should  go  down 
the  west  coast  of  Japan  to  dredge  at  Niigata,  while  Mr. 
Tanada  and  my  attendant  and  the  servant  of  the  Univer- 
sity should  return  with  the  collections  by  the  steamer  to 
Yokohama.  Curiously  enough,  the  three  steamers  for  these 
various  destinations  started  the  same  day,  August  17.  We 

Fig.  425 


had  a  pleasant  sail  across  the  straits  and  finally  entered  a 
vast  bay.  Sailing  into  this  we  passed  the  entrance  of  an- 
other immense  bay,  at  the  upper  end  of  which  no  land  could 
be  seen.  The  sea  was  perfectly  calm,  and  we  were  all  day 
sailing  from  Hakodate  to  Aomori,  a  distance  of  seventy 
miles.  The  town  is  long,  low,  and  flat;  beyond  observing 
these  facts  we  noticed  nothing.  At  six  o'clock  the  next  morn- 
ing we  started  on  our  long  jinrikisha  ride  to  Tokyo,  a  dis- 
tance of  over  five  hundred  miles,  hoping  to  accomplish  the 
journey  in  ten  days,  though  we  were  told  that  fifteen  days 
would  be  required. 

We  have  passed  at  intervals  a  curious  sign  which  seems 
peculiar  to  the  north  of  Japan  (fig.  426).  It  is  made  of  spruce 
or  cedar  twigs  bound  together  in  a  big  ball, 
two  feet  in  diameter,  and  is  the  sign  of  a 
wineshop.  The  saying, "  Good  wine  needs  no 
bush,"  may  have  the  same  significance  in 
this  country.  Our  first  day's  ride  was  over 
a  rugged  and  mountainous  road,  and  we  had 
to  get  out  and  climb  many  a  steep  hill  to 
ease  our  jinrikisha  men.  The  scenery  was 
very  beautiful,  and  we  had  fine  views  of  the  great  bays  and 
curiously  shaped  mountains.  Toward  night  of  the  second 
day  we  had  to  take  pack-horses  to  cross  a  precipitous  range 
of  mountains.  It  was  a  ride  of  fifteen  miles.  Our  horses 
were  led  by  old  men,  who  kept  up  a  continual  banter  and 
chaffing  with  one  another  the  entire  way.  The  endurance  of 
these  men  is  amazing,  even  more  so  than  that  of  the  Tokyo 
workmen.  They  were  fifty  or  sixty  years  old,  at  least,  and 

Fig.  426 


while  climbing  the  most  precipitous  slopes,  in  some  cases 
apparently  pulling  the  horses  along,  they  had  breath  enough 
left  to  joke  and  chaff  continuously.  At  the  top  of  the  moun- 
tain pass  I  dismounted  and  walked  a  long  distance  to  enjoy 
the  grand  views.  In  one  place  we  stood  on  the  edge  of  a 
precipice  said  to  be  eight  hundred  or  one  thousand  feet  to 
its  base.  The  face  had  been  worn  away  by  a  river  whose 
grand  curve  disappeared  beneath  our  feet  hidden  by  the  over- 
hanging edge  of  the  precipice.  We  passed  an  old  blind  man 
leading  a  horse  down  the  road  or  path,  which  was  rough, 
crooked,  and  in  places  very  steep,  and  yet  this  old  man 
seemed  to  know  every  part  of  it. 

In  the  houses  we  pass  I  notice  a  curious  basket  cradle  (fig. 
427),  a  thick,  circular  basket  of  straw, 
and  the  baby  warmly  stuffed  into  it. 

Having    crossed    the   mountainous 

range  we  came  to  a  long,  level  reach 

of  country,  not  unlike  the  rolling  prairie 

land  of  Iowa.  Japan  looks  very  small 

on  a  map  of  the  world  and  yet  we  were 

^  Fig.  427 

an  entire  day  crossing  this  prairie.  The 
villages  were  few  and  far  between.  Every  settlement  we 
passed  through  had  its  peculiar  features,  some  of  the  places 
shabby  and  poor,  while  others  were  very  trim  and  evidently 
prosperous.  We  neared  another  range  of  mountains  where  the 
villagers  had  managed  to  conduct  a  rapid  mountain  stream 
through  the  middle  of  the  main  street.  The  street  was 
cleanly  swept  and  in  some  cases  the  stream  was  bordered 
with  beautiful  little  clusters   of  flowers  or  oddly  shaped 


dwarf  trees,  and  at  intervals  pretty  little  rustic  footbridges 
spanned  the  stream.  On  the  level  plain  I  noticed  poles 
about  ten  feet  high,  which  appeared  to  be  telegraph  poles, 
except  that  there  were  no  wires  and  the  poles  were  a  little 
farther  apart  than  telegraph  poles.  We  were  told  that  these 
were  erected  in  order  that  the  traveler  in  winter  could  find 
his  way  along  the  road,  as  all  signs  of  the  road  disappear 
under  the  deep  snow:  a  good  idea,  which  might  be  fol- 
lowed in  our  country  in  some  places.  The  late  storms  had 
done  a  great  deal  of  damage.  In  many  places  the  bridges 
had  been  washed  away,  the  roads  had  been  overwhelmed  by 
landslides,  a  number  of  which  we  passed  around.  In  one 
place  a  house,  partially  wrecked,  was  standing  in  the  middle 
of  what  appeared  to  be  a  small  stream,  but  which  had  been 
a  raging  torrent. 

The  fatigue  of  traveling  from  morning  till  late  at  night 
prevented  my  making  many  sketches  on  the  trip.  The  vil- 
lage of  Fukuoka  I  recall  as  a  very  beautiful  place  with  its 
row  of  little  gardens  in  the  middle  of  a  wide  main  street  and 
the  street  cleanly  swept.  The  people  in  this  region  have  light- 
brown  eyes  and  are  better-looking  than  those  farther  south; 
the  children,  with  few  exceptions,  are  unattractive.  In  many 
places  along  the  road  springs  of  delicious  cold  water  come 
out  of  the  rock,  and  neat  little  stone  troughs  had  been  placed 
to  catch  the  water  for  the  comfort  of  horses  and  bulls.  The 
rarity  of  foreigners  in  this  part  of  the  country  was  indicated 
by  the  way  the  horses  shied  and  kicked  as  we  passed  them. 
Many  of  the  old  customs  are  still  kept  up.  For  example,  in 
no  case  did  a  man  in  meeting  us  pass  me  on  horseback,  but 

AN   OLD    CUSTOM  51 

in  every  instance  the  rider  dismounted  and  waited  until  we 
had  passed.  When  I  first  noticed  this,  I  thought  the  horses 
were  afraid  and  that  the  men  dismounted  to  hold  them,  but 
I  learned  that  it  is  an  old  custom  that  the  lower  classes  never 
ride  by  a  superior  when  on  horseback.  It  was  somewhat  em- 
barrassing to  see  a  number  of  men,  when  they  came  in  sight 
on  the  road,  promptly  dismount  from  their  high  pack-saddles 
and  not  mount  again  until  I  was  well  by.  On  the  road  I  met 
men  in  the  ancient  form  of  dress  such  as  one  may  see  only 
at  the  theatre. 

A  curious  device  for  irrigating  the  rice-fields  is  shown  in 
figure  428.    On  the  banks  of  a  swift-running  river  a  water 
wheel  was  adjusted  and  was  slowly 
turned  by  the  current.  On  the  sides 
of  the  wheel  were  fastened  square 
wooden  buckets ;  as  they  dipped  into  pIG#  ^8 

the  stream  they  became  filled  with 

water,  and  as  the  wheel  rotated  the  water  was  spilled  from 
the  buckets  into  a  trough  which  conveyed  it  into  the  fields 

Whenever  we  rode  through  a  village  in  the  daytime  it 
seemed  deserted.  A  few  infirm  old  men  and  women  and  little 
children  were  seen,  but  everybody  else  was  at  work  in  the 
rice-fields  or  on  the  farms  or  busy  with  duties  in  the  house. 
It  illustrates  the  universal  industry  of  the  people.  Every- 
body works;  all  seem  poor,  but  there  are  no  paupers.  The 
many  industries,  which  with  us  are  carried  on  in  large  fac- 
tories, here  are  done  in  the  home.  What  we  do  by  the  whole- 
sale in  the  factories  they  do  in  the  dwellings,  and  as  you  ride 


through  the  village  you  see  the  spinning,  weaving,  the  mak- 
ing of  vegetable  wax,  and  many  other  industries.  In  these 
operations  the  entire  family  is  utilized  from  a  child  above 
babyhood  to  blind  old  men  and  women.  I  have  noticed  this 
feature  particularly  in  the  pottery  industries  in  Kyoto.  I 
passed  one  house  where  the  loud  pounding  of  wooden  mallets 
attracted  my  attention.  The  people  were  engaged  in  making 
vegetable  wax,  which  is  derived  from  the  seeds  of  some 
species  of  sumac.  From  this  wax  the  Japanese  make  their 
candles,  and  tons  of  it  are  sent  to  America  for  use  in  the 
manufacture  of  cartridges.  When  at  home  last  year  I  visited 
the  cartridge  factory  in  Bridgeport,  Connecticut,  and  Mr. 
Hobbs,  the  superintendent,  told  me  they  were  making  mil- 
lions of  cartridges  for  the  Russian  and  Turkish  armies,  and 
that  Japanese  vegetable  wax  was  used  to  coat  every  cartridge. 
Here  in  the  north  of  Japan  the  making  of  this  wax  was  going 
on  as  in  other  parts  of  the  Empire.  The  seeds  are  gathered 
and  reduced  to  a  powder  by  a  triphammer;  the  powder  is 

then  heated  in  a  fur- 
nace and  put  into  a 
stout  bag,  made  of 
strips  of  bamboo,  which 
is  then  placed  in  a 
square  hole  in  an  enor- 
mous beam  of  wood. 
A  wedge  is  placed  on 
each  side  of  the  bag, 
and  two  men  with  vigorous  blows  of  long-handled  mallets 
drive  down  the  wedges,  squeezing  the  fluid  wax  out  of  the 

Fig.  429 


bag,  which  runs  in  a  stream  into  a  bucket  sunk  into  the 
ground  below  the  hole,  as  shown  in  figure  429. 

The  ridge-poles  of  many  of  the  roofs  in  the  north  of  Japan 
are  covered  with  red  lilies,  and  a  pretty  sight  it  is  as  one  rides 
through  a  village  to  see  the  crests  of  the  houses  flaming  with 
red.  Around  Tokyo  the  blue  iris  seems  to  be  the  favorite  flower 
for  this  decoration.  One  has  no  idea  how  beautiful  these  roofs 
appear:  grand  old  thatched 
roofs,  high  and  broad,  with 
a  splendid  sweep  to  the  eaves 
and  surmounted  by  a  wav- 
ing fringe  of  red  lilies.  The 
eaves  of  these  thatched  roofs 
are  often  three  feet  in  thick- 
ness. The  taste  of  the  people 
is  shown  in  using  alternately 

dark  straw  and  light  straw  in  thatching,  so  that  when  the 
eaves  are  evenly  trimmed  there  are  exposed  alternate  bands 
of  dark  and  light  colored  straw  (fig.  430). 

Last  year  I  made  a  record  in  my  journal  that  the  farmer 
cut  his  monogram  in  the  end  of  the  ridge  and  painted  it  black; 
it  was  a  natural  inference  seeing  this  gracefully  written  Chi- 
nese character.  Through  the  region  in  which  we  are  passing 
the  same  initial  is  observed,  and  Professor  Yatabe  tells  me 
it  is  the  Chinese  character  for  water.  He  thought  there  was 
some  superstition  that  this  character  might  keep  away  fire; 
absurd,  perhaps,  but  no  more  ridiculous  than  to  see  an  intelli- 
gent man  rap  wood  after  some  statement  or  to  nail  a  horse- 
shoe over  the  door. 

Fig.  430 

Fig.  431 


One  constantly  notices  the  care  taken  to  give  comfort  to 
the  horses.  A  simple  device  that  we  might  follow  is  to  sus- 
pend a  broad  piece  of  cloth  under  the  belly  of 
the  horse.  The  constant  flapping  up  and  down 
drives  the  flies  away  from  that  region  of  the 
body  most  difficult  to  reach. 

The  lacquer  trees  we  pass  have  their  trunks 
curiously  marked  with  cuts,  from  which  the 
sap  is  scraped  by  men  who  collect  it  (fig.  431). 
The  trees  appear  as  if  they  had  been  pur- 
posely ornamented  with  tattoo 

Along  the  road  the  Government 
is  laying  a  telegraph  line  which  is  to  run  the  length 
of  the  Empire.  It  was  interesting  to  see  the  thor- 
ough way  in  which  the  work  was  being  done.  The 
trees  to  make  the  poles,  instead  of  being  cut  a  foot 
or  two  above  the  ground,  were  cut  close  to  the 
roots,  so  that  the  base  was  very  wide,  and  this  part 
was  charred  to  preserve  it.  This  wide  base  gives 
it  a  much  firmer  hold  in  the  ground.  The  top  of 
the  post  was  protected  by  a  pyramidal  piece  of 
hardwood  which  sheds  the  rain  (fig.  432). 

In  a  number  of  places  in  the  northern  part  of 
Japan  I  noticed  at  some  distance  from  the  village, 
on  each  side  of  the  road,  a  large  mound,  and  on 
each  one  a  huge  tree  of  great  age.  We  were  told 
that  they  marked  the  boundary  between  villages,  or  towns. 
At  intervals  along  the  road  little  booths  were  erected  where 

Fig.  432 



Fig.  433 

melons  were  sold  (fig.  433),  a  fruit  not  unlike  our  cantaloupe, 

but  coarse  in  fibre  and  good  only  for  its  juice,  though  the 

same  fruit  about  Tokyo  is  delicious.  The  interesting  feature 

about  these  booths  is 

that   in    most    cases 

there     was     nobody 

in  them;  the    prices 

were  marked  on  the 

melons,   a  box  with 

a  little  money  in  it 

rested    beside    them, 

and   one   could   buy 

and  make  change!  I 

was  far  ahead  of  my 

companions,  enjoying 

the  freedom  and  delight  of  walking  in  a  strange  country 

unattended.  At  one  of  these  booths  I  stopped,  being  very 

thirsty,  and  wished  to  purchase  a  melon,  but  could  see  no 

one  in  attendance  nor  any  one  in  sight,  and  so  had  to  wait 

till  Yatabe  came  up,  when  he  explained  that  the  man  had 

left  his  melons  and  a  box  of  change  in  the  morning  and  was 

off  to  work  in  his  rice-fields.    I  could  not  help  wondering 

how  long  the  rickety  booth  would  remain  standing  in  our 

country,  to  say  nothing  of  the  melons  and  change. 

After  being  ferried  across  a  river  and  walking  over  some 
fearful  washouts  along  the  road,  we  approached  a  village. 
It  was  nearly  dark,  and  wre  passed  a  great  many  people  com- 
ing from  the  village,  nearly  all  of  whom  were  men  more  or 
less  hilarious  with  sake.   I  never  passed  so  many  people  in 


such  a  condition  before.  They  came  along  in  groups  of  a 
dozen  or  more,  talking,  laughing,  singing,  and  a  few  stagger- 
ing. Something  unusual  had  been  going  on.  In  many  cases 
we  had  to  walk  through  a  crowd  of  them,  as  the  smooth  parts 
of  the  road  were  very  narrow.  The  sight  of  a  foreigner  was 
a  great  novelty  to  them  and  they  stared  continually.  When 
we  reached  the  village  we  found  there  had  been  a  wrestler's 
exhibition,  which  accounted  for  the  crowd.  I  make  a  note  of 
this  experience  to  ask  where  in  our  blessed  country  would  a 
foreigner  of  another  race  pass  crowds  of  men  more  or  less 
affected  by  liquor  and  fresh  from  an  animating  exhibition  of 
wrestling  without  receiving  some  slurring  word  or  gesture? 

When  we  got  to  the  principal  inn,  every  room  was  filled, 
and  what  was  more,  after  an  hour's  hunting  among  all  the 
inns  of  the  place,  big  and  little,  no  accommodation  was  to  be 
found.  A  company  of  two  hundred  soldiers  had  arrived  only 
a  few  hours  before  and  the  officers  and  many  of  the  men  had 
filled  the  inns.  So  we  sat  there  in  the  dark,  ravenously  hun- 
gry and  tired  out,  while  a  native  hunted  up  some  prominent 
man  of  the  village  to  whom  our  plight  might  be  explained 
and  who  might  help  us  to  find  some  private  accommodation. 
There  is  a  law  in  Japan  that  a  foreigner  shall  not  stop  at  a 
private  house,  and  we  were  in  despair.  Finally  accommoda- 
tions were  found  in  a  private  house  nearly  opposite  the 
crowded  inn  where  we  were  resting  —  a  large  room,  beauti- 
ful and  clean,  absolutely  free  from  fleas,  conditions  which 
were  a  great  luxury,  as  I  had  a  hundred  bites  from  these  pests 
already.  A  delicious  supper  was  given  us,  and  the  next 
morning  we  were  off  at  four,  first,  however,  endeavoring  in 


vain  to  induce  our  host  to  accept  something  for  his  hospi- 
tality. Besides  the  countrymen  still  lingering  in  the  village, 
there  were  the  soldiers  loitering  about  after  their  long  march, 
but  I  do  not  recall  a  hostile  look  or  an  impertinent  gesture. 
I  was  hundreds  of  miles  from  an  American  consul  and  with 
only  two  attendants. 

In  one  village  at  which  we  stopped  I  roamed  back  of  the 
town  to  find  something  new,  and  in  a  house  noticed  hanging 
over  the  central  fireplace  a  big  cushion  of 
straw,  into  which  were  stuck   many  little 
sticks,  each  one  having  upon  it  a 
little  fish  which  was  thus  smoked. 
The  contrivance  was  simple  and 
yet  effective.   The  Japanese  are 
fond  of  smoked  trout,  and  as  fast 
as  they  catch  them  they  spit  them 
on  long,  slender  sticks  of  bam- 
boo which  they  thrust  into  the   cushion,  as  in 
figure  434. 

A  curious  way  of  doing  up  eggs  for  transporta- 
tion is  shown  in  figure  435.  The  eggs  are  bound 
together  in  straw  like  peas  in  a  pod  and  can  be 
carried,  hanging  down  in  the  hand. 

After  leaving  Fukuoka  we  ascended  rapidly;  in 
fact  had  a  hard  climb  in  reaching  the  crest  of  a 
high  range  which  we  finally  attained.  The  crest 
had  a  deep  cut  through  it  to  lessen  the  grade.  The 
IG*  rock  seemed  to  be  a  light  sandstone  of  which  the 

mountain  was  composed.  A  sketch  of  the  cut  is  given  in 

Fig.  434 


figure  436.  The  stratum  dipped  slightly  to  the  west  and  was 
filled  with  fragments  of  shells  and  Brachiopods  looking  pre- 
cisely like  those  species  I  had  dredged  in  Tsugaru  Straits. 
The  deposit  must  be  very  new  geologically,  and  illustrates 

Fig.  436 

how  recent  and  profound  are  the  changes  which  have  taken 
place  in.  the  northern  part  of  this  island.  This  region,  judg- 
ing from  the  fossils,  was  at  one  time  thirty  or  more  fathoms 
below  sea-level  and  has  been  elevated  two  or  three  thousand 
feet  within  recent  geological  times. 

We  entered  Morioka,  a  large,  flourishing  town,  by  a  nar- 
row street  lined  on  both  sides  by  houses  rather  close  together 

Fig.  437 


and  by  gardens.  The  hollyhocks  in  great  profusion  were 
peeping  over  light  bamboo  fences.  The  houses,  all  with 
gable  ends  to  the  street,  were  heavily  thatched,  and  the  whole 
place  had  an  air  of  thriftiness.    On  our  way  to  this  town 

Fig.  438 

we  got  a  fine  view  of  Ewatayama,  or  "Namboo  Fuji,"  as 
it  is  called,  because  it  resembles  Fujiyama  and  rises  from 
a  region  called  Namboo  (fig.  437).  At  Morioka  the  river 
is  quite  wide,  and  here  we  had  to  take  a  boat,  and  to  get 
one  we  were  directed  to  a  lumber  yard  on  the  banks  of  the 

Fig.  439 

river.  The  office  was  two  stories  in  height  and  the  rooms,  as 
well  as  the  sanitary  arrangements,  were  immaculate  in  their 
cleanliness  —  and  this  in  a  common  lumber  yard!  While 
negotiating  for  the  boat  and  crew  a  little  lunch  with  tea  was 
offered  us  from  the  daintiest  of  dishes.   We  stopped  but  a 


short  time  at  Morioka,  laid  in  some  fruit  and  candy,  and  at 
noon  started  for  a  sail  down  the  Kitakami  River  to  Sendai, 
a  hundred  and  twenty-five  miles.  The  boat  we  engaged  was 
different  from  the  boats  we  saw  last  year  on  the  Tonegawa;  the 
stern  was  square  and  high  and  the  bow  long  and  sharp.  Fig- 

Fig.  441 

Fig.  440 

ure  438  is  a  sketch  of  the  boat 
with  one  man  rowing,  two  men 
poling,  and  the  fourth  mem- 
ber of  the  crew  sound  asleep.  The  rudder  is  held  in  place 
by  a  miracle;  at  least  the  bearing  is  only  three  inches  wide 
and  apparently  hangs  on  nothing.  In  the  centre  of  the  boat 
was  a  square  area  carpeted  by  straw  mats,  and  here  we  were  to 
eat  and  sleep  for  a  few  days  more.  Heavy  rush  mats  formed 
a  roof  over  our  heads.  The  river  was  sluggish,  the  current 
helped  but  little,  and  the  crew  were  a  good-natured  but  lazy 
lot  of  fellows  who  had  to  be  continually  urged  to  hurry  up. 


On  the  banks  of  the  river  were  men  fishing.  So  used  are 
they  to  sit  on  their  legs  at  every  form  of  work  or  pleasure  that 
these  fishermen  had  light 
bamboo  tables  upon  which 
they  squatted  on  the  shore 
or  in  the  river,  and  we  saw 
them  either  on  their  tables 
or  wading  along  with  their 
stands  on  their  backs.  They 
have  two  hooks  on  their  line 
on  one  of  which  is  a  live  fish 
for  a  decoy.  They  have  a 
floating  box  in  which  they 
keep  the  fish,  for  they  sell  them  in  the  market  alive.  Figure 
439  is  the  roughest  possible  sketch  of  the  fishermen.  Up 
to  eleven  o'clock  at  night  we  were  carried  along  by  the  cur- 
rent, sluggish  as  it  was,  but  as  dangerous  rapids  were  ahead 
and  the  moon  was  not  up  the  crew  would  not  proceed.  So 
we  pulled  up  at  a  little  village  and  patiently  waited  for  the 

Fig.  442 

Fig.  443 



moon  to  rise,  which  it  did  at  two  o'clock,  and  we  got  under 
way  again.  I  sat  up  till  we  passed  the  rapids  and  then  lay 
down  on  the  hard  floor  with  a  Japanese  pillow  and  slept 

soundly  till  daylight.  Figure  440  shows  one  of  the  crew  smok- 
ing, with  a  cloth  tied  over  his  head  like  a  bonnet.  Here  I  may 

mention  the  fact  that  in  Yezo, 
even  on  hot  days  the  country 
woman  ties  up  her  head  and  face 
in  a  blue  cotton  cloth  so  that  in 
some  cases  only  the  nose  is  visible. 
Figure  441  is  another  member  of 
the  crew. 

The  next  morning  we  were  up 
bright  and  early  and  enjoyed  the 
delightful  landscape  and  the  in- 
teresting objects  along  the  shore.  After  the  toughest  experi- 
ences on  horseback  and  the  roughest  jinrikisha  travel,  it  was 
a  pleasure  to  float  along  without  jolt  or  care  and  to  beguile 
ourselves  by  watching  the  crew,  the  river,  the  shore  and 

Fig.  445 

Fig.  446 



landscape  beyond.    Our  kettle  was  soon  boiling  and  rice  and 
fresh  trout  gave  us  a  good  breakfast.  Figure  442  shows  our 

Fig.  447 

fireplace  on  the  boat,  and  figure  443  is  a  suggestion  of  the 
appearance  presented  by  two  of  our  crew  as  they  were  tak- 
ing their  rice. 

The  scenery  on  the  river  was  beautiful.  Namboo  Fuji  was 
in  sight  the  entire  day  (fig.  444).  We  dozed 
under  the  matting  and  kept  out  of  the  hot  sun 
as  much  as  possible.  The  only  water  to  drink 
was  from  the  river  and  it  was  lukewarm  and 
very  dirty.  Figure  445  is  a  sketch  of  our  boat 
from  the  stern.  The  sail,  as  before  described, 
consists  of  strips  of  cloth  laced  together  leaving 
quite  an  interspace  between  the  strips  as  shown  in  the 

Fig.  448 


sketch.   The  boatman's  song  on  the  river  closely  resembled 
the  boatman's  song  in  Hakodate.    Figure  446  is  the  song 

Fig.  449 

written  for  me  by  Professor  Fenollosa,  the  first  song  being 
the  Hakodate  song,  the  second  stanza  being  the  variant  sung 
by  boatmen  on  the  Kitakami  River.    At  times  boatmen 

Fig.  450 


would  come  out  to  sell  us  fish,  and  while  trading  with  them 
we  would  all  drift  together  downstream.  Figure  447  shows 
our  boat's  crew  rowing 
and  poling.  Figure  448 
is  a  sketch  of  one  of 
our  boatmen  on  the 
third  day  of  our  voy- 
age. His  queue  had  be- 
come demoralized  and 
wa£  tied  in  a  knot  on 
top  of  his  head;  his 
shaved  pate  and  chin 
were  bristling  with  a 
new  growth  of  hair,  and  his  nose  was  very  red  from  sun- 
burn. The  first  thing  he  will  do  as  soon  as  we  land  will  be 
to  hunt  up  a  barber,  get  a  shave,  and  have  his  queue  rebuilt. 
Figure  449  represents  another  type  of  river  boat,  with  flat 
bottom  and  broad  stern,  a  freight-carrier.  This  boat  is  work- 
ing its  way  up  the  river,  and  a  man  under  the  stern  is  push- 
ing the  boat  off  some  sandbar. 

At  one  place  we  landed  at  the  foot  of  a  precipitous  bluff  and 
started  off,  despite  the  hot  sun,  to  collect  land  snails,  and  in  a 
short  time  we  had  found  eight  species  new  to  our  collection. 
On  these  precipitous  bluffs  fishermen  establish  their  stations. 
The  little  hut  for  this  station  (fig.  450)  was  thirty  feet  above 

Fig.  451 

Fig.  452 



the  river,  and  by  a  long  rope  the  fishermen  could  pull  up  their 
nets  to  see  if  any  fish  were  caught.  A  ladder  runs  up  to  the  hut, 

which  was  of  the  rudest 
description.  Figure  451 
illustrates  a  type  of  net. 
Along  the  whole  length 
of  the  river  one  notices 
these  fishing  stations. 

As  we  approached  Sen- 
dai  Bay  the  river  became 
wider,  less  rapid,  and  not 
so  clear.  During  the  last 
day  of  our  sail  it  was  dif- 
ficult to  drink  the  wa- 
Along  the  shore  people 
were  seen  washing  clothes,  or  themselves.  One  little  sketch 
was  made  which  illustrates  the  tameness  of  crows.  A  woman 
was  evidently  cleaning  fish  over  the  side  of  a  boat,  and  within 
a  few  feet  of  her  a  crow  had  alighted  and  was  perched  on 
the  boat  watching  the  operation  (fig.  452).  As  we  neared  the 

Fig.  453 
ter,  it  was  so  thick  with  sediment. 


mouth  of  the  river  the  wind  began  to  blow  upstream  and  our 
boatmen  got  out  on  the  bank  and  towed  the  boat  for  several 
miles  (fig.  453).  This  they  did  by  hoisting  the  mast,  attach- 
ing a  rope  to  the  top  of  it,  and  pulling  the  boat  along.  One 
man  remained  on  the  boat  and  with  a  long  bamboo  pole 
kept  the  boat  from  running  ashore.  It  was  a  lazy  experi- 
ence —  imprisoned  in  a  boat  for  three  days  —  and  we  dozed 
and  slept  much  of  the  time.    In  the  sketch  (fig.  454)  one 

Fig.  455 

of  us  has  a  sheet  of  paper  over  his  head  to  keep  off  the 
mosquitoes.  After  getting  on  in  this  slow  way  for  several 
hours  we  concluded,  in  order  to  save  time,  to  land  at  the 
first  village  and  take  jinrikishas  to  Sendai.  I  was  glad  we 
did,  for  we  got  into  a  village  where  the  sight  of  a  foreigner 
must  have  been  a  great  novelty  —  if,  indeed,  they  had  ever 
seen  one  before.  The  people,  young  and  old,  flocked  about  us 
in  great  crowds,  and  at  the  inn  where  we  stopped  they  filled 
the  yard,  clambered  on  the  fence,  and  stared  at  me  as  if  I  had 
come  from  the  moon.  Every  now  and  then  I  would  make  a 
rush  at  them,  a  good-natured  one,  of  course,  and  they  would 


run  clattering  away  on  their  wooden  clogs  as  if  the  devil  were 
after  them.  When  we  started  in  the  jinrikishas  the  crowd 
followed  along  by  the  sides  for  some  time  looking  at  me  with 
the  greatest  curiosity  and  interest. 

I  noticed  quite  a  change  in  the  architecture  of  the  towns 
through  which  we  passed  and  a  curious  arrangement  of  beams 
in  the  gable  end  of  the  houses.  The  one  shown  in  figure  455 
was  typical  and  reminded  me  of  the  picturesque  architecture 
of  Switzerland.   The  wood,  in  its  natural  condition,  was,  of 

Fig.  456 

course,  gray  with  age.  We  came  along  at  such  a  rapid  rate  that 
I  had  but  little  time  to  sketch,  but  I  noticed  all  along  the 
way  the  fine  woodwork  on  the  houses.  A  long  bay  window 
over  the  first  story  was  often  of  the  most  delicate  woodwork 
with  perforated  designs  of  pine,  bamboo,  or  other  motive,  as 
seen  in  figure  456. 

In  some  of  the  villages  through  which  we  passed,  the  main 
street  was  almost  entirely  spread  with  mats  on  which  the  peo- 
ple were  drying  indigo  leaves.  Women  and  children  were  strip- 
ping the  leaves  from  the  branches  brought  in  by  others,  and 
their  hands  were  stained  blue  by  the  work.   So  filled  was  the 


street  with  these  mats  and  leaves  that  our  jinrikisha  would  run 
over  them.  As  we  neared  Sendai  the  men  seemed  to  wake  up 
and  run  faster;  the  roads  improved,  and  it  was  a  great  luxury 
to  move  rapidly  after  the  slow  monotony  of  the  boat.  When 
we  came  to  a  village  the  men  would  tear  through  it  like  mad, 
yelling  for  people  to  clear  the  track,  and  everybody  would 
rush  into  the  street  to  see  what  sort  of  a  show  was  going  by. 
The  people  are  as  curious  as 
are  the  Yankees.  Whenever 
I  threw  away  the  end  of  a 
cigar,  some  one  would  pick 
it  up  and  tear  it  apart  to  see 
how  it  was  made. 

Figure  457  is  a  curious  fan 
about  three  feet  high  that  is 
used  to  fan  dust  out  of  rice  or 
to  winnow  the  chaff  out  of 
grain.  A  man  holds  the  upright  handles,  which  are  made  of  a 
continuous  piece  of  bamboo,  and  moves  his  hands  in  and  out 
as  if  he  were  working  a  pair  of  bellows;  this  movement  opens 
and  closes  the  fans,  which  are  shaped  like  butterflies'  wings. 

The  jinrikishas  were  single  ones  and  narrow,  and  one  had  to 
keep  awake  to  balance  them  as  they  were  high  and  top- 
heavy.  It  was  misery  to  have  to  keep  awake  for  fear  of 
upsetting.  Ahead  of  me  was  a  Buddhist  priest  in  his  beauti- 
ful robes,  his  head  drooping  in  sleep.  I  knew  he  would  go 
over,  and  I  got  wide  awake  watching  him  for  a  mile  or  more 
when  over  he  went  into  the  wet  gutter  beside  the  road.  The 
jinrikisha  man  was  also  thrown,  but  picked  himself  up  and 

Fig.  457 


stood  with  his  hat  off  bowing  again  and  again  in  apology.  I 
could  not  help  laughing,  and  when  the  priest  noticed  me,  he 
laughed  in  sympathy. 

Toward  afternoon  we  found  it  would  be  difficult  to  reach 
Sendai  that  night,  so  we  stopped  at  Matsushima,  a  famous 
resort.  It  was  delightful  to  feel  the  salt  breezes  again.  The 
beach  was  covered  with  seaweed,  as  the  tide  was  out,  and  the 
odor  was  delicious.  We  stopped  at  a  pretty  little  tea-house 
on  a  promontory  partly  hidden  by  trees.  As  we  rode  into 
Matsushima  the  road  led  around  bluffs  in  which  were  caves 

of  various  sizes,  all 
bearing  the  marks  of 
former  erosion  of  the 
sea.  This  wearing  ac- 
tion was  very  curious. 
The  upper  layers  of 
rock  overhung  the 
lower  portion  resem- 
bling certain  forms 
of  snowdrifts.  Figure 
458  is  a  fair  representation  of  the  form  these  rocks  assume, 
whether  on  land  or  sea,  for  the  Bay  of  Sendai  has  hundreds 
like  the  one  figured.  Some  of  these  islands  are  not  over 
twenty  feet  long;  others  are  much  larger,  standing  twenty  feet 
above  the  water.  It  is  a  most  singular  effect  and  shows  the 
great  denudation  and  recent  elevation  that  have  taken  place. 
We  were  up  before  daylight  the  next  morning  and  reached 
the  city  of  Sendai  by  nine  o'clock.  To  be  riding  through 
crowded  streets  seemed  a  little  like  Tokyo.  Two  of  our  men 

Fig.  458 


were  left  at  Matsushima  to  make  collections,  and  Yatabe  and 
I  started  for  the  long  ride  to  Tokyo.  We  left  everything  we 
could  spare  so  as  to  travel  light,  and  had  two  men  to  a  jin- 
rikisha.  Yatabe  endeavored  to  telegraph  to  Tokyo,  but  found 
to  his  surprise  that  all  telegrams  from  private  persons  were 
forbidden.  This  worried  him  a  good  deal,  for  various  inquir- 
ies failed  to  bring  any  explanation  of  this  edict.  Had  a  revolu- 
tion broken  out  in  Tokyo?  Was  there  an  anti-foreign  demon- 
stration? Nothing  could  be  learned,  and  so  we  started  for  a 
two-hundred-mile  ride  overland  to  Tokyo.1  It  seemed  to  me, 
after  this  hold-up  on  telegrams,  that  every  Japanese  we  passed 
looked  at  me  suspiciously.  After  leaving  Sendai  we  rode  for 
two  hours  before  we  learned  that  we  were  going  in  the  wrong 
direction.  We  were  then  compelled  to  go  back  to  Sendai, 
losing  half  a  day  by  the  blunder.  Here  we  had  dinner,  and 
with  a  new  team  of  men  rode  until  ten  o'clock  at  night  when 
we  reached  Fujita.  All  the  tea-houses  were  full,  so  we  were 
compelled  to  sleep  in  an  obscure  inn  with  poor  mats,  poor  food, 
and  fleas  in  plenty,  but  we  were  too  tired  to  complain. 

The  next  day  we  had  to  make  seventy  miles  to  Shirakawa  in 
order  to  reach  Utsunomiya  the  next  night,  so  we  started  be- 
fore sunrise,  and  before  night  we  were  almost  paralyzed  with 
fatigue.  I  remember  that  at  noon  we  stopped  at  a  very  pretty 
tea-house  for  something  to  eat.  The  garden  behind,  though 
only  ten  feet  in  depth,  gave  a  good  idea  of  how  the  Japanese 
utilize  the  narrowest  strips  of  land.  This  little  area  was  a 
charming  sight  from  the  room  where  we  rested.   The  bushes 

1  As  we  neared  Tokyo  we  learned  that  a  mutiny  had  broken  out  in  the  Tokyo 
garrison,  hence  the  suppression  of  the  telegraph. 


were  gracefully  trimmed,  the  iris  dwarfed,  curious  rocks  were 
piled  here  and  there,  little  evergreens  and  Japanese  maple 
gave  color,  and  the  whole  effect  was  pleasing.  All  the  after- 
noon we  traveled,  and  at  seven  o'clock  we  were  so  tired  that 
it  seemed  impossible  to  go  farther,  yet,  after  taking  a  hearty 
lunch  of  rice,  we  started  for  the  next  station.  It  was  cool  and 
delightful  riding  in  the  evening  air  and  interesting,  passing 
through  village  after  village  at  night  and  then  into  the  open 
country  road  again.  If  we  could  only  reach  Shirakawa  that 
night  we  could  get  to  Utsunomiya  the  next  night,  and  from 
that  place  we  could  get  a  stage  to  Tokyo. 

As  we  neared  the  town  at  ten  o'clock  at  night  we  knew  some 
unusual  event  was  taking  place,  as  people  were  flocking  along 
the  road  in  numbers.  As  we  got  into  the  place  we  found  that 
the  buildings  were  all  illuminated  by  lanterns  and  transpar- 
encies of  various  designs.  It  was  half-past  ten  before  we  found 
accommodations  for  the  night,  so  full  wrere  all  the  inns,  and  the 
inn  we  finally  stopped  at  was  crowded  and  the  streets  thronged 
with  people,  all  smiling  and  happy.  At  eleven  o'clock  a  big 
procession  came  along,  all  having  lanterns  of  bright  colors  on 
the  ends  of  long  poles  or  carrying  them  in  the  hands.  As  the 
procession  was  made  up  of  companies,  or  groups,  they  prob- 
ably represented  different  trades  or  charitable  organizations. 
One  group  had  red  lanterns,  another  white,  and  so  on.  The 
oddest  sight  was  to  see  the  lanterns  carried  on  long  bamboo 
poles,  in  some  instances  thirty  feet  high,  the  men  seeming  to 
have  all  they  could  do  to  balance  them.  The  men  moved  along 
in  a  sort  of  half  trot,  and  all  shouted,  "Yasu!  Yasu!" 

In  the  middle  of  the  procession  was  an  elaborate  canopy 


carried  on  the  shoulders  of  a  dozen  or  more  men,  and  in  carry- 
ing it  there  seemed  to  be  a  mock  struggle  by  some  of  them  to 
hold  it  back  as  if  it  were  being  borne  along  reluctantly.  It  was 
impossible  to  sketch  this  scene,  but  you  may  imagine  the 
appearance  of  a  wide  street  lined  with  the  low,  one-storied 
Japanese  houses,  with  rows  of  lanterns  under  their  eaves,  the 
tea-houses  filled  with  admiring  guests,  girls  playing  on  the 
samisen,  or  flute,  and  the  street  filled  with  this  trotting  pro- 
cession, lanterns  bobbing  up  and  down  from  poles  fifteen  feet 
high,  and,  at  intervals,  in  pairs,  big  lanterns  on  poles  thirty 
feet  high.  I,  a  solitary  foreigner  looking  on,  was  greeted  by 
every  one  that  passed  with  a  glance,  yet  not  a  disrespectful 
look  or  the  slightest  rudeness  was  offered  by  this  great  crowd. 
The  next  morning  we  were  off  by  candle-light.  At  noon  we 
stopped  at  a  place  famous  for  its  fried  eels  and  we  had  a  deli- 
cious dinner.  In  the  afternoon  we  crossed  the  Tonegawa 
swollen  by  the  rains,  and  while  waiting  for  the  ferry-boat  we 
noticed  a  crowd  of  Japanese  below  the  landing  on  a  broad  strip 
of  sand  that  bordered  the  river.  We  were  told  that  a  few  hours 
before  a  man  had  been  drowned  in  attempting  to  wade  the 
river,  and  they  were  just  getting  ready  to  remove  the  body 
which  had  been  recovered.  I  went  down  into  the  crowd,  and 
there  was  the  customary  big  wooden  tub  in  which  the  body 
had  been  packed  preparatory  to  cremation,  a  woman  beside  it 
in  deepest  grief.  A  few  men  were  burning  incense  sticks,  and 
the  rush  of  water,  the  stretch  of  sterile  sand,  and  the  black, 
scudding  clouds  above  all  formed  a  sombre  and  striking  scene. 
My  sudden  appearance  among  them  was  like  an  apparition, 
and  they  all  looked  at  me  as  if  I  had  dropped  from  the  clouds 


above.  The  boat  came  and  I  hurried  back  to  the  landing. 
Soon  afterward  it  began  to  rain  and  continued  to  rain  the 
whole  day. 

About  seven  o'clock  in  the  evening  we  reached  Utsuno- 
miya,  sixty-seven  miles  from  Tokyo.  It  seemed  like  getting 
home  again,  for  it  was  the  first  familiar  place  I  had  seen  since 
I  left  Tokyo  in  July.  We  spent  the  night  here  on  our  way  to 
Nikko  last  year;  we  now  stopped  at  the  same  house  and  I  had 
the  same  room.  I  could  hardly  realize  that  in  the  short  time 
that  had  elapsed  since  my  first  visit  I  had  been  to  America  and 
returned,  to  Yezo  and  back  overland,  had  got  so  accustomed 
to  Japanese  food  that  I  could  not  only  eat  with  a  relish,  but 
could  ask  in  Japanese  for  anything  I  wished,  and  had  become 
so  used  to  the  Japanese  objects,  ways,  etc.,  that  everything 
seemed  perfectly  natural. 

The  stage  left  at  six  the  next  morning.  Our  passengers  were 
all  Japanese,  and  among  them  were  two  rather  elderly  ladies 
who  had  been  to  Nikko  and  were  returning  to  their  home  in 
Tokyo.  They  were  all  very  pleasant  and  courteous  and  of- 
fered to  one  another  candies  and  cakes,  and,  in  turn,  dropped 
a  few  cents  into  the  tray  that  was  often  brought  to  us  with 
cups  of  tea  from  some  wayside  booth.  At  noon  we  had  dinner 
together,  and  I  amused  the  ladies  a  good  deal  by  insisting  upon 
pouring  the  tea  for  them.  I  also  entertained  them  with  a  num- 
ber of  hand  tricks  and  we  had  a  most  enjoyable  time.  At 
the  inn  I  got  a  sketch  (fig.  459)  of  one  of  the  ladies  as  she 
was  taking  an  afternoon  smoke,  at  most  three  or  four  gentle 
whiffs.  It  shows  the  position  of  the  right  foot  when  sitting 
on  the  floor;  the  left  foot  is  just  inside.  The  upper,  outer  side 


of  the  feet  rest  on  the  mats  while  one  sits  on  the  inner  side 

of  the  feet  and  the  lower  part  of 

the  leg. 
Figure  460  is  an  ishidoro,  or  stone 

lantern,  in  a  garden  back  of  the 

inn   at   Utsunomiya.    The   upper 

piece  is  wrought  out  of  a  single 

block  of  stone  and  the  pedestal 

represents  an  old  stump  of  a  tree 

worked  out  of  another  block  of 

stone.   It  was  old,  judging  from  the  lichen  that  grew  upon 

it.  What  amazes  one  in  Japan 
is  the  fine  stonework,  cabinet- 
work, and  other  kinds  of  arti- 
sans' work  found  in  nearly  every 
town  and  village.  It  shows  the 
widespread  distribution  of  men 
in  various  occupations  who  are 
skilled  in  the  work  they  do,  all 
having  served  their  apprentice- 
ship faithfully. 

At  noon  we  came  again  to 
the  Tonegawa  and  crossed  it  in 
a  large,  flat-bottomed  scow,  and 
then  went  on  again,  changing 
horses  every  few  miles.  As  we 
approached  Tokyo,  particularly 
in  the  outskirts  of  the  city,  I 

began  to  notice  how  much  prettier  the  children  were  than 

Fig.  460 


in  the  country.  I  noticed  this  feature  in  approaching  Sendai. 
I  explained  this  marked  contrast  in  the  appearance  of  the 
children  by  the  fact  that  in  all  the  inns  and  tea-houses  girls 
are  employed  as  servants,  and  the  keepers  of  these  places 
evidently  scour  the  country  for  good-looking  girls.  These 
come  to  the  city,  ultimately  marry,  and  transmit  their  good 
looks  to  their  children.  This,  at  least,  seems  a  rational  expla- 



We  got  back  to  Tokyo  about  seven  in  the  evening  and  I 
started  for  the  yashiki  with  a  fresh  jinrikisha.  It  seemed  odd 
to  be  riding  through  crowded  streets  again.  It  made  me  quite 
nervous  for  fear  of  a  collision,  and  it  was  several  days  before 
I  became  accustomed  to  it.  I  had  been  traveling  for  eleven 
days  on  long  country  roads  a  distance  as  far  as  from  New 
York  to  Columbus,  Ohio,  and  more  than  half  this  distance 
with  a  single  Japanese  companion,  yet,  with  the  exception  of 
a  scowl  from  an  old  Japanese  woman  in  a  village  far  to  the 
north,  and  an  experience  with  two  men  who  endeavored  to 
make  me  move  off  a  narrow  road,  I  had  met  no  unfriendly  de- 
monstrations during  my  entire  journey.  The  road  experience 
was  a  perfectly  natural  one,  and  might  happen  a  thousand 
times  in  our  country  when  two  gentlemen  walking  along  a 
country  road  would  not  permit  themselves  to  be  crowded  into 
the  gutter  by  a  Chinese  laundryman.  I  was  half  a  mile  ahead 
of  my  companions,  and  was  standing  in  the  middle  of  a  nar- 
row road  sketching  the  outline  of  mountains.  The  two  men 
regarded  me  as  an  outside  barbarian,  and  to  avoid  the  risk  of 
a  fight  I  should  have  regarded  myself  as  such  and  stepped  to 
one  side.  But  their  evident  intent  to  run  me  down  made  me 
stand  my  ground,  and  just  as  they  were  ready  to  push  into  me 
they  parted  and  did  not  even  brush  me,  though  I  felt  a  little 
apprehension  as  they  passed. 


In  inquiring  about  the  names  of  fingers  and  toes  I  found  the 
Japanese  have  no  name  for  toes  except  "foot  fingers."  The 
thumb  is  called  "great  finger,"  or  "parent  finger";  the  fore- 
finger is  named  "man-pointing  finger";  the  mid-finger  is 
known  as  "high,  high  finger";  the  ring  finger  is  designated 
as  "medicine  finger"  or  "no-name  finger";  and  the  little 
finger  bears  the  same  name  as  with  us,  "little  finger."  In 
Spanish  the  third  or  ring  finger  is  also  known  as  "medicine 
finger,"  as  when  we  apply  ointment  to  the  eyes,  or  when  we  rub 
them,  we  nearly  always  use  the  third  finger,  this  finger  being 
softer.  In  a  few  Indian  vocabularies  to  which  I  have  referred 
the  toes  are  called  "foot  fingers."  The  teeth  also  have  their 
names;  the  incisors,  or  front  teeth,  are  called  "thread-cutting 
teeth,"  showing  that  the  Japanese  ladies  have  the  same  bad 
habit  that  ours  have.  The  Japanese  word  for  "tusk"  is  the 
name  for  canine  teeth;  the  molars  are  called  "back  teeth"; 
while  the  wisdom  teeth  are  known  as  "no  parent  teeth,"  as 
they  usually  appear  after  one's  parents  are  dead.  The  eye- 
brow is  called  "hair  over  the  eye";  eyelashes  are  called  "pine 
hairs."  The  neck  is  called  "  root  of  the  head."  There  is  no  dis- 
tinct  name  for  the  ankle  and  wrist,  it  is  leg  and  hand  kubi; 
the  prominences  on  the  ankle  are  called  "black  prominences," 
as  in  their  barefoot  habits  these  parts  show  the  dirt  first.  The 
shin  is  called  mukozune,  and  the  Japanese  say  when  this 
part  is  struck  even  Benkei  would  cry.  Benkei  was  a  very  strong 
man  and  marvelous  stories  are  told  in  regard  to  his  strength. 

A  Japanese  professor  and  his  wife  called  at  our  house  the 
other  day  and  I  induced  the  latter  to  permit  me  to  make 
a  sketch  of  her.    The  face  does  no  justice  to  her  beauty 


(fig.  461);  I  also  had  an  opportunity  to  sketch  a  Japanese 
baby  sound  asleep. 

One  may  visit  the  market  many 
times  and  meet  with  something 
never  noticed  before.  One  is  at  once 
impressed  with  the  artistic  way  in 
which  everything  is  displayed  and 
the  immaculate  cleanliness  of  every- 
thing; the  turnips  and  white  rad- 
ishes are  literally  white,  not  a  par- 
ticle of  dirt  showing  upon  them, 
and  everything  is  tied  or  done  up 
in  graceful  ways.  String  beans  are 
bound  with  straw  in  packages  as 
shown  in  figure  462. 

The  mechanical  toys  are  always 
interesting.   With  the  simplest  of  construction,  and  frail  as 

many  of  them  appear,  their 

durability  is  remarkable.  The 

mouse  that  eats  out  of  a  dish 

and  drops  his  tail  at  the  same 

time  is  shown  in  figure  463. 

The  bamboo   spring  on  the 

side  keeps  the  mouse  in  an 

attitude  of  head  and  tail  up, 

by  strings  that  run  up  from 

the  stand  below.    The  moment  you  press  the  spring  the 

string  is  loosened,  the  head  and  tail  drop,  the  head  going 

into  a  little  ring  of  bamboo  which  represents  a  dish.  The 

Fig.  461 

Fig.  462 


mouse  is  not  painted,  but  charred,  making  a  brown  surface. 
The  Japanese  have  a  great  many  ingenious  devices  for  toys 

of  this  description,  many  of  them 
on  sticks  to  be  moved  by  strings, 
or  they  may  move  like  our  jumping- 

Many  toys  and  games  are  similar 
to  ours,  though  in  many  instances 
they  are  more  elaborate;  thus,  in 
cat's-cradle  the  forms  go  beyond 
ours.  The  Japanese  make  a  great 
variety  of  paper  objects,  and  many 
of  them  are  very  ingenious.  Those 
commonly  made  represent  a  kimono, 
a  flying  heron,  a  boat,  lantern,  flower, 
stand,  box,  the  box  quite  differ- 
ent from  the  fly-box  of  our  boy- 

As  another  illustration  of  the 
tameness  of  birds,  especially  crows,  my  jinrikisha  man  had 
left  his  lantern  hanging  on  behind  the  jinrikisha,  and  while 
I  was  putting  on  my  overcoat,  within  three  feet  of  the  jin- 
rikisha, a  crow  came  down,  alighted  on  the  wheel,  smashed 
a  hole  through  the  paper  lantern,  and  devoured  the  vegetable 
wax  candle  within.  I  allowed  him  to  do  it  and  would  have 
paid  for  a  hundred  lanterns  and  candles  rather  than  have 
missed  the  experience.  The  crows  are  literally  the  scavengers 
of  the  streets,  and  are  often  seen  disputing  with  a  dog  the 
possession  of  a  bone  or  stealing  crumbs  from  the  children. 

Fig.  463 

Fig.  464 

TOPS,    BALLS,    AND    STILTS  81 

Japanese  artists  have  depicted  a  crow  stealing  a  fish  from  a 
basket  carried  on  the  head  of  a  street  peddler.  The  crows  are 
very  tame  because  they  are  never  treated  unkindly;  indeed, 
all  wild  animals  are  tame  and  the  domestic  animals  are  much 
tamer  than  with  us. 

At  this  time  of  the  year  (November)  the  children  are  flying 
kites,  playing  ball,  or  spinning  tops.  They  fight  their  peg 
tops  as  our  boys  do.  The  tops,  however,  are 
differently  shaped  from  ours,  as  shown  in  fig- 
ure 464;  and  instead  of  endeavoring  to  split 
the  other  top  they  push  them  together  until 
one  or  the  other  stops.  The  ball-playing  con- 
sists in  patting  the  ball  to  the  ground,  then  catching  it  on 
the  back  of  the  hand  and  bouncing  it  again;  the  one  who 
can  do  this  the  greatest  number  of  times  wins. 

The  boys  are  as  fond  of  walking  on  stilts  as  are  our  boys. 
The  stilts  are  called  chikuba;  literally,  "bamboo  horse." 
One  speaks  of  a  boyhood  friend  as  a  chikuba 
no  tomodachi,  or  "stilt  friend."  Figure  465 
represents  two  types  of  stilts,  one  made  of 
two  pieces  of  wood  bound  to  bamboo  by 
cord.  The  rest  for  the  foot,  instead  of  being 
transverse  to  the  foot,  is  lengthwise,  so  that 
the  whole  sole  of  the  foot  is  supported.  The 
other  is  a  rarer  form  made  entirely  of  wood. 
The  stilts  may  be  four  or  five  feet  in  height,  and  the  boys 
often  hop  on  one  stilt  and  with  the  other  endeavor  to  dis- 
lodge, or  pull  down  an  antagonist,  and  in  this  way  get  up 
lively  contests. 

Fig.  465 


November  22.  We  visited  the  Omori  shell  mound  again  to 
make  a  collection  of  the  different  species  of  shells  composing 
it,  and  then  went  to  the  beach  to  collect  the  living  examples 
washed  up  along  the  shore  in  order  to  compare  the  two.  I 
had  begun  to  notice  the  difference  in  the  shells  sometime  ago, 
not  only  the  variance  in  size,  but  a  difference  in  proportion. 
Three  species  of  a  bivalve  shell  (Area  granosa,  lamarckiana, 
and  ponderosa),  having  radiating  ribs  like  a  scallop,  have  in- 
creased the  number  of  ribs  since  the  shells  were  deposited; 
one  species  of  whelk  (Eburna)  has  a  more  acute  spire  to-day; 
another  species  (Lunatia)  has  a  less  acute  spire.1 

While  walking  along  the  railroad  track  we  observed  that 
the  Japanese  workman  in  grading  would  sing  with  every 
stroke  of  the  shovel  or  bar.  The  Japanese  apparently  sing 
at  all  their  work. 

We  went  to  a  famous  tea-house  for  lunch.  A  stone  monu- 
ment in  the  beautiful  garden  had  an  inscription  which  puz- 
zled my  Japanese  friends  to  translate.  Professor  Yatabe 
said  the  meaning  of  it  might  be  conveyed  by  the  following: 
"The  fragrance  of  plum  blossoms  causes  the  flowing  of  ink 
in  the  writing  room."  The  idea  to  be  conveyed  is  that  the 
fragrance  of  flowers  prompts  the  poet  to  write  verses.  Many 
of  these  inscriptions,  often  from  their  own  or  from  Chinese 
classics,  are  found  on  tablets  hanging  up  in  the  houses  or  on 
stone  slabs  in  the  gardens;  When  translated  they  sound  rather 
feeble -to  us,  but  the  Japanese  insist  that  the  characters  in 

1  These  and  other  differences  were  published  in  my  memoir  of  the  Omori  shell 
mounds.  That  portion  referring  to  the  changes  observed  in  the  shells  was  sent  to 
Darwin,  and  in  reply  he  said,  "What  a  constant  state  of  fluctuation  the  whole  organic 
world  seems  to  be  in!"  (More  Letters  of  Charles  Darwin,  vol.  I,  p.  383.) 



which  they  are  written  mean  much  more  to  them  and  that  the 
spirit  is  impossible  to  translate.  The  students  with  me  en- 
deavored to  render  the  inscription  into  English,  but  found  it 

Fig.  466 

very  difficult.  One  of  them  accomplished  the  following:  "The 
odor  of  plums  is  like  the  flowing  of  ink  in  a  room  where  they 
keep  white  paper."  Mrs.  Yatabe  wrote  in  my  album  a  senti- 
ment from  the  Chinese  classics  which  is  said  to  be  beautifully 
done.  A  tracing  of  these 
characters  is  given  in  fig- 
ure 466 :  "  Loving  flowers 
we  rise  early  in  the  spring, 
admiring  the  moon  we 
retire  late  at  night." 

The  sign  for  macaroni 

&  -uj^-ajjjj-ip     FlG>  467 

(fig.  467)   consists  of  a 

block  of  wood  with  strips  of  paper  hanging  like  a  fringe 

below.  The  macaroni  is  made  from  buckwheat  and  is  very 


good  in  soup.    The  sign  for  paste  is  a  round  disk  with 
a  character  for  paste  written  upon  it  (fig.  468).  Paste  is  an 

article  of  merchandise  as  with 
us,  the  Japanese,  however, 
finding  many  more  uses  for  it. 
This  season  (the  last  of  No- 
vember) seems  to  be  the  time 
for  moving  trees,  and  one  meets  the  tree-movers  very  often 
in  the  streets.  I  have  seen  a  tree  so  large  that  thirty  men 
were  required  to  handle  it.  The  trees  seem  to  bear  repeated 
transplantings,  for  they  are  sold  and  resold  again  and  again, 
and  are  carried  miles  in 
the  way  shown  in  figure 

As  the  cold  weather 
approaches  the  people 
appear  in  thicker  over- 
garments, though  the 
lower  classes  are  all  barelegged  and  barefooted,  and  so  far 
as  one  can  see  the  houses  are  as  open  as  ever.  With  a  heavy 
frost  on  the  ground  and  the  ditches  along  the  streets  frozen 
over,  the  little  shops  are  still  wide  open,  the  only  source 
of  heat  being  the  little  fire  box,  or  hibachi,  around  which 
they  seem  to  cuddle  a  little  closer  to  warm  their  hands  over 
the  few  coals  burning  in  the  ashes.  It  is  an  odd  sight  to 
see  jinrikisha  men,  after  a  run  of  miles  and  reeking  with 
perspiration,  throw  a  light  blanket  loosely  over  the  back 
and  sit  in  the  cold  wind  while  waiting  for  another  fare. 
Everybody  goes  bareheaded,  and  so  unaccustomed  are  they 

Fig.  469 


to  wearing  a  hat  that  oftentimes  when  students  wear  a  hat 
in  calling  on  you,  they  will  go  off  without  it  and  perhaps 
come  a  week  after  to  reclaim  it,  the  delay  show- 
ing how  little  they  miss  it.  In  cold  weather 
men  wear  a  cloth  bag  arrangement,  heavily 
quilted,  with  a  long  cape  behind.  It  appears 
to  be  a  bag  with  a  hole  in  it  for  the  face  (fig. 
470).  We  have  the  same  device  made  of 
worsted  for  boys  at  home.  The  children,  when  bundled  up 
in  their  warm  clothing,  are  funny-looking  things.  The  outer 
garment  is  heavily  wadded,  and  the  sleeves  are  so  long  that 
the  hands  are  entirely  hidden;  it  resembles  a  Chinese  gar- 
ment. The  ladies  wear  a  very  becoming  hood  made  out  of 
a  piece  of  cloth,  a  yard  and  a  quarter  long,  folded  as  in  figure 
471  and  sewed  at  A,  but  open  behind;  in- 
side, at  B,  are  long  loops  which  go  over  the 
ears  pulling  it  down  in  front,  the  face  coming 
out  at  D;  the  two  flaps,  E  E,  are  wound 
around  behind  the  neck  and  folded  in  front. 
It  is  very  easily  adjusted  and  is  a  device  that 
would  be  appreciated  in  our  country.  It  is 
generally  made  of  purple  crape,  and  even  a 
plain  woman  looks  pretty  when  wearing  it. 
Figure  472  represents  a  lady  wearing  the  hood. 

The  oranges  now  displayed  in  the  markets  are  all  of  the 
variety  known  with  us  as  tangerines;  they  have  a  very  thin, 
easily  removed  skin,  and  the  segments  almost  drop  apart. 
In  some  you  can  look  through  the  centre,  as  the  segments 
do  not  meet.  They  vary  from  the  size  of  an  English  walnut 

Fig.  471 


to  some  as  large  as  our  ordinary  orange.  The  smaller  varieties 

are  seedless;  the  very  large 
ones  are  not  good  to  eat, 
but  are  used  as  ornaments. 
When  oranges  are  to  be 
given  as  presents  they  are 
packed  in  a  very  attractive 
manner  in  open  wicker- 
work  baskets  of  bamboo. 
These  baskets  are  sup- 
ported on  three  bamboo 
legs,  the  strips  of  bamboo 
being  prolonged  two  feet 
above  the  or- 
anges and  held 
together  by  two 
bamboo  rings 
(fig.  473).  The 
shops  are  very  pretty  with  these  graceful  orange- 
holders  in  rows,  arranged  artistically  with  a  little 
sprig  of  evergreen  on  top  and  with  the  rich 
color  of  the  oranges  showing  through  the  deli- 
cate slats  of  green  bamboo.  An  interesting  and 
puzzling  way  of  cutting  an  orange  is  shown  in 
figure  474;  figure  475  shows  one  half  from  the 
end,  the  dotted  lines  showing  the  manner  of 
cutting.  The  soft  and  easily  separated  peel 
renders  it  rather  easy  to  do,  yet  at  home  a 
friend  of  mine  did  it  with  one  of  our  hard-skinned  oranges. 

Fig.  472 

Fig.  473 


The  games  are  as  seasonable  as  with  us.  Kite-flying,  top- 
spinning,  and  battledore  and  shuttlecock  are  dominant  at 
present.  In  walking  or  riding  you  are 
often  struck  by  the  shuttlecock,  al- 
ways followed  with  smiles  and  apolo- 
gies. The  implements  are  different 
from  ours.  The  battledore  is  made 
of  board,  on  one  side  of  which  is  an 
elaborate  picture  in  crape  of  bright 
colors  in  relief,  the  subject  being 
some  celebrated  hero  or  actor.  Some 
of  the  battledores  are  very  elaborate 
in  their  decoration  (fig.  476).  The 
shuttlecock  is  made  out  of  the  soap- 
berry seed  (mukuroji),  five  feathers 
forming  a  plume  at  one  end.  These 
are  sold  in  sets  of  five  and  are  held 
in  a  slip  of  bamboo  (fig.  477).  In  the  shops  where  they  are 
sold  they  have  a  most  brilliant  display  of  them,  and  gener- 
ally a  huge  shuttlecock  hangs  outside  as 
a  sign.  Figure  478  represents  Daikoku, 
god  of  fortune.  It  is  made  up  of  pieces  of 
y  bright-colored  brocade  with  gilt  threads 
Jl  interwoven,  and  is  coarsely  made,  as  the 
toy  is  very  cheap.  Figure  479  shows  the 
attitude  of  a  girl  in  playing  battledore. 
Instead  of  the  thum,  thum,  thum  sound  of 
our  battledore,  the  sound  of  the  Japanese  game  is  click,  click, 
click,  as  the  hard  seed  is  struck  by  the  wooden  battledore. 

Fig.  475 

Fig.  477 

Fig.  478 

Fig.  479 


During  this  month  (December)  there  are  a  number  of  fairs 
held  in  the  vicinity  of  the  temples,  the  articles  sold  consisting 
of  household  decorations  of  straw  for  the  New  Year,  shrines 
for  the  house,  and  children's  toys.  The  larger  fairs  having  been 
held,  the  smaller  ones  spring  up  in  various  parts  of  the  city. 
It  is  astonishing  what  crowds  of  people  throng  these  outdoor 
bazaars.  We  attended  one  held  near  a  temple  not  far  from 
the  yashiki.  The  streets  on  both  sides  were  crowded  with 
booths,  and  the  people  were  packed  in  a  dense  mass,  many 
going  to  the  temple  to  get 
their  purchases  blessed  by  the 
priests,  holding  them  high 
above  their  heads  to  avoid 
their  being  crushed  by  the 
crowd.  It  was  interesting  to 
observe  that  at  all  these  fes- 
tivals the  objects  offered  for 
sale  were  children's  toys,  re- 
ligious or  semi-religious  deco- 
rations, and  objects  connected 
with  their  household  shrines. 
When  I  read  in  the  papers 
from  home  letters  by  mission- 
aries saying  that  the  temples 
are  being  deserted  and  the 
faith  dying  out,  and  then  see 

r  IG.  4oU 

the  actual  facts   of  temples 

crowded  every  day,  temples  being  retiled  and  repaired,  with 

every  evidence  of  prosperity,  I  wonder  at  such  false  reports. 


The  objects  for  New  Year's  decorations  are  made  of  rice 
straw,  twisted  and  braided  in  various  ways.  It  is  customary 
to  hang  them  over  the  entrance  of  the  house 
and  also  over  the  household  shrine.  Many 
of  the  designs  are  pretty,  and  some  of  them 
indicate  considerable  skill  in  their  construc- 
tion. One  of  the  prettiest  designs  and  one 
of  the  most  common  is  shown  in  figure  480. 
This  one  was  over  two  feet  long 
and  the  pendants  below  were  three 
feet  in  length.  The  roll  may  repre- 
sent a  boat;  if  so  its  cargo  consists 
of  three  balls  made  of  rice  straw 
with  sprigs  of  pine  and  some  bright 
red  berries.  Below  a  few  bunches 
of  rice  are  hanging;  a  little  gilt  leaf 
is  stuck  on  the  poles  of  the  balls 
and  the  whole  afTair  is  bright  and 
attractive.  Another  one  (fig.  481) 
is  a  wreath  of  straw  with  bunches 
of  rice  and  straw  hanging  down;  figure  482  shows  a 
form  which  is  hung  over  a  door  and  consists  of  a 
twisted  strand  of  straw  running  down  to  a  point. 
Some  of  them  are  six  feet  long,  and  one  often  sees 
this  form  in  Shinto  temples.  Figure  483  is  a  fringe 
to  hang  over  the  door,  and  figure  484  is  a  rope  of 
straw  woven,  with  strands  hanging  to  it  at  a  distance  of  five 
inches  apart.  This  is  wound  up  like  a  huge  tassel,  and  when 
unwound  is  hung  around  the  sides  of  the  room,  white  paper 

Fig.  481 

Fig.  483 


cut  in  symbolic  form  being  tied  to  the  rope  between  the 
pendent  strings.  In  some  cases  the  decoration  is  very  elab- 
orate. In  figure  485  is  rep- 
resented a  complicated  struc- 
ture over  a  gateway.  In  the 
centre  is  a  lobster  with  dried 
seaweed  hanging  below,  dried 
persimmons  on  each  side, 
fronds  of  ferns  pendent,  paper 
cut  after  Shinto  style,  and  the 

whole  structure  supported  by  pine  trees.  Without  color  it 
is  difficult  to  represent  its  attractive  appearance.  Figure  486 
shows  a  decoration  in  front  of  a  gate;  the  cut  bamboo,  deep 
green  in  color,  was  twelve  feet  high  and  looked  like  huge 
organ  pipes.  These  rose  from  a  cluster  of  pine  twigs,  the  base 

firmly  tied  up  with  straw 
rope  and  the  earth  neatly 
piled  up  below  with  a  straw 
ring  to  hold  the  earth. 

At  NewT  Year's  time  it  is 
a  constant  source  of  pleasure 
to  roam  through  the  streets 
and  study  the  great  variety 
of  decorations.  The  taste  dis- 
played, the  sentiments  con- 
veyed by  the  use  of  symbolic 
material,  such  as  pine,  bamboo,  etc.,  make  an  interesting 
study.  On  New  Year's  in  my  round  of  calls  I  noticed  that 
many  of  the  shops  were  closed.    The  streets  presented  a 

Fig.  484 



Fig.  485 

lively  sight  of  action  and  color  —  the  older  people,  finely 

dressed,  making  their  New  Year's   calls,  the  younger  ones 

brilliantly  dressed,  playing 
battledore  and  shuttlecock, 
the  boys  flying  highly  col- 
ored kites  of  all  sizes  and  at 
all  heights.  In  gardens  of 
the  higher  classes  the  girls 
were  gayly  dressed,  and  such 
flashes  of  color  as  their  long 
sleeves  streamed  in  the  air 
in  striking  the  shuttlecock! 

A  great  many  officers  and  soldiers  were  on  the  streets,  flags 

were  flying  everywhere, 

and  nearly  every  house 

was  decorated  with  the 

quaint  straw  devices.   It 

was  an  inspiring  sight  to 

see  the  streets  thronging 

with  children,  to  hear  the 

sound  of  musical  instru- 
ments, and  here  and  there 

to    catch    a    glimpse   of 

convivial  parties  sitting 

around    their   food    and 

wine.      At    every    place 

where  I  called  food  and 

sake  were  offered  me  as 

one  of  the  customs  of  the  New  Year,  for  even  the  food  con- 


veys  some  sentiment  as  well  as  satisfaction.  A  sweet  sake 
is  always  served  at  New  Year's,  and  this  is  offered  in  a 
special  vessel  with  a  spout  like  a  teapot,  and  the  bail,  or 
handle  of  porcelain,  or  pottery,  is  in  one  piece  with  the 
body.  One  often  sees  these  objects  mixed  with  a  collection 
of  teapots. 

As  the  service  is  essentially  the  same  as  to  dishes  and  food 
a  sketch  of  one  will  answer  for  all.  Figure  487  represents  a 

Fig.  487 

typical  service  of  wine,  cake,  etc.,  at  the  house  of  one  of  the 
Japanese  professors  where  I  felt  well  enough  acquainted  to 
pull  out  my  sketch  book.  The  drawings  show  the  objects  just 
as  they  were  upon  the  mats.  The  pot  of  sweet  sake  is  seen  to 
the  right  with  a  sprig  of  pine  and  the  noshi  which  always  ac- 
companies a  present  secured  to  the  handle;  the  ordinary  sake 
is  served  in  a  bottle  which  rests  in  a  low  square  box.  The 
three  square  lacquer  boxes  one  above  another  contain  the 
food,  which  consisted  of  the  following  articles:  fish  eggs  in 
masses,  just  as  they  are  taken  from  the  fish;  a  bean  pickle  in 
sugar  syrup  and  Japanese  sauce;  a  little  dried  fish  as  hard 
as  a  stick;  lotus  root,  cut  in  oblique  slices  and  very  palatable; 
a  water  chestnut,  cut  in  sharp  scallops;  a  fish  tied  up  in  a 


bundle  with  green  seaweed;  cold  omelette,  cut  in  slices;  cake, 
tea,  and  sake  (fig.  488). 

The  Japanese  are  very  formal  in  their 
observances  of  New  Year's  calls.  The 
gentlemen  call  and  leave  their  cards  in 
boxes  or  baskets  at  the  door,  or  walk  in 
and  drink  a  little  tea  or  sake.  After  a  few 
days  the  ladies  call.  On  New  Year's  day 
the  Japanese  officials  call  on  the  heads  of 
departments,  and  one  sees  many  officers 
on  their  way  to  the  palace,  and  a  funny 
sight  it  is  to  see  those  who  affected  for- 
eign costumes.  The  New  Year's  celebra- 
tions continue  for  a  week,  and  during  this 
time  it  is  impossible  to  get  any  work 
done.  How  staid  and  sober  our  New 
England  method  of  celebration  of  New 
Year's  appears  in  contrast  to  all  this 
gayety  —  a  few  wreaths  hung  up  in  the 
window,  but  nothing  more.  In  New  York  City  the  sav- 
agery of  horn-blowing  finds  its  parallel  only  in  the  racket 
made  by  the  Chinese. 

A  present  came  to  our 
house  of  two  large,  fat 
teal  (fig.  489).  These 
were  in  a  square,  shal- 
low basket  standing  on 
four  short  bamboo  legs. 
The  teal  rested  on  vegetables,  greens  and  three  round  lemons. 


Fig.  488 

MOCHI  95 

The  birds  are  made  into  soup  and  the  lemons  are  squeezed 
upon  it,  but  notice  the  neatness  of  the  whole  device  and 
the  complete  way  a  present  is  given  in  Japan.  A  present 
means  a  great  deal  here,  and  no  matter  how  humble,  the 
noshi  is  always  affixed  to  it. 

Mochi  is  a  favorite  article  of  food  at  New  Year's  time,  and 
just  as  the  New  Englander  makes  up  a  lot  of  mince  and 
pumpkin  pies  for  Thanksgiving  and 
Christmas  so  the  Japanese  prepare 
mochi.  It  is  made  of  a  glutinous  kind 
of  rice,  which  after  proper  boiling  is 
placed  in  a  huge  wooden  mortar  and 
stirred  vigorously  with  long  sticks.  It 
is  a  common  sight  at  this  season  to 
see  the  preparations  going  on  in  the  IG' 

street.  Figure  490  shows  men  stirring  the  dough.  After  this 
it  is  dusted  with  rice  flour  and  pounded  with  a  large  wooden 
mallet.  It  is  very  sticky  and  the  mallet  often  gets  stuck  in 
the  mixture.  Hokusai  has  made  a  comical  drawing  of  a  man 
who  is  endeavoring  to  draw  his  mallet  out  of  the  adher- 
ing mass.  After  it  is  properly 
^  kneaded  in  this  way,  it  is  made 

up  into  flattened  round  loaves, 
Fig.  491  * 

some  of  them  two  feet  m  diame- 
ter and  resembling  huge  puddings ;  it  is  also  rolled  into  thick 
sheets  (fig.  491).  It  is  sold  in  many  shops  and  is  much  liked 
by  the  Japanese.  It  is  very  sticky  to  eat,  and  reminds  one 
of  heavy  bread,  but  it  is  nice  when  toasted  in  thin  sheets  with 
burned  or  browned  meal  and  a  little  sugar  sprinkled  on  it, 


a  common  way  of  eating  it.  Figure  492  shows  one  form  of 
offering.  This  is  a  little  bamboo  table,  or  stand  with  two  big 
loaves  of  mochi  on  the  lower  shelf;  wreaths  of  rice  straw,  ever- 
green leaves,  white  paper  cut  into 
strips,  and  a  few  fern  leaves  surround 

At  this  time  of  the  year  (January) 
every  boy  in  the  city  has  a  kite,  and 
the  wind  being  favorable  the  air  is 
literally  full  of  kites  of  all  sizes, 
shapes,  and  colors.  Some  of  them  are 
of  so  large  a  size  that  a  small  rope  is 
necessary  to  fly  them  with.  Some 
have  large  dragons  painted  on  them 
Fig.  492  jn  fright  colors.  These  may  be  eight 

feet  square,  with  eyes  made  like  tambourines  hung  in  circu- 
lar frames,  so  that  as  the  wind  revolves'  them,  the  eye  being 
painted  black  on  one  side  and  covered  with  silver  leaf  on 
the  other,  the  monster  appears  to  be  winking  at  you.  I  saw 
a  most  frantic  scattering  of  a  flock  of  hens  as  a  kite  of  hide- 
ous aspect  darted  down  among  them.  Some  of  the  kites  are 
in  the  shape  of  a  boy  with  long  sleeves  fluttering  in  the 
wind;  others  like  birds  with  outstretched  wings;  some  in  the 
form  of  centipedes,  fans,  and  other  quaint  designs.  The  kite, 
though  frail-looking,  darts  with  great  force  to  the  ground, 
and  is  dragged  over  it  without  injury.  The  frame  of  the  kite 
is  made  of  light  strips  of  bamboo  bent  slightly  backward  by 
strings  running  across  from  the  ends  of  the  transverse  pieces 
of  the  framework;  the  paper,  of  that  tough  kind  peculiar  to 


Japan,  is  thus  stretched  like  a  drum-head  and  is  convex  in 
front.  The  kites  have  all  manners  of  flying.  Some  without 
the  long  tail,  or  bob,  are  as  steady  in  the  air  as  are  others 
with  two  exceedingly  long  tails  hung  from  the  lower  corners 
of  the  kite.  It  is  a  pretty  sight  to  see  these  two  long  bobs 
hanging  parallel,  and  as  the  kite  sways  back  and  forth  the 
graceful  curves  of  the  bobs  run  along  in  perfect  unison.  Some 
kites  dart  back  and  forth  in  vigorous  fashion;  others  are 
made  to  fly  directly 
overhead  in  strong 
winds,  and  the  string  **C*Si 

is  almost  vertical.  The 
boys  not  only  enjoy 
the  mere  flight  of  the 
kite,  but  often  fight 
them;  and,  I  may  add,  it  is  the  only  way  I  ever  saw  boys 
fight  among  themselves.  At  the  kite  shop  can  be  bought  a 
simple  device  of  wood  which  is  strung  upon  the  kite  string; 
in  a  deep  notch  of  this  device  is  a  sharp  blade  as  shown 
in  figure  493.  By  manoeuvring  the  kite  the  string  can  be 
brought  over  the  string  of  an  opponent,  and  by  dragging  it 
along,  the  string  slides  into  the  notch  and  is  cut.  Boys  in 
different  blocks  and  out  of  sight  of  one  another  may  engage 
in  these  contests.  It  was  a  new  thing  to  me  to  see  the 
adroit  way  in  which  a  boy  would  make  his  kite  go  sideways 
almost  at  right  angles  to  another  kite  flying  by  its  side.  The 
kites  often  have  attached  to  them  a  "  singer"  consisting  of 
a  thin  ribbon  of  whalebone  kept  taut  by  a  bamboo  bow. 
This  is  secured  to  the  top  of  the  kite  and  the  wind  vibrates 

Fig.  494 


the  whalebone  ribbon,  producing  a  loud,  humming  sound 
which  reminds  one  of  a  planing  machine  or  a  sawmill.  It  is 
a  great  annoyance  at  times  when  writing  to  have  this  inces- 
sant hum  directly  over  your  house  with  the  boy  flying  the 

kite  a  thousand  feet 
away.  Besides  this  seo- 
lian-harp-like  device  I 
have  seen  a  cord  simply  stretched  across  the  bow-like  piece, 
to  which  was  attached  short  flaps  of  paper,  and  these  would 
flutter  so  rapidly  in  the  wind  as  to  make  a  peculiar 
humming  sound  different  from  the  whalebone,  or 
sometimes  bamboo,  ribbon.  Figure  494  is  a  sketch 
of  the  musical  contrivance  attached  to  the  top  of 
the  kite. 

A  curious  device  to  indicate  the  months  which 
have  thirty-one  days  and  those  which  have  thirty 
or  a  less  number  of  days  is  shown  in  figure  495. 
The  object  consisted  of  an  irregular  piece  of  wood 
charred  brown,  the  characters  painted  in  white. 
The  first  column  is  headed  with  the  character  for 
"small,"  or  "little,"  and  then  follow  the  numbers, 
2, 4,  6,  9,  and  11,  these  months  having  thirty  days 
or  less;  the  second  column  with  the  months  con- 
taining thirty-one  days  is  headed  by  the  character 
for  "great."  The  mushrooms  at  the  bottom  were 
made  out  of  paper  slightly  browned  by  heat,  look- 
ing precisely  like  the  real  objects,  and  held  in  a 
little  straw  device  as  they  are  seen  in  the  markets.  My 
daughter  paid  one  and  one  half  cents  for  it. 


We  went  to  the  theatre  the  other  day  at  twelve  o'clock 
noon,  carrying  our  lunch  with  us,  and  never  left  the  place  till 
half-past  eleven  at  night.  The  actors,  the  scenery,  the  music, 
and  the  audience  held  the  attention  at  every  moment,  and 
intermissions  of  ten  or  fifteen  minutes  left  one  time  to  enjoy 
the  family  gatherings  in  their  two-mat  bins,  servants  from 
outside  tea-houses  bringing  in  attractive-looking  lunches. 
The  concealed  orchestra  had  two  drums  of  widely  different 
pitch,  one  not  unlike  an  ordinary  drum,  the  other  sounding 
like  a  person  suddenly  choking.  The  illusion  of  distance  on 
the  stage  was  ingeniously  accomplished  by  making  the  build- 
ings and  sides  of  the  stage  taper  to  the  rear  as  in  exaggerated 
perspective;  the  stage  was  not  over  fifty  feet  in  depth,  but 
by  this  method  it  looked  ten  times  as  deep.  In  one  scene  a 
Tonin  is  leaving  the  gate  of  his  yashiki  uttering  sad  words  of 
regret  and  waving  his  hand.  Suddenly  the  gate  appears  more 
distant,  and  again  it  apparently  recedes.  The  illusion  is  con- 
veyed that  the  man  is  fast  leaving  it.  The  effect  is  produced 
by  a  big  gate  painted  on  thin  board  which  drops  forward  dis- 
closing a  smaller  gate  painted  precisely  like  the  first  and  this 
in  turn  drops,  disclosing  another  gate  still  smaller.  The 
classical  plays  of  the  Japanese  enable  one  to  get  an  idea  of 
court  dress  and,  in  a  slight  way,  perhaps,  of  court  etiquette 
and  ceremony.  Figure  496  shows  hasty  sketches  of  an  actor 
in  various  attitudes,  and  is  interesting  as  illustrating  the 
old  costumes.  To  see  a  two-sworded  dignitary  walking  across 
the  stage  in  nether  garments  four  feet  too  long,  trailing  back 
under  his  feet  as  he  walked,  was  very  odd. 

An  interesting  sight  it  was  to  see  throngs  of  beautifully 



Fig.  496 

dressed  children  leave  the  audience  and  rush  to  the  stage  as 
the  curtain  came  down  and  find  their  way  behind  the  cur- 
tain on  each  side  to  watch 
the  stage  carpenter  at  work 
erecting  new  scenery.  When 
the  wooden  blocks  clacked 
together  as  a  signal  for  the 
curtain  to  be  raised,  the  children  swarmed 
out  again  and  hurried  to  their  respective 
bins  in  the  audience.  What  greater  evidence 
could  be  offered  to  illustrate  the  universal 
good  behavior  of  the  Japanese  boy  and  girl! 
Of  course  such  an  invasion  of  children  on 
our  stage  would  not  be  permitted  for  a 
moment;  but  think  of  the  tacks  spilled,  paint 
upset,  and  other  deviltries  which  would  instantly  develop 
if  our  sweet  children  were  allowed  behind  the  curtain!  In 
Japan,  however,  the  children  are  allowed  to  go  everywhere 
and  see  everything  because  they  never  seem  to  abuse  the 

Early  in  December  the  fire  companies  of  the  city  come  to- 
gether for  a  review.  The  fire  bells  ring  and  the  companies 
gather  on  a  large  square  where  all  kinds  of  acrobatic  feats  take 
place.  They  climb  ladders,  have  races,  and  perform  a  number 
of  feats,  and  appear  very  skillful,  but  in  actual  service,  while 
showing  the  greatest  bravery,  they  do  not  impress  the  for- 

1  And  the  way  these  same  children  become  brave  fighting  soldiers  as  shown  in  the 
Formosan,  Chinese,  and  Russian  wars,  proves  that  courtesy,  gentle  ways,  and  good 
manners  are  not  disassociated  with  consummate  bravery  and  endurance  on  the 

SNOW   IN   TOKYO  101 

eigner  as  very  efficient.  Their  problems,  however,  are  so  dif- 
ferent from  those  of  our  firemen  that  it  may  be  hardly  fair  to 
pass  judgment.  The  Japanese  firemen  are  called  upon  to  de- 
stroy buildings  in  the  path  of  a  conflagration  and  to  wet  down 
the  men  who  are  thus  engaged,  and  to  do  all  this  work  with 
the  greatest  possible  dispatch. 

Occasional  snowstorms  have  occurred  this  winter,  but  the 
jinrikisha  men  do  not  seem  to  mind  the  snow  and  run  in  it 
barefooted,  and  when  standing  the  steam  is  seen  rising  from 
their  bare  feet.  Curiously  enough,  the  houses  appear  as  open 
as  in  the  summer.  The  children  are  barelegged  just  as  in  the 
summer,  and  play  in  the  snow  with- 
out minding  the  cold.  After  a  snow- 
storm the  people  turn  out  with 
scoops,  boards,  and  a  peculiar  kind  ■"""  fig  497 
of  wooden  shovel  and  clear  the  en- 
tire street  in  front  of  their  respective  shops  and  houses,  the 
snow  being  put  into  the  gutter  which  runs  along  the  side  of 
the  street  and  which  is  usually  covered  with  boards.  Figure 
497  is  an  extemporized  snow  shovel  made  out  of  a  board 
with  a  loop  of  rope  near  the  end  for  a  handle.  The  snow  being 
moist,  the  children  roll  big  balls  of  it  as  do  our  children  at 
home,  and  have  contests  as  to  which  one  will  make  the  big- 
gest ball,  in  the  following  manner :  a  small  stick  is  tied  cross- 
ways  to  the  end  of  a  string,  and  this  is  swung  back  and  forth 
in  the  damp  snow  to  see  how  big  an  accumulation  can  be 
made  before  the  snow  drops  off  of  its  own  weight. 

The  construction  of  ladders  is  interesting.    The  sides  are 
made  of  stout  bamboo,  and  from  the  centre  to  the  ends  the 


bamboo  is  bent  outward,  thus  giving  a  wider  base  upon  which 
it  rests  and  a  flare  at  the  top  (fig.  498).  By  this  method 
the  ladder  is  greatly  strengthened.  The  slats  are 
firmly  tied  to  the  supports,  while  with  us  holes 
are  bored  in  the  sides  of  the  ladder  which  naturally 
weakens  it. 

In  a  recent  visit  to  the  Omori  shell  mounds  I 
discovered  a  large  fragment  of  a  human  tibia  later- 
ally flattened  with  an  index  of  60,  as  indicated  in 
Broca's  platycnemic  tibia ;  the  index  of  the  tibia  of 
a  modern  Japanese  is  76,  as  is  ours.  This  suggests 
a  considerable  antiquity  to  the  deposit. 

I  was  tolcl  by  one  of  my  students  that  in  former 
times,  if  any  person  fell  into  the  castle  moat  and 
was  drowned,  it  was  not  allowable  for  any  one  to 
recover  the  body,  as  the  depth  of  the  water  might  be 
discovered,  and  this  was  kept  a  secret.  This  state- 
ment has  not  been  verified,  but  may  be  true,  though  I  doubt  it. 
For  several  weeks  I  have  taken  my  lunch  at  the  laboratory 
a  la  japonaise.   Trying  it  once  I  found  that  the  lunch  was 

Fig.  498 

Fig.  499 


good,  and  though  I  have  to  eat  it  on  the  corner  of  a  big  table 
laden  with  snakes,  worms,  and  skulls,  I  find  my  appetite  is 
not  affected  by  the  surroundings.  The  wooden  bucket  con- 
tains boiled  rice  (fig.  499)  and  the  wooden  shovel  is  to  scoop  it 
out  with.  There  is  also  a  large  piece  of  broiled  fish,  —  horse 
mackerel,  —  tender  and  delicious;  another  dish  contains  a 
slice  of  salted  ginger,  radish,  and  a  bunch  of  green  leaves  of 
something.  Having  acquired 
the  use  of  the  chopsticks,  I 
shall  recommend  them  to  the 
world  as  the  most  simple  and 
economical  device  ever  in- 
vented by  man. 

One  marvels  at  the  dwarf 
plum  trees  that  one  sees  at 
this  season  (January).  You 
are  invited  to  a  garden  to 
see  in  various  sizes  of  flower 
pots  what  appear  to  be  dead 
stumps,  literally  black  chunks 
of  wood  without  the  sign  of 
a  bud  or  sprout ;  then  weeks 
after  you  again  visit  the  gar- 
den and  find  that  these  same  black  stumps  have  produced 
long,  delicate  twigs  bearing  the  most  beautiful  blossoms  with- 
out the  sign  of  a  green  leaf.  The  contrast  between  these 
exquisitely  tinted  blossoms,  and  the  black  and  apparently 
dead  stumps  from  which  they  spring,  leaves  you  amazed  at  the 
skill  of  the  gardener  who  can  produce  such  anomalies.  The 

Fig.  500 

Fig.  501 


one  shown  in  figure  500  was  forty  years  old.  It  is  trained  to 
grow  in  this  way.  It  is  kept  under  cover  where  it  is  warm 
_n  and  the  blossoms  appear  much  ear- 

lier than  on  the  out-of-door  trees. 
Pine  trees  are  also  trained  to  leaf  out 
from  thick  logs  of  pine,  as  shown  in 
figure  501,  though  the  usual  form  of 
dwarf  pine  is  a  veritable  tree,  branches 
and  all,  three  feet  high  arid  a  hun- 
dred years  old. 

February  28,  the  plum  trees  are  in 

full  blossom.  The  flowers  are  usually 

of  a  deep  pink  or  rose  color  and  emit  a  delicious  fragrance. 

Peddlers  wander  from  house  to  house  carrying  twigs  and 

branches  of  plum  blossoms  for  sale. 

It  is  curious  how  slowly  and  unconsciously  one  grows  to  the 
appreciation  of  the  quaint  and  odd  in  Japanese  art  hand-work. 
Of  course  the  artist  instantly  sees  the  beauty  of  it,  and  no  one 
could  fail  to  admire  the  beautiful  work  of  the  sword-guards  and 
other  objects.  But  when  one  sees  their  pottery,  for  example, 
irregular  in  shape,  purposely  dented 
in,  with  sketchy  designs,  so  unlike 
any  pottery  an  Occidental  is  accus- 
tomed to,  he  wonders  what  there  is 
to  admire  about  the  work.  Let  him 
begin  to  collect,  however,  and  if  he 
is  a  natural-born  collector  he  will  be- 
come wild  over  the  tea-jars  and  other  forms  of  pottery.  I 
have  started  a  little  collection  and  have  lately  added  two 

Fig.  502 


pieces  (figs.  502  and  503).  One  is  a  vessel  for  sauce.  The  pot- 
tery is  Akatsu,  Oribe;  the  other  a  Satsuma  teapot.  They  are 
at  least  one  hundred  and  fifty  years  old,  perhaps  older.  They 
are  really  fascinating  to  handle,  and 
the  fun  of  finding  such  nuggets  in  the 
simplest  little  bric-a-brac  shops  is  only 
appreciated  by  those  imbued  with  the 
collectors'  spirit.  The  collector  of  bric- 
a-brac  finds  Japan  a  veritable  para- 
dise, for  wherever  he  goes  he  finds 
second-hand  shops,  known  as  furui 
doguya,  displaying  old  objects  of  every 
description:  pottery,  metal  and  lacquer  work,  basketry, 
swords  and  sword  furniture,  pictures,  etc.  In  the  smallest 
villages  through  which  one  rides  one  finds  some  shop  of  this 
description  with  a  modest  assortment  of  old  things.  One 
cannot  help  recalling  the  fact  that  in  our  country  the  second- 
hand shops  in  our  towns  are  limited  to  the  sale  of  second- 
hand furniture,  second-hand  books,  and  second-hand  cloth- 
ing, and  only  a  few  of  the  larger  cities  will  have  shops 
containing  bric-a-brac,  etc.  Furthermore,  it  may  be  ob- 
served that  in  the  Japanese  shop  the  objects  with  few  ex- 
ceptions are  native  products,  the  exceptions  being  from  China 
and  Korea,  while  in  our  country  the  objects  are  invariably 
from  Europe  or  Asia,  Dutch  delft,  Italian  majolica,  German 
ironwork,  etc.  It  is  a  significant  fact  that  one  looks  in  vain 
for  any  art  object  worth  preserving  from  our  own  country.1 

1  This  will  not  always  be  so,  for  within  thirty  years  the  arts  and  crafts  movement 
and  the  numerous  kilns  throughout  the  country  have  been  producing  artistic  pottery, 
and  the  future  bric-a-brac  shops  will  have  artistic  objects  "made  in  America." 


I  have  lately  become  acquainted  with  a  celebrated  anti- 
quarian, Ninagawa  Noritani,  and  have  visited  him  at  his 
house.  He  is  the  author  of  a  book  on  the  various  kinds  of  pot- 
tery in  Japan,  illustrated  by  lithographic  plates.  These  plates, 
though  rather  roughly  done  and  colored  by  hand,  are  far  more 
characteristic  of  the  pottery  than  the  most  perfect  chromolith- 
ographs one  sees  in  French  and  English  publications  on  similar 
subjects.  The  objects  figured  in  the  first  five  parts  were  sold 

to  some  European  before  I 
came  to  Japan,  but  I  am 
trying  to  get  representative 
pieces  similar  to  those  al- 
ready figured,  and  Ninagawa 
will  identify  them  for  me.  If 
I  can  only  get  the  same  kind 
of  pottery  he  describes  and 
figures,  it  will  be  nearly  as 
good  as  the  original  collection 
from  which  the  figures  were 

Through  Ninagawa,  I  have 
learned  many  interesting 
things  about  collectors  and 
collections.  It  was  interesting  to  find  that  for  hundreds  of 
years  these  people  have  had  their  collections  and  crazes  for 
collecting.  He  said  that  the  Japanese  have  never  specialized 
so  much  in  their  collecting  as  foreigners,  and,  I  judge  from 
what  I  have  learned,  were  never  so  systematic  or  scientific 
and  generally  not  so  curious  nor  so  exact  as  to  the  age  and 

Fig.  504 


locality  of  the  objects.  Among  Ninagawa's  friends  he  spe- 
cified the  following  as  the  kinds  of  objects  they  collected: 
pottery,  porcelain,  coins,  swords,  kakemono  (pictures),  pieces 
of  brocade,  stone  implements,  and  roofing  tiles.  The  collec- 
tions of  brocade  are  mounted  in  books  like  postage  stamps, 
the  pieces  three  or  four  inches  square;  he  had  seen  speci- 
mens four  or  five  hundred 
years  old.  Bits  from  the 
robes  of  famous  men  were 
highly  esteemed.   The  tiles 

Fig.  505 

Fig.  506 

are  considered  very  interesting  objects;  he  had  seen  roofing 
tiles  a  thousand  years  old.  He  did  not  know  of  any  one  col- 
lecting armor.  A  few  collect  shells,  corals,  and  the  like.  There 
are  many  books  treating  of  all  the  kinds  of  objects  above 
mentioned.  Dr.  Ito,  the  famous  botanist,  whom  I  have  al- 
ready mentioned  in  the  early  pages  of  the  journal,  has  a  large 
collection  of  plants. 
Figure  504  shows  a  little  girl  of  the  higher  class  in  warm 



winter  garments.  The  method  of  dressing  the  hair  from  in- 
fancy to  old  age  is  a  source  of  interest  and  wonderment  to  a 
foreigner.  How  a  child  can  manage  to  preserve  her  elaborate 
coiffure  for  an  hour,  not  to  say  three  days,  is  past  compre- 
hension. An  opportunity  occurred  to  sketch  various  types  of 
hair-dressing.   Mrs.  T.  and  her  daughter,  and  little  Miss  I. 

made  a  call  on  the  family, 
and  they  amiably  submitted 
to  my  making  a  sketch  of 
their  coiffure  which  had  been 

Fig.  507 

Fig.  508 

made  expressly  for  the  visit  and  was  consequently  in  the 
most  perfect  state.  There  are  twenty  to  thirty  ways  of 
doing  up  each  one  of  these  types,  and  though  very  likely  we 
should  observe  no  difference  the  Japanese  detect  it  at  once. 
It  is  said  that  the  first  thing  young  ladies  do  when  they  meet 
is  to  discuss  these  various  styles.  The  very  method  of  mak- 
ing these  graceful  bows  and  knots  necessitates  the  employ- 
ment of  a  hair-dresser,  and  women  barbers  go  from  house  to 
house  to  perform  this  service,  which  is  inexpensive.    The 


country  people  do  their  own  hair  or  perform  reciprocal  ser- 
vices. For  a  hair-dressing  a  vegetable  wax  preparation  is 
used,  and  the  hair  has  quite  a  polish  when  properly  dressed. 
A  form  made  of  stiff  black  crape  is  used  which  keeps  the 
graceful  loops  of  the  bow  rigidly  in  shape.  Figures  505  and 
506  show  the  side  and  back  views  of  Mrs.  K.  In  the  back 
view  the  hair  forms  a  sharp  keel  which  is  kept  in  place  by  a 
whalebone,  or  iron  clip.  Figure  507  is  of  Mrs.  T.;  a  lacquer 
comb  stands  transversely  on 
the  slender  queue  turned  back 
from  the  front.  Figure  508  is 
the  back  view  of  figure  507; 
the  square-ended  object  pass- 
ing through  the  bow  is  a  stone, 
probably  jade,  after  Chinese 
style.  Figure  509  is  of  the 
daughter  of  Mrs.  T.  Figures 
510  and  511  are  of  Miss  I., 
who  is  about  twelve  years  old. 
In  these  a  flower  hairpin  is  shown;  red  crape  is  fastened  in- 
side the  loops.  It  is  a  very  common  form  for  girls  of  that 
age.  In  the  street  one  sees  the  most  poorly  dressed  girls  with 
their  hair  beautifully  arranged;  even  little  children,  four  or 
five  years  old,  will  often  show  that  more  care  is  taken  with 
their  hair  than  with  their  dress,  which  may  even  be  ragged. 
A  tousled  head  is  not  a  common  sight.  In  these  various 
styles  of  hair-dressing  a  Japanese  recognizes  different  ranks 
of  people:  the  handmaid  (fig.  512),  the  country  girl,  the 
young  lady,  and  certain  forms  that  are  considered  very 

Fig.  509 


"dressy";  and  finally,  the  very  highest  classes  and  royalty; 

while  entirely  different  forms  may  be  seen  in  pictures  and 

possibly  on  the  stage. 

I  visited  a  Japanese  newspaper  office  in  order  to  see  how  the 

composition  room  was  arranged.   I  had  expected  to  see  an 

immense  room,  knowing  the  number  of  characters  used  to  set 

up  a  piece  of  printed  matter, 
and  was  astonished  to  find  a 
room  not  over  thirty  feet 
square.  The  number  of  Chi- 
nese characters  possessed  by 

Fig.  510 

Fig.  511 

the  office  may  be  counted  by  thousands.  The  number  of 
different  characters  in  common  use  for  the  newspaper  is 
twelve  or  thirteen  hundred,  and  there  are  many  hundred 
more  which  are  rarely  used.  Besides  these  there  are  the  type 
for  the  Japanese  alphabet  of  forty-eight  phonetic  signs,  and 
these  are  often  set  up  beside  the  Chinese  character  to  spell 
out  the  Japanese  word  in  case  the  reader  may  not  know  the 
meaning  of  the  Chinese  character. 


Figure  513  represents  a  portion  of  a  Japanese  newspaper, 
showing  the  use  of  the  Japanese  alphabet.   The  reader  will 

Fig.  512 




Effrft  e> 


observe  the  simple  letters  running  alongside  the  vertical  col- 
umns of  Chinese  type.  The  cases  are 
different  from  those  of  our  printers; 
the  boxes  are  two  feet  long  and  eight 
inches  in  height  divided  by  vertical 
partitions.  There  are  sixty-six  par- 
titions in  each  box  and  the  width  of 
the  space  between  the  partitions  is 
the  width  of  the  type.  The  types  are 
placed  in  the  partitions  with  their 
faces  out,  so  that  the  compositor  may 
see  at  a  glance  the  character  he 
wants.  A  description  of  the  Chinese 
character  is  necessary  here,  but  one 
must  refer  to  a  student  of  Chinese  to 
understand  the  subject.   It  may  be 







Pgo  if 

n  mi 
*  i 


\n*  B 

X    © 



~*    I 

Fig.  513 


<  mi 
*  &s 


*■  ®* 
■<*   *» 

ft  *i 


tf>  J: 


said,  however,  that  the  Chinese  character  is  composite;  that  is, 
in  the  character  there  is  a  radical  which  classifies  it  in  a  way. 
Thus,  every  character  referring  to  money,  such  words  as  buy, 
sell,  debt,  loan,  dicker,  etc.,  will  have  the  money  radical  in  it; 
words  referring  to  feeling,  such  as  passion,  hate,  love,  etc.,  will 
have  the  heart  radical  in  it;  and  so  on;  and  the  characters  are 

Fig.  514 

arranged  in  these  partitions  by  their  radicals.  It  is  a  queer 
sight  to  see  a  compositor  running  from  one  part  of  the  room  to 
another,  holding  his  "stick"  and  manuscript  in  his  left  hand 
and  with  his  right  hand  picking  out  the  character  he  wants; 
so  different  from  our  printing-office  where  a  man  stands  at  his 
case  with  all  the  letters,  a  few  figures,  and  punctuation  marks 
in  front  of  him,  and  never  moves  from  the  spot.  Here  the 
Japanese  compositors,  eight  of  them,  are  racing  back  and  forth 
across  the  room  for  the  proper  character.  Dressed  in  dark  blue 
as  they  were,  the  appearance  of  the  room  reminded  one  of  an 

Fig.  516 


ant-hill  with  the  black  ants  ceaselessly  passing  each  other  to 
and  fro.  Figure  514  represents  the  composing-room  showing 
the  arrangement  of  the  cases,  but  there  were  many  more  men 
than  are  represented  in  the  sketch.  Figure  515  shows  the  com- 
positor setting  type.  The  man  distributing  type  (fig.  516)  sits 

Fig.  517 

at  a  table  and  with  a  pair  of  forceps  picks  out  those  characters 
of  the  same  kind  and  then  returns  them  to  their  proper  posi- 
tion in  one  of  the  many  cases. 

Figure  517  represents  a  cut  from  a  daily  illustrated  news- 
paper. The  drawing  is  full  of  action.  The  subscription  price 
of  the  paper  is  twenty  cents  a  month.  Figure  518  is  a  repro- 
duction of  a  page  proof  of  some  book.  When  the  compositor 
cannot  make  out  the  character  in  the  manuscript,  he  turns  the 
character  upside  down,  and  it  is  printed  from  the  bottom,  and 
the  proof-reader,  with  red  brush,  marks  the  proper  character 
in  the  margin.  The  characters  are  set  up  without  spaces, 
which  are  put  in  afterwards.    In  Japanese  manuscripts,  if  a 


character  is  rubbed  out  and  afterwards  it  is  desired  to  retain 
it,  the  word  iki,  which  means  "alive,"  is  written  in  katakana. 
It  is  curious  that  in  a  printing-office  they  speak  of  "live"  and 
"dead  matter"  as  with  us.   In  viewing  this  intricate  system 

*  «  it 

r>  <  ~  * 

»  ft   »  * 

*  v  a  / 

Fig.  518 

of  printing  it  would  seem  that  ultimately  the  Japanese  must 
establish  a  phonetic  system.  In  this  way  only  can  they  use  the 
modern  type-setting  machine.  The  Chinese  character  lan- 
guage is  a  burden  to  them,  and  if,  at  this  moment,  they  could 
all  speak  English  it  would  add  greatly  to  their  development 



along  our  lines.  Those  who  learn  to  write  English  prefer  it  to 
their  own  method.  They  all  say  it  is  much  more  exact,  and 
the  little  boys  who  go  to  the  preparatory  school  for  the  Uni- 
versity, where  they  study  English,  preferably  write  to  one 
another  in  English  because  they  can  do  it  more  easily.  A  dear 
little  boy  friend  of  mine  always  writes  to  his  brother  in  Eng- 
lish, and  his  brother,  who  is  thirteen  years  old,  is  studying 

Fig.  519 

English  and  at  the  same  time  is  studying  German  in  a  foreign 
language  school,  so  that  he  may  enter  the  Medical  School 
which  is  conducted  in  German.  He  comes  to  my  house  every 
Sunday,  and  already  speaks  English  very  well. 

A  visit  to  Mitsui's  famous  silk  store  is  well  worth  making, 
for  it  is  the  largest  dry-goods  store  in  the  city  and  an  immense 
business  is  done.  To  see  a  big  shop  without  counters  or  seats 
is  curious.  The  clerks  and  salesmen  sit  in  the  usual  way  on 


the  straw  matting,  the  customers  likewise.  Entering  from  the 
street  the  customer  steps  from  his  sandals  on  to  the  raised 
floor,  the  sandals  being  left  behind.  A  cup  of  tea  is  imme- 
diately served  on  a  tray  to  every  one,  whether  a  purchase  is 
made  or  not.  Figure  519  gives  a  faint  idea  of  the  appear- 
ance of  this  store.  To  the  right  is  the  street  and  to  the  left 
the  clerks  have  access  to  the  huge  fireproof  buildings  from 
which  the  goods  are  brought  as  wanted.  All  the  attendants 

Fig.  520 

had  their  hair  dressed  in  true  Japanese  style,  and  running 
about  were  little  boys,  probably  cash  boys,  who  at  times 
emitted  a  curious,  prolonged  call.  The  extreme  slowness, 
gravity,  and  politeness  the  attendants  showed  in  all  their 
movements  contrasted  strangely  with  the  crowds  and  ac- 
tivity in  similar  places  at  home.  At  the  farther  end  of  the 
store  was  an  artistic  device  of  copper.  This  was  the  water- 
boiler,  or  heater  for  tea.  A  man  was  in  constant  attendance 


making  tea  and  pouring  it  into  cups,  and  little  boys  were 
coming  with  trays  to  carry  the  tea  to  the  customers  (fig.  520). 
Hibachis  containing  coals  of  fire  were  conveniently  placed 
for  the  smokers,  both  men  and  women,  though  the  customers 
were  mostly  women.  The  place  was  a  very  interesting  sight. 
All  the  massive  beams  above  and  the  woodwork  were  in  natu- 
ral wood.  The  brilliant  colored  silks,  brocades,  and  crape,  and 
the  handsomely  dressed  ladies  and  children  with  flowered 
hairpins,  added  greatly  to  the  beauty  of  the  scene.   In  my 

_y  w  \^  L^ns^ 

'S  \/y  w — f^ 

Fig.  521 

sketch  of  the  store  there  should  be  many  more  people,  but 
there  was  no  time  to  make  an  elaborate  drawing.  Almost 
the  first  object  one  notices  is  the  unusually  large  and  hand- 
some shrine  (fig.  521)  hanging  from  the  ceiling,  made  in  the 
form  of  a  Shinto  temple.  Every  house  and  every  shop  has  a 
shrine  of  some  kind  exposed  in  this  way  before  which  the 
inmates  pray  in  the  morning.  A  light,  or  several  lights,  are 
placed  in  the  shrine  at  night.  It  was  odd  to  see  this  sanctu- 
ary hanging  up  in  a  large  store  and  the  proprietors  and  all 

Fig.  522 


hands  praying  before  it  in  the  morning,  whether  customers 
are  present  or  not.  I  cannot  imagine  a  religious  shrine  in  our 
large  stores  with  like  devotion  shown  by  the  proprietors. 

Figure  522  represents  the  latest  style  of  doing  up  the  hair. 
My  daughter  noticed  the  braid,  which  is  entirely  new  to  the 
Japanese  in  hair-dress- 
ing. It  is  adopted  from 
the  foreigners,  particu- 
larly from  the  children 
with  their  long  braids 
behind.  The  face  has 
no  resemblance  to  the 
pretty  woman  I  had  for 
a  subject.  I  think  it 
is  annoying  to  them  to 

have  the  face  sketched;  at  all  events,  I  never  attempt  it, 
but  put  the  features  in  afterwards. 

Many  of  the  firemen  of  the  city  are  house-builders  and 
carpenters,  and  after  extinguishing  a  fire  they  hang  up  the 
names  of  those  who  have  helped  in  the  matter,  either  fire 
company  or  individual  firemen;  then  they  claim  a  present 
from  the  owners  of  the  building,  or  the  chance  of  getting 
the  job  of  rebuilding.  Figure  523  is  a  sketch  of  a  fire-ruined 
house  showing  the  labels  suspended  from  bamboo  poles. 

In  the  bric-a-brac  shops,  of  which  there  are  a  great  many, 
one  often  notices  among  the  lacquers,  inlaid  work,  basketry, 
and  the  like,  a  pottery  jar  (fig.  524)  enclosed  in  a  faded  bro- 
cade bag  (fig.  525).  The  jar  has  an  ivory  cover,  and  is  often 
exceedingly  plain  in  form  and  appearance.  You  are  amazed 



Fig.  523 

at  the  prices  asked  for  some  of  these  jars  until  you  learn  that 
they  are  among  the  oldest  of  pottery.  These  are  known  as 

chaire,  and  are  made 
to  hold  powdered  tea 
for  a  certain  form  of 
tea-drinking.  They  are 
kept  in  boxes  (fig.  526) 
on  the  covers  of  which 
the  names  of  the  object 
and  potter  are  written. 
There  are  many  that 
are  comparatively  new 
and  low-priced.  It  re- 
quires some  time  to  get 
familiar  with  even  the  common  kinds,  but  the  more  one 
studies  them  the  more  attractive  they  appear. 
The  Japanese  show  their  artistic  ingenuity 
in  tying  a  great  variety  of  knots  to  which  they 
give  separate  names. 
Many  of  these  knots 
are  ornamental.  They 
are  used  in  tying  up 
presents,  bags,  scrolls, 
dresses,  and  for  other  purposes.  The  little 
pottery  jars  for  holding  powdered  tea 
are  kept  in  brocade  bags.  I  learned  to 
tie  the  knot  which  closes  the  mouth  of 
the  bag  and  always  awakened  the  in- 
terest and  sympathy  of  the  dealer  when,  having  replaced  the 






Fig.  524 


Fig.  525 


tea-jar  in  its  bag,  I  carefully  tied  the  proper  knot.  I  greatly 
enhanced  my  opportunities  among  the  dealers  of  pottery  by 
observing  these  simple  courtesies. 

The  other  evening  we  were  invited  to  dinner  by  Dr.  Ben- 
jamin Smith  Lyman,  who  has  made  a  geological  survey  of 
Yezo  for  the  Government. 
He  lives  in  a  Japanese  house 
filled  with  beautiful  screens, 
bronzes,  porcelains,  and  the 
like.  There  were  a  number 
of  guests  present,  and  we 
were  entertained  by  Japanese 
dancing  and  music,  consist- 
ing of  six  koto,  or  harp,  play- 
ers, and  a  biwa  player.  The 
biwa  is  almost  out  of  date, 
and  there  are  but  two  or 
three  good  players  left  in  Ja- 
pan, the  one  we  had  being 
one  of  the  great  players.  Fig- 
ure 527  is  a  sketch  of  this  player  who  was  blind.  He  strikes 
the  strings  with  a  broad  ivory  plectrum.  The  samisen  players 
use  a  device  that  is  similar,  but  not  so  wide.  The  koto  players, 
of  whom  there  were  six,  men  and  women,  three  of  whom  were 
blind,  were  arranged  as  in  figure  528.  Their  music,  which  is 
extremely  interesting  and  pleasing,  was  indescribable,  all 
playing  in  unison  with  a  peculiar  rhythm,  but  with  no  break 
or  pause.  Figure  529  represents  three  playing  together.  There 
was  on  the  finger  a  horn  device  like  an  enlarged  finger  nail. 

Fig.  526 


The  various  musical  instruments  figured  have  all  been  derived 
from  China  originally,  coming  through  Korea.    The  group 

of    dancing    children  we   had 
seen  before  at  a  tea-house  some 
months  ago,  and  when  we  came 
into  another  room  from  dinner 
they  looked  surprised  and  de- 
lighted and  rushed  to  us,  and 
we  were  pleased  to  see  them. 
Their  ages  were  three,  four,  five, 
and  six.    There  were  two  at- 
tendants.  Figure  530  gives  an 
idea    of   them.     The    samisen 
player  is  shown  in  figure  531. 
The  boys'  dress,  with  its  obi  and  long  sleeves,  resembles  a 
girl's  dress,  and  it  takes  some  time  to  distinguish  the  sexes, 
though,  of  course,  the  hair  instantly  betrays  the  difference. 
The  hakama  is  a  kind  of  divided  skirt  with  a  stiffened  appen- 

Fig.  527 

Fig.  528 

dage  behind  like  a  short  inverted  unsplit  coat  tail,  from  the 
edges  of  which  a  band  extends  and  is  tied  in  front.   This 

BOYS'   DRESS  123 

only  the  samurai  class  was  permitted  to  wear,  but,  curiously 
enough,  school-girls  could  wear  this  garment  if  they  were  the 

Fig.  529 

daughters  of  samurai,  and  when  wearing  it  to  school,  as  they 
sometimes  do,  it  is  indeed  hard  to  distinguish  them  from  boys. 
It  is  in  every  way  a  graceful  and  an  easy  garment  to  wear. 
Figure  532  represents  a  boy  fourteen  years  old  wearing  the 

The  other  night  I  ran  and  walked  nearly  three  miles  to  a 
fire  on  the  outskirts  of  Tokyo  toward  the  west  and  arrived 
there  in  time  to  see  the 
last  house  catch  fire  and 
burn  up.  It  was  a  re- 
markable and  brilliant 
sight.  The  fire  burned  a 
row  of  large  houses  with 
heavy  thatched  roofs  of 

straw,  and  as  the  wind 

Fig.  530 
was  blowing  a  gale  great 

masses  of  the  thatched  roof  floated  away  in  the  air,  resem- 
bling clouds  of  golden  threads,  and  when  the  roof  finally  fell 


in  the  shower  of  sparks  that  drifted  away  was  like  a  storm 
of  golden  snow.  It  was  amazing  to  see  how  rapidly  the  houses 
melted  away  as  soon  as  the  fire  got  inside.  I  again  witnessed 
the  bravery  and  heat  endurance  of  the  firemen.  At  a  dis- 
tance of  at  least  three  hundred  feet  from  one  building  the 

heat  was  so  intense 
that  it  was  impossi- 
ble to  look  at  the  fire 
except  through  the 
openings  between  my 
fingers;  yet  the  fire- 
men were  within  ten 
feet  of  the  blaze,  and 
only  retreated  when 
their  clothing  was  ac- 
tually in  flames,  and 
even  this  condition 
they  did  not  seem  to 
notice  until  streams 
of  water  were  directed 
on  them.  When  I 
started  to  the  fire,  running  through  the  dark  streets,  I  asked 
a  man  where  the  fire  was,  and  my  Japanese  was  promptly 
understood,  for  he  answered  "Sukoshi  mate"  (Wait  a  little). 
I  ran  along  with  him  until  we  came  to  a  police  station,  and 
there  posted  up  outside  was  a  notice  stating  the  place  of 
the  fire  and  what  was  burning,  and  this  was  certainly  not 
more  than  ten  or  fifteen  minutes  after  the  alarm.  I  observed 
the  same  notice  at  other  police  stations  which  we  passed. 

Fig.  531 


Of  course  I  could  not  read  it,  but  the  details  were  given  to 
me  by  the  man  whom  I  had  encountered.  On  inquiry  about 
it  the  next  day  I  heard 
it  was  customary  to 
post  a  message  on  the 
bulletin  boards  at  all 
police  stations,  and  at 
the  earliest  possible  mo- 
ment, the  position  and 
character  of  the  fire. 

One  often  notices  the 
city  workmen  repairing 
the  streets,  but  in  this 
work  attending  only  to 
the  middle  third  of  the 
street.  On  inquiry  it 
was  learned  that  the  city 
looks  after   the  middle 

third  of  the  road,  the  abutters  on  either  side  taking  care  of 
the  other  thirds.  In  a  similar  way  we  are  compelled  to  clear 
our  sidewalk.  It  is  amazing  to  see  how  honestly  this  work 
is  performed  by  all,  in  contrast  to  the  way  our  people  often 
neglect  clearing  the  snow. 

This  morning  (April  8)  at  five  o'clock  the  fire-alarm  bell 
rang,  and  as  there  was  a  gale  blowing  I  dressed  immediately 
and  ran  a  distance  of  two  miles,  arriving  too  late  to  witness 
the  struggle  of  the  firemen.  There  were,  however,  interesting 
things  to  see.  The  extent  of  the  conflagration  showed  how 
rapidly  it  had  spread,  and  the  wooden  buildings  partly 

Fig.  532 


burned  indicated  that  the  work  of  the  firemen  was  not  so 
trivial  as  foreigners  supposed  it  to  be;  at  least  to  check  the 
fire  in  a  high  gale  must  have  required  great  effort  and  skill. 

Fig.  533 

The  fact  is  that  their  houses  are  so  frail  that  as  soon  as  a  fire 
starts  it  spreads  with  the  greatest  rapidity,  and  the  main 
work  of  the  firemen,  aided  by  citizens,  is  in  denuding  a  house 
of  everything  that  can  be  stripped  from  it :  partition-screens, 
floor  mats,  and  the  ceiling,  which  is  of  thin  cedar  board.   It 

^^  seems  ridiculous  to  see 

them  shoveling  off  the 
thick  roofing  tiles,  the 
only  fireproof  covering 
the  house  has;  but  this 
is  to  enable  them  to 
tear    off    the    roofing 
boards,   and   one    ob- 
serves that  the  fire  then 
does  not  spring  from 
rafter  to  rafter.  The  more  one  studies  the  subject  the  more 
one  realizes  that  the  first  impressions  of  the  fireman's  work 
are  wrong,  and  a  respect  for  his  skill  rapidly  increases.   I 

Fig.  534 


saw  for  the  first  time  a  new  type  of  fire  engine  belonging  to 
the  police  department  mounted  on  a  two-wheeled  cart  with 
hose  attached  and  coiled  on  the  engine.  It  draws  water  and 
plays  a  good  stream.  The  engine  is  taken  from  the  cart  and 
manned  by  six  or  seven  men.  It  is  a  recent  adaptation  from 
a  foreign  model.  Figure  533  represents  one  going  to  a  fire, 

Fig.  535 

and  as  the  firemen  run  along  the  streets  they  howl  like  cats. 
Figure  534  represents  firemen  hanging  out  the  names  of  en- 
gine companies  who  saved  the  building  as  it  stands. 

Shortly  after  this  fire  another  one  occurred  and  as  the  wind 
was  blowing  with  violence  I  ran  to  it.  I  made  another  at- 
tempt at  a  sketch,  but  with  such  a  moving  crowd  of  people 
jostling  each  other  and  me,  and  with  other  interruptions,  a 
poor  drawing  was  made  (fig.  535).  The  quiet  way  in  which 
the  sufferers  of  these  calamities  take  their  misfortunes  is  in- 
teresting; not  a  face  that  is  not  amiable  and  smiling.  It  is 
curious  to  see  women  cry  at  the  theatres  and  yet  be  so  stoical 


at  the  complete  destruction  of  their  dwellings  in  a  conflagra- 
tion. With  their  belongings  they  erect  a  sort  of  wall  made 
out  of  partition-screens,  a  bureau,  and  mats  standing  up,  and 
behind  these  the  family  are  gathered;  fire  is  in  the  hibachi 
and  water  is  being  warmed  for  tea,  and  a  little  bonfire  en- 
ables them  to  broil  a  fish  or  to  make  a  little  soup,  and  in  the 
open  air,  which  is  not  cold  except  in  winter,  they  seem  just 
as  happy  as  ever. 



For  some  time  I  have  been  getting  dredges,  jars,  and 
other  things  together  for  a  trip  south.  The  University  allows 
me  to  go  earlier  than  the  summer  vacation  and  will  pay  all 
expenses  of  the  expedition.  We  are  to  dredge  in  Kagoshima 
Gulf,  Nagasaki,  and  Kobe,  and  as  the  fauna  is  semi-tropical 
much  new  material  will  be  obtained  for  the  University 
Museum.  We  left  Yokohama  for  Kobe  on  May  9,  1879. 
The  discomforts  of  the  voyage  in  a  rough  sea  and  a  head  wind 
may  be  left  unchronicled.  We  were  in  sight  of  land  during  the 
whole  trip,  though  I  saw  little  of  it.  Leaving  on  Wednesday 
night  we  reached  Kobe  at  three  o'clock  Friday  afternoon. 
As  soon  as  the  steps  were  lowered,  I  landed  in  a  little  boat 
and  rushed  to  a  hotel  for  something  to  eat,  and  after  that  I 
took  a  stroll  about  the  town.  The  town  is  backed  by  high  hills; 
the  streets  are  rather  narrow,  and  the  shops  differ  in  no  re- 
spect from  those  of  Tokyo.  The  women  seemed  to  dress  their 
hair  a  little  differently  from  those  farther  north,  but  I  could 
carry  away  no  idea  of  its  arrangement  and  I  was  too  tired 
to  attempt  a  sketch.  The  children  are  certainly  much  pret- 
tier than  the  Tokyo  children;  a  more  refined  cut  of  features, 
a  clearer  olive  complexion.  They  all  bang  their  hair  in  the 
most  pronounced  style,  and  this  is  an  old  Japanese  custom 
and  not  adoptecf  from  the  foreigner.  The  jinrikishas  were 
a  little  more  clumsy-looking  than  those  in  Tokyo,  and  the 

Fig.  536 


men  seemed  stouter  and  better-looking.  The  lantern  is  hung 
at  the  base  of  the  shaft  and  not  carried  in  the  hand  as  in  the 
north.  A  few  beggars  were  seen,  but  they  are  not  insistent; 
a  mild  type,  so  to  speak.  The  drays  in  the  streets  have  two 

solid  wheels  and  are  dragged  by  long 
ropes,  one  or  two  men  balancing  the 
load  behind.  I  did  not  hear  a  man 
grunt  or  sing  in  pulling  the  loads,  as 
they  do  so  energetically  in  Yokohama. 
The  ox-teams  are  odd-looking  affairs; 
one  wheel  in  front  and  two  wheels 
behind,  and  the  ox  has  a  saddle  to 
which  the  shafts  are  attached.  It  seems  strange  in  a  dis- 
tance of  three  hundred  miles  to  see  so  many  differences  in 
habits  and  customs. 

I  managed  to  run  behind  a  jinrikisha  and  get  the  style  of 
hair  of  a  grown  woman;  the  bows  are  much  smaller  than  in 
Tokyo  and  are  flattened  against  the  head  (fig.  536).  The 
dressing  of  the  children's  hair  is  mark- 
edly different  from  the  style  in  To- 
kyo. Figure  537  shows  the  style  for 
little  girls  eight  to  ten  years  old. 
These  were  hastily  sketched  on  the 
street,  a  difficult  matter  as  you  walk 
along,  because  they  watch  you  so  per- 
sistently that  you  get  no  chance,  and  if  they  find  that  they 
are  the  subject  of  the  sketch,  instead  of  some  object  down 
the  street,  they  hastily  run  away. 
At  Kobe  the  hotel  stands  near  the  water,  and  from  my 

Fig.  537 

KOBE  131 

window  I  managed  to  get  a  sketch  of  a  Japanese  junk  un- 
loading (fig.  538).  These  vessels  will  rapidly  disappear,  as 
the  Japanese  are  now  building  after  foreign  models.  A  fifteen- 
minute  walk  from  the  hotel  brought  me  to  a  glen  remark- 
able for  its  beautiful  cascades,  reminding  one  of  certain  spots 
in  the  White  Mountains.    It  was  impossible  to  sketch  the 

Fig.  538 

scenery,  but  what  impressed  me  was  the  exquisite  rustic 
bridges,  the  charming  little  tea-houses  perched  upon  the 
edges  of  precipitous  points,  and  the  gayly  dressed  girls  invit- 
ing you  to  a  cup  of  tea. 

My  party  consisted  of  my  assistant,  Mr.  Tanada,  the  ser- 
vant also,  and  Professor  Yatabe's  servant,  Tomi,  who  is  very 
skillful  in  collecting  plants  and  neatly  pressing  them.  My 
servant  is  as  good  in  collecting  shells,  and  Mr.  Tanada  looks 
after  everything  and  acts  as  interpreter  and  translator  be- 
sides being  a  good  collector.  On  our  way  back  from  the  falls 


we  collected  a  number  of  shells,  among  them  a  species  of  Pupa, 
the  first  I  have  seen  in  Japan,  which  reminds  me  of  a  Philip- 
pine species.  As  we  entered  Kobe  again  by  an  obscure  street, 
the  poorest  quarter,  we  passed  a  row  of  houses,  and  by  look- 
ing through  the  gloom  of  these  dark  hovels  I  could  see  the 
little  sunlit  gardens  beyond,  indicating  that  even  among  the 
poorest  classes  a  taste  for  such  things  is  universal. 

Fig.  539 

In  the  afternoon  we  went  aboard  the  steamer  bound  for 
Nagasaki.  From  the  deck  I  made  a  hasty  sketch  of  Kobe 
(fig.  539)  with  the  hills  back  of  the  town.  These  hills  are  said 
to  be  not  over  nine  hundred  feet  high,  but  the  captain  of  the 
steamer  thought  they  were  much  higher.  The  sail  was  very 
beautiful,  but  we  were  to  pass  through  the  Inland  Sea  at 
night,  and  this  is  considered  one  of  the  most  beautiful  sails 
in  the  world.  In  the  night  I  went  on  deck  at  a  time  when  the 
steamer  was  passing  by  a  great  number  of  Japanese  fishing 
boats.  The  fishermen  blew  their  shell  horns  as  the  fishermen 
at  home  blow  their  tin  horns;  having  no  lights  they  burned 
shavings  of  wood  which  made  fitful  glares  here  and  there  over 


the  water.  The  darkness  was  impenetrable,  and  the  blasts 
of  the  horns  and  the  flashes  of  light  kept  up  till  the  steamer 
was  abreast  of  the  boats,  when  one  after  the  other  the  lights 
went  out  and  the  noise  ceased.  So  in  front  was  this  curious 
racket  of  many  horns  with  lights  flaring  here  and  there,  while 
astern  not  a  sound  was  heard,  nor  a  light  seen.  It  was  as  if 
the  steamer  had  engulfed  them  all.  The  approach  of  our 
steamer  must  have  been  alarming  to  the  fishermen,  with  the 
dash  of  the  paddle  wheels  heard  afar  off  and  the  danger  of 
collision  approaching  nearer  and  nearer.  As  it  dashed  by 
with  whistle  blowing,  with  the  splash  of  the  wheels,  with  the 
steam,  the  smoke,  the  lights,  and  the  tremendous  waves 
marching  in  echelon  from  the  bow,  and  the  thoughts  of  the 
dire  results  of  a  collision  with  such  a  monster,  —  the  very 
passing  of  it  was  an  alarming  experience. 

The  next  morning  it  rained  hard  and  everything  was  ob- 
scured. At  two  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  we  passed  through 
the  Straits  of  Shimonoseki,  and  the  thought  of  the  great 
wrong  inflicted  on  these  people  by  the  four  great  nations  in 
the  bombardment  of  the  forts  and  town  and  the  subsequent 
robbery  of  $3,000,000  exacted  as  an  indemnity  made  me 
ashamed  of  the  so-called  civilized  races.1  Figure  540  is  a 
hasty  sketch  of  the  town  of  Shimonoseki.  It  rained  so  hard 
and  was  so  thick  during  our  short  stop  in  the  Straits  that  I 
could  get  only  hasty  outlines  looking  toward  the  Inland  Sea 
(fig.  541). 

At  seven  o'clock  in  the  evening  we  started  again  and 

1  Years  after,  the  United  States  alone  returned  its  portion  of  the  indemnity,  as 
an  act  of  justice  which  the  Japanese  fully  appreciated. 


passed  out  of  the  Straits  and  into  the  ocean  once  more. 
Densely  foggy  and  with  some  sea  on,  we  were  to  sail  all  night 
along  a  coast  studded  with  rocks  and  islands.    Among  the 

^^l&t;*  v^J5^ 


Fig.  540 

passengers  was  a  Catholic  bishop  with  whom  I  had  an  inter- 
esting talk.  He  was  a  Franciscan  priest  when  he  came  from 
Paris  nineteen  years  ago;  since  then  he  has  been  made  a 
bishop  and  had  attended  the  great  encyclical  council  at 
Rome.  He  had  a  fine-looking  head  and  great,  sympathetic 
eyes.  I  asked  him  how  many  Catholic  converts  there  were 
in  Japan  after  his  nineteen  years'  work  with  so  many  other 
priests  laboring  in  the  same  field,  and  he  thought  there  might 
be  20,000.  Reducing  this  number  a  few  thousand  on  account 

Fig.  541 

of  his  enthusiasm,  I  tried  to  compute  how  long  it  would  take 
to  convert  the  33,000,000,  and  on  the  whole  how  much  better 
the  efforts  of  conversion  would  be  among  the  sinners  of  his 


own  people  in  whose  language  he  could  appeal,  and  to  those 
who  may  have  remembered  a  mother's  prayer.  Moreover,  in 
this  way  the  manners  and  behavior  of  foreigners  who  came 
in  contact  with  the  Japanese  might  leave  a  more  favorable 
impression  in  the  treaty  ports.  The  bishop  was  a  trained 
scholar;  he  was  fluent  in  English,  French,  and  Japanese,  and 
of  course  Latin  was  like  a  mother's  tongue  to  him.  I  asked 
him  the  amount  he  received,  and  he  said  twenty  dollars  a 
month.  The  priests  are  paid  ten  dollars  a  month.  They  get 
contributions  from  France  for  their  schools  and  Sisters  of 
Charity,  and  are  very  saving,  even  walking  instead  of  riding. 
It  is  true  they  are  unmarried  and  have  only  themselves  to 
support.  The  Protestant  missionaries  get  a  thousand  dollars 
a  year,  and  if  married  fifty  dollars  extra  for  every  child  born 
to  them.  I  told  the  bishop  I  was  in  irreconcilable  antagonism 
to  his  church,  but  he  nevertheless  smoked  with  me  and  did 
not  break  into  tears  out  of  simple  kindliness  of  heart  at  my 
awful  doom  when  he  bade  me  good-bye.  But  what  a  wonder 
and  a  force  is  this  great  Church,  and  how  united  and  power- 
ful it  is  when  a  Catholic  can  find  his  Church  with  identical 
service  and  belief  in  every  part  of  the  world!  How  much 
more  effective  the  Protestant  churches  would  be  if  all  the 
various  branches  could  unite  in  a  few  simple  acts  of  devotion, 
dropping  all  the  petty  dogmas  that  now  separate  them! 

Up  early  the  next  morning  to  see  our  approach  to  Nagasaki. 
How  strange  were  the  headlands  and  the  little  islands  off  the 
coast  rising  out  of  the  water  in  grotesque  shapes.  The  shores 
are  all  mountainous,  and  most  of  the  hills  and  mountains  are 
terraced  to  their  very  summits.   Crops  of  corn,  wheat,  and 

Fig.  542 


rice  in  horizontal  patches  are  seen  in  every  direction.   The 
novelty  and  beauty  of  it  all  are  indescribable.    Figure  542 

is  of  one  of  the  odd  projections  six- 
teen miles  from  Nagasaki;  it  is  one 
hundred  and  fifty  feet  high.  A  nar- 
row opening  is  seen  through  the  cen- 
tre and  the  fissure  springing  from  it 
extends  to  the  top.  That  shown  in 
figure  543  is  farther  off,  but  is  marked  on  the  chart  as  two 
hundred  and  fifty  feet  high. 

For  the  first  time  I  saw  the  flying  fish.  The  first  two  were 
flying  near  together,  and  I  mistook  them  for  birds  trying 
to  fly  out  of  the  water,  as  ducks  appear  when  they  first  rise. 
I  could  hear  their  fins  strike  the  wa- 
ter, or  possibly  it  was  the  caudal  fin 
which  was  rapidly  swinging  back  and 
forth  and  appeared  like  a  peculiar 

tail  feather.  I  did  not  realize  that  they  were  flying  fish  until 
they  disappeared.  The  actual  flight  of  the  animal  was  un- 
questionable. Eagerly  I  watched  for  the  next  one,  and  for- 
tunately it  arose  directly  under  the  bow  and  flew  a  distance 
of  at  least  five  hundred  feet,  first  in  a  straight  line,  then  just 
before  dropping  into  the  water  curving  gracefully.  It  flew 
very  rapidly  at  precisely  the  same  height  above  the  water, 
about  a  foot  and  a  half,  and  with  the  most  exquisite  grace. 
The  steadiness  of  the  flight  reminded  me  of  that  of  a  dragon- 
fly. I  had  no  idea  from  the  descriptions  that  it  was  such  a 
beautiful  sight. 
We  anchored  in  the  harbor  of  Nagasaki  at  eight  in  the 


morning,  and  I  hastened  ashore  to  make  an  official  call  on  the 
Governor  and  to  explain  the  object  of  our  mission,  which  was 
to  dredge  in  the  harbor  and  surrounding  waters  and  to  col- 
lect material  for  the  museum  of  the  Imperial  University.  To 
facilitate  our  work  it  was  necessary  to  secure  a  good  room  for 
a  laboratory.  In  less  than  an  hour  a  large  room  was  found  for 
us  in  the  custom  house.1  We  got  our  dredges,  ropes,  cans,  bot- 
tles, and  other  material  unpacked  and  I  found  time  to  visit  a 
local  exhibition. 

May  13.  We  did  some  great  dredging.  Our  boat's  crew  con- 
sisted of  two  men  and  a  woman  who  sculled  as  vigorously 
as  the  men.  Hereabouts  the  women  work  at  all  the  things  the 
men  do  —  lugging  coal,  loading  vessels,  and  rowing  boats.  It 
was  difficult  to  concentrate  on  the  work  at  hand,  as  my  eyes 
continually  turned  away  from  the  dredging  to  the  magnificent 
views  —  the  long  bay  hemmed  in  by  high  hills,  green  with 
foliage  from  the  water  to  the  summits,  and  the  little  houses, 
temples,  shrines,  hidden  in  the  trees,  with  flights  of  stone  steps 
leading  up  to  them.  I  was  pulling  up  with  my  dredge  tropical 
shells,  echinoderms,  crustaceans,  and  forms  unfamiliar  to  me, 
yet  it  was  hard  to  turn  away  from  the  contemplation  of  such 
beautiful  vistas  to  bury  my  head  in  the  mud  of  the  dredge. 

In  the  afternoon  we  went  down  the  harbor  shore  collecting 
at  low  tide,  turning  over  large  stones  and  getting  many  inter- 
esting species  of  shells.  We  had  a  boat's  crew  of  three  men, 
who  joined  in  our  efforts  as  if  they  had  always  been  collectors. 

1  I  mention  this  incident  to  show  the  prompt  and  businesslike  way  of  the  Japa- 
nese official,  for  everywhere  I  have  had  the  same  experience. 



No  one  who  is  not  a  collector  can  realize  the  delight  of  pick- 
ing up  rare  tropical  shells  of  species  entirely  new  to  him.  We 
worked  till  dark  and  came  back  with  a  strong  wind  astern. 
To-morrow  we  are  to  have  a  larger  boat  with  four  men  to  scull 
and  are  to  go  down  the  harbor  several  miles. 

Let  me  record  here  briefly  that  Nagasaki  has  narrow  streets, 
most  of  them  paved  with  long  rectangular  stones  over  which 
jinrikisha  wheels  roll  very  smoothly.  The  oxen  have  long 
strings  of  bells  hanging  down  on  their  flanks,  and  as  they  walk 
along  the  sound  reminds  one  of  the  jingling  sleighbells  of  New 
England;  ten  times  louder,  however.  The  people  of  Nagasaki 
by  their  long  association  with  foreigners  are  not  so  polite  as  are 
the  inhabitants  farther  north.  They  are  not  rude,  but  there  is 
no  "thank  you,"  and  but  little  bowing,  and  when  I  thank 
them  in  a  shop  for  showing  me  anything  they  look  astonished 
as  if  they  had  never  been  treated  civilly  by  a  foreigner.  The 
little  experience  I  have  had  here  shows  me  that  the  foreigners 
are  sharp  and  severe  with  their  Japanese  servants,  speaking 
sternly  to  them  and  scolding  them  for  the  slightest  fault.  The 
jinrikishas  are  of  a  new  type,  the  covering 
resembling  an  old-fashioned  sunbonnet.  The 
boys  call  after  you  "Horanda  san!"  "Hor- 
anda  san!"   It  means  "Hollander  Mr." 

The  children's  heads  are  shaved  in  a  pecu- 
liar style,  as  may  be  seen  in  figure  544.  They 
have  the  appearance  of  being  influenced  by 
the  Chinese. 
Figure  545  shows  a  farmer  going  to  his 
work  carrying  a  plough  on  his  shoulder.  It  is  dragged  by  a 

Fig.  544 



single  bull.    The  point  is  tipped  with  iron  and  the  plough  is 

typical  of  the  region,  for  there  are  many  types  of  ploughs  in 

different  parts  of  the  country. 
Figure    546    illustrates    a 

stone  wall  peculiar  to  Naga- 
saki.   It  is  made  of  round 

worn  stones  brought  up  from 

the  beach  and  laid  in  white 

mortar,  smoothed  carefully, 

and  a  coping  of  roofing  tiles 

completes   it.    The   smooth 

stones  make  a  wall  difficult 

to  climb.  The  kinds  of  walls 

and  fences  in  Japan  are  in- 
numerable   and    one    could 

make  an  interesting  study  of 

fences  alone. 
May  17  we  walked  across  the  peninsula  to  Mogi,  a  distance 

of  seven  miles,  taking  the  dredge,  ropes,  seines,  etc.,  on  a 

horse's  back.  The  road  was 
paved  the  entire  distance 
with  rocks  and  stones,  smooth 
enough  in  some  places  and  in 
other  places  very  rough.  We 
first  climbed  a  very  steep 
hill.  Most  of  the  narrow  path 
was  of  rough  stone  steps,  and 
FlG*  546  it  wras  interesting  to  see  how 

the  horse  walked  up  these  steps,  and  we  met  bulls  coming 

Fig.  545 


down.  We  overtook  a  bull  with  his  cumbersome  pack,  a  man 
as  usual  leading  the  creature.  The  path  was  narrow  and 
muddy  and  the  bull  with  his  burden  filled  the  entire  path. 

Fig.  547 

At  one  place  the  bushes  on  the  side  were  not  so  thick,  and  I 
managed  to  get  ahead  by  jumping  rapidly  and  darting  along 
the  gutter,  but  the  suddenness  of  my  approach  and  my  big 
white  sun  hat  frightened  the  bull,  and  the  creature  began  to 
dance  and  kick,  and  the  driver  was  scared  out  of  his  wits;  he 
jumped  as  if  the  mountain  was  falling  on  him.  It  was  amusing 

to  hear  his  amazed  utterances 
and  protestations  long  after 
we  had  passed  him. 

Most  interesting  features 
are  the  terraces  held  up  by 
huge  stone  walls  and  marking  the  landscape  everywhere. 
These  walls  sustain  level  patches  of  land  for  cultivation,  the 
irrigation  coming  from  a  mountain  stream  and  the  water 
running  from  terrace  to  terrace.  The  sides  of  these  other- 
wise barren  hills  resembled  a  garden,  a  city  park  in  fact. 

Fig.  548 

Fig.  549 


We  at  last  reached  the  village  of  Mogi  and  found  our  way  to 
the  principal  inn.  Figure  547  is  a  sketch  of  a  few  houses  oppo- 
site the  inn  close  to  the 
water's  edge.  The  tide 
being  out  we  rushed  to 
the  shore  to  collect. 

Figure  548  shows  a 
stone-arched  bridge  on 
the  road  to  Mogi.  In 
the  village  the  road  is 
bordered  by  a  high  stone 
wall,  and  as  I  followed 
along  this  wall  to  find 

an  open  space  to  the  shore,  I  passed  through  a  school  yard 
where  the  boys  were  out  at  recess  and  were  all  flying  kites 
from  the  wall.  They  all  looked  at  me  intently,  and  when  I 

got  by  they  began  shout- 
ing in  unison,  "Horanda 
san,"  "Horanda  san." 
The  village  of  Mogi  is 
hemmed  in  by  high  hills 
as  shown  in  figure  549. 
The  bluffs  along  the 
shore  beyond  Mogi  are 
so  curiously  shaped  that 
one  wonders  if  these 
strange  features  are  due  to  volcanic  agencies.  Certainly 
denudation  has  left  mountain  outlines  of  the  most  extra- 
ordinary shapes  (fig.  550). 

Fig.  550 


As  in  Catholic  countries  one  sees  symbols  of  the  Church 
along  the  road,  so  in  Japan  one  sees  Buddhistic  symbols  and 
shrines  everywhere.    Along  the  shore  at  Mogi  were  stone 

shrines,  the  doors  being 
of  stone,  and  before 
these  the  fishermen 
pray.  Figure  551  rep- 
resents two  of  these, 
the  tallest  being  three 
feet  high. 

On  a  bridge  crossing 
a  creek  in  the  village  a  number  of  boys  were  flying  kites,  in 
some  cases  from  the  ends  of  long  bamboo  poles.  By  such 
means  a  breeze  could  be  reached,  and  an  easier  hold  on  the 
kite  was  secured  (fig.  552).  The  bridge  looked  very  unsafe,  as 
there  were  no  side  rails. 

We  returned  to  Nagasaki,  and  after  packing  up  the  results 
of  our  day's  collecting,  we  flung  ourselves  on  the  mats,  tired 
out.   The  steamer  was  to  sail  for  Higo  and  Satsuma  Sunday 

Fig.  551 

Fig.  552 


night,  so  all  day  we  were  ashore  collecting  and  packing  up 
dredges  and  other  material.  The  mail  did  not  get  in  from 
Yokohama  when  expected  and  we  had  to  go  without  it.  We 
left  the  shore  at  midnight  in  a  small  boat  to  board  the  steamer 
which  lay  out  in  the  harbor.  It  rained  torrents  and  it  was 
darkness  impenetrable,  and  it  seemed  impossible  that  our 
little  Japanese  boatman  could  find  his  way.    As  soon  as  we 

^     - 

Fig.  553 

boarded  the  steamer  we  got  to  our  berths  completely  ex- 
hausted. The  next  day  it  rained.  We  were  off  the  shores  of 
Higo  at  noon  and  anchored  at  a  distance  of  five  miles  from 
the  shore,  as  the  water  was  so  shallow.  As  the  vessel  was  to 
stay  all  the  next  day  to  take  on  a  cargo  of  rice,  we  all  landed 
in  a  heavy  rain  and  collected  along  the  rocks  lining  the  shore, 
getting  drenched  to  the  skin.  We  had  to  walk  six  miles  along 
a  narrow  river  in  a  narrow  and  very  muddy  path  to  the  village 
of  Takahashi,  where  we  were  to  spend  the  night.   The  river 


boatmen  stared  at  me  as  I  passed,  and  even  discovered  us  long 
before  they  reached  us.  They  continued  to  look  till  we  were 
out  of  sight,  though  they  were  all  very  civil  and  polite. 

Figure  553  is  a  rough  sketch  of  Takahashi  from  our  inn. 
The  houses  border  the  river  and  there  is  a  grove  of  bamboo  on 
the  opposite  bank.   Figure  554  shows  a  street  in  Takahashi, 

Fig.  554 

narrow  and  muddy.  We  took  a  boat  down  the  river  to  the  sea, 
and  as  the  tide  was  up  collected  from  the  piles  of  shells  near 
the  fishermen's  huts,  getting  many  fine  specimens  in  perfect 
condition.  Imagine  my  amazement  upon  finding  on  one  of  the 
refuse  piles  a  large  number  of  the  shells  of  the  large  green 
Lingula  anatina!  The  animal  had  been  used  for  food,  and  I 
ran  around  like  a  maniac  to  find  somebody  who  could  tell  me 
where  they  were  dug.  I  soon  learned  that  they  were  dug  at 
low  tide  and  were  a  common  article  of  food.   Here  was  the 



creature  that  alone  had  brought  me  first  to  Japan,  and  for 
the  moment  I  felt  like  abandoning  everything  to  devote  my 
whole  attention  to  this  ancient  worm.  However,  that  would 
not  do,  but  I  shall  come  back  to  this  place  after  the  Satsuma 
work  is  over. 

When  we  left  the  Higo  coast  a  fisherman  came  alongside, 
and  in  the  boat,  among  other  crabs  and  shrimps,  I  got  a  hun- 
dred specimens  of  a  curious  crab  with 
the  two  posterior  pairs  of  legs  ap- 
parently out  of  place  and  turning 
upward  from  the  thoracic  region.  At 
last  I  found  one  covered  by  a  circular 
bivalve  shell  (Docinia),  the  function 
of  the  two  little  claws  being  to  hold 
it  on  the  back  (fig.  555).  The  back 
of  the  crab  has  a  grotesque  resem- 
blance to  a  human  face,  and  there  is 
a  legend  connected  with  this,  which 
the  fisherman  endeavored  to  tell  me.1 

As  has  been  mentioned,  the  foreign  traveler  in  Japan  never 
fails  to  notice  the  innumerable  ways  in  which  the  bamboo  is 
utilized,  not  only  in  the  most  delicate  devices,  such  as  the 
sticks  of  a  fan,  but  in  water  conductors  for  a  house.  Figure 
556  shows  a  dipper  made  entirely  of  bamboo  and  composed  of 
three  pieces,  the  water-holder,  the  handle,  and  the  pin ;  solid, 
durable,  and  light,  and  probably  costing  a  cent. 

1  This  crab  is  known  as  Heike  gani,  and  in  the  valuable  work  of  Joly  entitled 
Legends  in  Japanese  Art,  it  is  recorded  that  Heike  gani  are  tiny  crabs  to  which  at- 
taches a  curious  legend  verging  on  superstition:  they  are  popularly  credited  with 
being  the  ghostly  remains  of  the  Heike  warriors  killed  at  the  battle  of  Dan-no-ura  by 
the  Minamoto  (Genji)  in  1185.   For  additional  details  see  the  above  work,  p.  115. 

Fig.  555 


The  steamer  was  all  day  getting  the  cargo  of  rice  aboard, 
which  came  out  in  lighters  in  the  peculiar  bags  of  matting  so 
characteristic  of  Japan.  This  delay  gave  me  an  opportunity 
to  sketch  the  distant  mountains.  The  entire  coast  of  Higo 
is  extremely  mountainous,  as  will  be  seen  by  a  few  sketches 
here  given.  It  is  volcanic  and  is  considered  very  danger- 
ous to  navigation,  as  hidden 
rocks  and  sharp  peaks  are 
met  with.  The  mountains 
are  not  over  four  thousand 
or  five  thousand  feet  high, 
those  near  the  coastline 
being  perhaps  fifteen  hun- 
dred to  two  thousand  feet. 
I  managed  to  draw  a  fairly 
accurate  outline  of  the 
mountains  as  seen  from  the  steamer. 

As  we  sailed  along  the  coast  there  was  a  grand  panorama  of 
mountain  scenery.  As  we  got  farther  south  many  mountains 
seemed  to  rise  directly  from  the  water's  edge,  nearly  all  of 
them  volcanic,  many  of  them  having  smoking  craters  or  steam- 
ing sulphur  springs.  In  figure  557  an  idea  of  the  mountain 
ranges  is  given.  As  we  reached  the  coast  of  Satsuma  the 
mountain  scenery  still  continued,  but  the  mountains  seemed 
more  precipitous  and  the  rocks  near  the  shore  more  jagged 
than  those  farther  north.  Figure  558  gives  an  idea  of  the  char- 
acter of  these  mountains  and  crags  along  the  Satsuma  coast. 
Figure  559  shows  the  appearance  of  Nomagasaki  as  we  ap- 
proached it  going  south  —  a  remarkable  series  of  craggy  peaks. 

Fig.  556 

Fig.  557 

Fig.  558 

Fig.  559 
1  Figure  557  (a,  b,  c)  represents  a  continuous  range  of  hills. 


This  promontory  we  rounded  as  we  approached  the  entrance 
of  Kagoshima  Bay.  Figure  560  represents  an  isolated  peak 
rising  from  the  water  at  the  southern  end  of  Satsuma. 


Fig.  560 

While  our  steamer  was  taking  in  its  cargo  of  rice  yesterday 
a  Japanese  junk  was  lying  alongside  and  I  had  a  good  oppor- 
tunity to  sketch  her.  The  curious  stern  with  a  deep  recess, 
in  which  the  huge  rudder  plays,  the  square  rail  behind, 

and  other  details  ma'ke 
the  vessel  unique  in 
its  way.  Figure  561 
is  a  stern  view  of  the 
vessel,  and  figure  562 
is  a  view  looking  at 
the  stern  from  inside, 
showing  how  the  place 
is  utilized ;  the  tiller  has 
been  removed.  Among 
the  details  is  a  little 
charcoal  stove  or  hi- 
bachi  for  cooking,  and 
a  little  cupboard  with  sliding  doors  which  represents  the 
cook's  galley. 

Some  of  the  junks  are  ornamented  with  delicate  carving. 
Figure  563  shows  the  design  on  the  bow,  cut  into  the  wood, 

Fig.  561 

Fig.  562 


the  lines  wide  and  deeply  cut  and  colored  green,  but  beyond 
this  there  is  not  a  touch  of  paint  or  stain  on  the  whole  vessel. 
The  woodwork   is   of 

immaculate  cleanliness 
and  one  always  sees 
some  of  the  crew  scrub- 
bing. Many  of  the  pas- 
senger junks  are  pret- 
tily ornamented  with  a 
variety  of  diaper  in  geo- 
metric patterns.  Some 
of  the  old  junks  ap- 
pear quite  grand  after 

you  get  used  to  their  odd  appearance.   They  are  said  to  be 
very  unseaworthy  and  having  no  keel  they  cannot  keep  up 

to  the  wind;  as  a 
consequence  these 
vessels  sail  near  the 
shore  and  rush  to 
cover  on  the  ap- 
proach of  a  storm. 
The  Satsuma  fish- 
ing  boats,  which  are 
said  to  sail  very 
fast,  are  odd-look- 
ing craft  with  their 
sails  of  varying 
Figure  564  is  the  roughest  sug- 

Fig.  563 

height  from  bow  to  stern 

gestion  of  their  appearance.   The  sides  of  the  vessel  are 


lumbered  with  oars,  nets,  poles,  etc.,  and  as  they  sailed  rapidly 
past  us  I  could  get  only  the  hastiest  idea  of  them.  There 
are  three  masts,  the  middle  one  being  held  up  by  the  other 
two  in  some  mysterious  way.  The  primitive  and  even  flimsy 
way  in  which  the  sails  are  rigged  is  remarkable,  and  yet  they 
never  seem  to  come  down  unless  they  are  pulled  down. 

At  dark  I  went  to  bed,  but  lay  awake  to  see  our  entrance 
into  the  Bay  of  Kagoshima,  lat.  31°.  At  midnight,  I  was  on 

deck  again,  but  a  far  more  in- 
teresting sight  than  the  entrance 
to  the  Bay  was  the  phosphores- 
cence of  the  sea.  It  was  start- 
ling in  its  brilliancy,  and  what 
was  very  remarkable,  the  dim 
and  ghostly  outline  of  every  fish, 
big  and  little,  was  clearly  de- 
fined by  the  phosphorescent  material  they  stirred  up.  I  hung 
over  the  bow  to  see  better  this  wonderful  exhibition.  A  shark, 
like  a  ghost,  went  beneath  the  vessel,  a  skeleton  fish  with  a 
spectre-lit  path,  every  turn  and  dodge  dimly  outlined.  Some 
fish  darted  away  from  the  vessel's  side  like  a  rocket,  leaving  a 
straight  shaft  of  light;  other  fish  would  get  confused  and  re- 
turn. So  clearly  were  the  fish  depicted  and  illuminated  that 
an  ichthyologist  would  have  been  able  to  identify  every  one. 
At  a  distance  I  noticed  a  sharp  line  of  light  in  the  water  which 
I  supposed  was  the  shore,  but  the  shore-line  was  far  beyond. 
As  we  neared  the  line  I  saw  that  it  was  a  dense  mass  of  the 
phosphorescent  material  bordering  some  current  in  the  sea 
and  consisting  of  the  embryos  of  marine  worms,  jelly  fish,  and 


the  like.  As  the  boat  surged  through  it  the  effect  was  inde- 
scribably beautiful.  It  illuminated  our  faces  as  we  looked  over 
the  side  of  the  vessel.  The  light  was  literally  dazzling,  and  yet 
the  color  was  a  light  sea  green.  It  reminded  one  of  the  bril- 
liancy of  a  Geissler's  tube,  and  after  we  passed  it,  as  the  suc- 
cessive waves  of  the  steamer's  track  reached  it,  brilliant  flashes 
of  light  came  out  from  the  dark  waters.  This  is  the  first  time 
I  have  seen  the  tropical  phosphorescence,  and  it  seems  impos- 
sible that  it  has  ever  been  described  with  exaggeration. 

Fig.  565 

It  was  soon  daylight  and  the  scenery  was  so  beautiful  that 
it  was  impossible  to  go  down  to  our  hot,  close  cabins.  We 
landed  in  a  small  boat  from  the  steamer  at  six  o'clock.  The 
scenery  about  Kagoshima  is  magnificent.  Directly  in  front 
of  the  town,  and  not  far  away,  there  rises  from  the  waters 
of  the  Bay  a  grand  mountain  with  its  peak  shrouded  in  mist. 
This  is  the  famous  Sakurajima,  or  Cherry-tree  Island  (fig. 
565).  Figure  566  is  an  outline  of  Sakurajima  yama,  opposite 
Kagoshima,  sketched  from  Tarumizu  on  the  west  coast  of 
the  Bay,  eight  miles  south  of  Kagoshima.  Looking  across 
the  Bay  to  the  west  a  very  high  volcanic  peak,  known  as 


Kaimondake,  having  the  symmetry  of  Fujiyama,  forms  an 
imposing  feature  in  the  landscape.  The  slope  as  represented 
is  no  doubt  too  steep,  but  that  is  the  way  it  appeared  to  me 
(fig.  567).  Back  of  the  city  low  hills  arise. 

Fig.  566 

In  the  midst  of  these  charming  surroundings  it  was  exas- 
perating that  our  itinerary  allowed  us  but  this  one  day,  as 
the  steamer  returned  to  Nagasaki  early  the  next  morning. 
The  city  itself,  newly  built,  is  bounded  along  the  water  by 

Fig.  567 

an  immense  stone  wall.  The  houses  are  poor  and  very  cheap. 
The  entire  city  was  reduced  to  ashes  in  the  Satsuma  rebel- 
lion two  years  ago,  and  the  people  are  poor,  the  streets  muddy 
and  treeless,  and  many  of  the  houses  were  still  temporary 


shelters.  It  was  bombarded  by  the  English  ten  or  twelve 
years  ago  to  avenge  the  killing  of  a  bumptious  Englishman, 
who,  despite  the  warning  of  his  friends,  insisted  upon  in- 
truding himself  upon  a  procession  of  the  Daimyo  of  Satsuma 
on  its  way  to  the  Capital.  That  foreigners  were  naturally 
disliked  could  be  plainly  seen  by  the  hostile  looks  of  the  men ; 
that  foreigners  were  great  strangers  I  could  see  by  the  way 
in  which  the  women  and  children  stared  at  me.  In  fact,  I  felt 
uncomfortable  during  my  stay  there,  as  I  was  the  only  for- 
eigner within  two  hundred  miles  of  the  place.  This  proud 
town  was  also  suffering  from  an  epidemic  of  Asiatic  cholera, 
but  we  did  not  learn  it  till  some  hours  after.  We  were  directed 
to  a  wretched  tea-house  where  the  food  was  so  poor  that  I 
could  eat  only  the  rice.  How  I  longed  for  a  cup  of  coffee ! 

After  this  depressing  meal  I  took  my  assistant  and  went 
collecting  along  the  shores  and  sea  wall  of  the  town,  sending 
the  two  boys  into  the  hills  back  of  the  town  for  land  snails. 
It  was  hot  and  sultry,  and  in  our  collecting  we  came  across 
piles  of  garbage  and  refuse  of  the  town,  a  most  unusual  sight. 
We  got  many  fine  specimens  of  a  peculiar  bivalve  and  also 
some  carrion-eating  snails.  We  got  a  great  many  Auricula, 
Melampus,  and  one  Truncatella  in  the  refuse  piles.  The  stench 
was  dreadful,  and  I  wondered  at  it,  as  Japanese  towns  are 
generally  so  clean.  On  our  way  back  we  went  to  the  telegraph 
office,  and  there  saw  posted  up  in  Japanese  a  warning  notice 
which  read,  "Cholera  is  now  prevalent;  be  careful"!  I  must 
confess  I  felt  uncomfortable  the  whole  day  knowing  how  I 
had  exposed  myself  overhauling  garbage  heaps  on  a  nearly 
empty  stomach,  compelled  to  live  on  Japanese  food  of  the 


poorest  quality,  and  so  thirsty  all  the  time  that  I  had  to  drink 
water  once  in  a  while. 

I  called  on  the  Governor  of  the  Ken  and  told  him  the  ob- 
ject of  my  visit,  and  he  detailed  a  very  pleasant  Japanese 
officer  as  an  assistant  for  me  during  our  brief  stay.  He  also 

found  us  a  clean,  pleasant 
place  to  spend  the  night. 
At  noon  he  had  a  boat  en- 
gaged, with  a  crew  of  four 
naked  men,  who  not  only 
sculled  vigorously,  but 
took  an  interest  in  the 
dredging  and  helped  pick 
over  the  dredging  ma- 
terial. The  Satsuma  boat 
is  the  most  efficient  boat 
of  its  kind,  —  one  of  the 
fastest  I  have  yet  seen, 
and  as  clean  as  a  kitchen 
floor  when  that  is  clean 
and  dry.  The  forward  end  is  wrought  out  of  a  single  block 
of  wood,  as  shown  in  figure  568;  a  plan  of  the  boat  is  shown 
to  the  right  in  outline.  We  dredged  till  dark  and  got  many 
good  things. 

The  next  morning  we  were  to  go  down  the  Bay  ten  or 
twelve  miles  to  dredge  and  collect  along  the  shore.  The  offi- 
cer selected  by  the  Governor  to  accompany  us  described  to 
me  a  deposit  of  shells  high  up  on  the  land  which  the  people 
were  burning  for  lime,  and  from  his  description  I  decided  it 

Fig.  568 


must  be  an  ancient  shell  heap.  We  were  up  at  four  o'clock, 
and  after  getting  things  together  we  started  down  the  Bay. 
A  long  row  —  for  there  was  no  wind  —  brought  us  to  a  very 
picturesque  place,  Mototarumizu,  on  the  eastern  side  of  the 
Bay.  The  government  officer  landed  with  me,  while  Mr. 
Tanada  and  the  servant  started  off  dredging.  Foreigners 
never  come  here,  and  the  inhabitants  turned  out  en  masse 
to  see  me  as  I  passed  through  the  little  fishing  villages  bor- 
dering the  shore.  I  recall  a  delicious  drink  of  water  from  a 
mountain  stream.  We  walked  nearly  three  miles  round  the 
shores  of  the  Bay  to  the  supposed  shell  heap.  It  was  indeed 
a  shell  heap,  but  not  an  artificial  one,  for  it  was  a  huge  de- 
posit of  beach-worn  shells.  An  upheaval  of  the  coast  within 
comparatively  recent  times  had  placed  them  at  a  consider- 
able elevation  above  the  water-level.  Darwin,  in  his  "Voyage 
of  a  Naturalist,"  describes  similar  upraised  beaches  at  Go- 
quimbo,  in  Chile.  It  was  a  further  indication  of  the  volcanic 
character  of  the  country  as  shown  by  the  mountain  contours. 
The  walk  had  been  of  the  greatest  interest,  for  all  the  old- 
time  customs  prevailed;  children  stopped  their  play  and 
bowed  to  me  politely;  men  and  women  suspended  their  work 
to  bow  as  I  passed;  and  these  bows  were  as  politely  returned, 
for  practice  had  made  me  an  adept  in  the  Japanese  form. 
We  met  men  on  horseback  with  saddles  and  stirrups  in  the 
Japanese  style;  everything  purely  Japanese.  In  passing  a 
back  yard  I  noticed  the  typical  well-sweep  of  New  England 
(fig.  569).* 

1  Though  the  sketch  has  been  reproduced  in  Japanese  Homes,  I  cannot  refrain 
from  again  presenting  it. 


Afrude  sort  of  stable  is  shown  in  figure  570.  In  Japan  the 
horse,  instead  of  going  into  the  stall  head  first,  is  always 
backed  in. 

On  our  return  to  the  landing-place  we  stopped  at  a  gentle- 
man's house  to  examine  some  old  pottery.   The  officer  had 

told  the  people  that  I 
was  greatly  interested 
in  old  pottery,  and  so 
I  had  a  chance  to  see 
many  curious  objects. 
Figure  571  represents 
an  old  Korean  cup,  six 
inches  in  diameter,  the 
design  inside  so  odd 
that  I  sketched  it.  I 
have  never  seen  the  pe- 
culiar rake  or  bench  in 
Japan.  I  was  given  for 
the  University  Museum 
a  curious  oviform  jar,  fourteen  inches  high,  with  a  fillet  of 
clay  around  the  biggest  diameter;  it  was  of  coarse,  red  clay, 
thick  and  heavy,  and  unlike  any  of  the  pottery  found  farther 

After  a  charming  time  over  the  old  Korean  and  Japanese 
pottery  we  started  off  again  along  the  shore,  as  the  tide  was 
out,  and  I  had  the  delight  of  seeing  alive  for  the  first  time  a 
number  of  tropical  species  of  shells,  Cypraea,  Conus,  Murex, 
and  an  exquisite  little  Bulla,  During  the  day  the  breeze  died 
out,  and  we  were  delayed  for  hours.   The  Governor  had  in- 

Fig.  569 

Fig.  570 


vited  me  to  dinner  at  six  o'clock,  but  it  was  nine  o'clock  be- 
fore we  got  back  to  the  landing-place,  and  had  it  not  been 
for  a  spanking  breeze 
which  came  up  it 
might  have  been  mid- 
night. I  jumped  from 
the  boat  and  ran  to 
the  inn  for  dry  stock- 
ings and  a  clean  shirt, 
and  hurried  to  the 
Governor's  house  with 
the  officer  who  had 
accompanied  us,  and 

my  assistant.  We  were  shown  into  a  beautiful  room,  large 
and  spacious.  I  was  in  my  stocking  feet,  of  course.  As  I 
walked  into  the  room  the  Governor  came  forward  and  greeted 

me  cordially,  and  I 
did   not    detect   the 
slightest    impatience 
in  his  manner  at  my 
lateness,    though    it 
was  nearly  ten  o'clock. 
He  had  a  wonderful 
collection  of  chrysan- 
themums in  his  gar- 
den, and  these  were 
illuminated  by  hundreds  of  lanterns.    He  then  showed  me 
a  number  of  old  Satsuma  and  other  pieces  and  expressed 
his  amazement  several  times  that  a  foreigner,  whose  inter- 

Fig.  571 

Fig.  572 


ests  were  supposed  to  be  in  other  directions,  had  learned  to 
distinguish  so  quickly  the  Chinese,  Korean,  and  Japanese 
pottery.  At  ten  o'clock  we  were  invited  upstairs  to  dinner. 
There  were  six  in  all,  and  the  dinner  was 
in  foreign  style  in  compliment  to  me, 
though,  as  I  had  got  used  to  Japanese  food, 
I  should  have  enjoyed  it  more  if  it  had 
been  Japanese;  as  it  was,  I  showed  my 
appreciation  by  eating  heartily.  The  only 
mouthful  I  had  had  since  four  o'clock  in 
the  morning  was  two  sweet  potatoes  with 
a  little  coarse  and  dirty  salt. 

One  of  the  gentlemen  was  full  of  fun, 
and  before  we  were  half  through  dinner  began  to  play  some 
odd  tricks  with  his  hands.  I  managed  to  do  all  of  the  things 
that  he  did  except  bend  my  fingers  back  to  my  arms.  I  then 
showed  them  the  trick  of  making  the  hands  go  round  in  op- 
posite directions,  and  finally  the  right  hand  going  faster  than 
the  left  hand.  It  was  laughable  to 
see  the  desperate  attempts  they  all 
made  to  accomplish  the  trick,  and 
not  one  was  able  to  do  it. 

I  then  asked  permission  to  bor- 
row a  sword  for  a  moment.  This 
was  brought  to  me  wrapped  in  silk. 

Knowing  the  dignity  and  ceremony  involved  in  unsheathing 
the  sword  I  apologized,  turned  slightly  away,  and  drew  the 
sword  with  the  cutting  edge  toward  me.  The  trick  consisted 
in  grasping  the  handle  with  one  hand  and  the  scabbard  near 

Fig.  573 

Fig.  576 


the  handle  with  the  other,  the  backs  of  the  hands  down,  and 
then  withdrawing  the  blade,  turning  both  hands  completely 
over,  and  sheathing  the  sword  to  the  hilt.  Not  one  could  get 
the  sword  parallel  to  the  sheath;  it  was  generally 
at  right  angles. 

I  showed  them  a  number  of  tricks  on  the  floor 
that  I  had  learned  as  a  boy  in  a  country  academy, 
and  what  with  the  sake  and  the  games  we  had  a 
delightful  time.  The  Governor  gave  me  the  Satsuma 
bottle  he  drank  from.  It  was  made  especially  for 
him  many  years  before,  but  he  said  it  did  not  hold 
Fig.  577  enough.  Figure  572  is  a  sketch  of  it  with  the  deep, 
box-like  tray  that  accompanies  it.  It  will  be  ob- 
served that  the  deep  wooden  tray  has  openings 
on  opposite  sides  through  which  to  draw  the 
cloth  in  cleaning  it. 

At  two  o'clock  in  the  morning  we  had  to  say 
good-bye  and  all  expressed  the  pleasure  they 
had  enjoyed.  We  hurried  to  the  tea-house  in 
the  dark,  packed  up  the  results  of  our  day's 
collecting,  and  started  for  the  steamer  just  as 
day  was  dawning.  We  heard  the  anchor  be- 
ing weighed  and  clambered  aboard  with  the 
steamer  just  starting.  I  had  been  on  my  feet 
for  twenty-four  hours,  had  dredged,  had  walked 
eight  miles  in  a  broiling  sun  with  almost  noth- 
ing to  eat,  and  now  found  myself  so  tired  out 
that  I  dropped  on  the  hard  deck  and  fell  sound  asleep. 

I  learned  in  some  way  that  my  mail  from  America,  which 


I  had  missed  at  Nagasaki,  had  been  forwarded  overland  to 

Kagoshima,  but  it  was  impossible  to  wait  for  it,  as  the 

steamer  had  to  sail  on  schedule  time,  and  so  I  was  missing  it 

again.    Orders,  however,  had 

been  left  at  the  Post-Office  to     J^^ZS         ^       ^jfe^- 

return  it  to  Nagasaki,  where  I  Fig.  579 

was  to  be  for  a  week  or  more. 

Before  entering  another  region  of  Japan  there  are  a  few 
observations  to  record.  Every  place  seemed  to  have  its  pecu- 
liar type  of  jinrikisha,  and  Kagoshima  is  no  exception.  Here 
the  shafts  are  bent  in  a  curve  over  the  head  of  the  man  so 
that  the  transverse  piece  is  over  the  man's  head,  and  one 
wonders  why  it  does  not  bump  him.  The  sketch  (fig.  573) 
gives  a  faint  idea  of  this  jinrikisha.  The  back  and  sides  are 
gaudily  painted  and  lacquered  and  pictures  of  dragons  and 
other  mythological  subjects  and  heroes  also  embellish  the 
back  of  the  vehicle.  A  peculiar  type  of  plough  is  used  in  the 

Fig.  580 

grain-fields  of  Satsuma  and  Higo  (fig.  574).  The  iron  shoe 
and  shearing  piece  seem  light  and  feeble,  but  the  plough  en- 
counters no  boulders  in  the  ground.  It  is  drawn  by  a  single 
horse,  and  though  primitive  in  construction  seems  to  do  its 
work  well. 


The  country  abounds  in  stone-arched  bridges,  many  of 
them  old,  some  of  them  of  considerable  size,  and  all  pic- 
turesque.   It  seems  curious  to  see  so  many  arched  bridges 

and  not  one  of  the  arches 
having  a  keystone,  such  an 
important  element  in  a  bridge 
Fig.  581  as  we  consider  it,  yet  the 

Japanese  have  never  seen  the 
necessity  of  it.  To  us  their  arch  looks  imperfect  and  inse- 
cure. However,  I  have  never  seen  one  showing  weakness 
and  there  is  no  reason  why  it  should.  It  forms  a  pretty 
feature  in  the  landscape  —  rivers  and  even  little  brooks 
spanned  by  stone  arches,  lichen-covered  with  age.  A  little 
narrow  creek  in  Kagoshima  was  spanned  in  one  place  by 
three  stone-arched  bridges  connecting  with  as  many  little 
footpaths  (fig.  575). 

Not  only  are  well-sweeps  of  the  old  New  England  type 
seen  in  Satsuma,  but  in  some  cases  the  well  is  inside  the 
house  and  the  well-sweep  stands  outside,  as  a 

in  figure  576,  which  represents  a  bathhouse  in 

It  is  interesting  to  see  how  promptly  the  Japanese  turn 
to  bamboo  for  little  devices.  For  instance,  the  other  day, 
while  dredging,  I  found  that  a  pair  of  long  iron  forceps  had 
been  left  behind,  but  my  boy  immediately  took  down  a  slen- 
der bamboo  flagstaff  from  the  boat,  cut  off  one  joint,  and 
soon  made  a  fine  long  pair  of  forceps  which  I  found  not  only 
very  serviceable,  but  light  to  handle  (fig.  577). 
There  are  several  types  of  anchors.  An  iron  form  with  four 


recurved  hooks  is  shown  in  one  of  the  sketches  of  junks.  Fig- 
ure 578  shows  another  type.  It  is  made  of  wood,  and  the 
weight  consists  of  two  pieces  of  stone  lashed  to  a  transverse 

In  Higo  and  Satsuma,  and  probably  in  other  portions  of 
Kyushu,  they  use  pottery  beads,  or  cylinders,  two  inches 
long,  on  the  breeching-band  of  the  harness,  this  device  per- 
mitting the  rope  to  rub  up  and  down  without  friction.  These 
are  strung  alternately  on  the  rope  which  goes  over  the  flank 
of  the  horse  and  are  glazed  yellow  and  green  (fig.  579).  In 
Yezo  round  wooden  beads  are  used  in  the  same  way. 

A  few  sketches  of  headlands  are  given:  in  figure  580  the 
entrance  to  the  Bay  of  Kagoshima;  figure  581,  off  the  Higo 
coast,  with  stratified  rocks  dipping  to  the  south;  and  figure 
582,  rocks  on  the  west  coast  of  Satsuma,  known  as  "fifty- 
foot  rocks,"  as  they  are  said  to  be  fifty  feet  in  height.  The 
stratified  rock  I  had  not  seen  so  well  defined  before. 



The  sail  from  Kagoshima  to  Shimabara  Gulf  was  delight- 
ful. The  sea  was  as  smooth  as  a  millpond,  with  not  the  slight- 
est swell  even,  and  I  was  able  to  write  a  good  deal  in  my  jour- 
nal. The  next  morning  the  vessel  anchored  off  the  mouth 
of  Takahashi  River;  not  nearer  than  five  miles,  however.  In 
the  mean  time  a  strong  breeze  had  sprung  up  and  a  heavy 
sea  was  smashing  against  the  side  of  the  vessel.  I  knew  how 
safe  the  little  Japanese  sampan  was,  for  I  had  dredged  from 
them  many  times,  yet  I  felt  somewhat  anxious  as  I  saw  the 
boat  dancing  up  and  down  by  the  side  of  the  steamer.  We 
had  great  difficulty  in  getting  our  luggage  aboard,  and  then 
had  to  make  a  flying  leap  from  the  steamer's  steps  which 
had  been  lowered  for  us.  However,  we  landed  safely,  and 
having  ascertained  all  about  the  position  where  Lingula 
might  be  dug  I  left  my  boy  and  Tomi,  as  we  call  him,  to  give 
their  whole  attention  to  collecting  all  the  Lingula  they  could 
find  and  all  the  seaweeds,  and  I  pushed  on  with  my  assistant 
to  Kumamoto,  nearly  four  miles  inland. 

We  called  on  the  Governor  at  the  castle,  a  fine-looking  old 
gentleman  who  had  provided  for  us  a  good  Japanese  dinner, 
which  we  greatly  enjoyed.  The  Governor  showed  us  about 
the  castle  and  told  us  about  the  siege  two  years  before,  when 
for  six  weeks  the  castle  was  besieged,  many  of  the  buildings 


burned  down,  many  citizens  and  soldiers  killed,  and  the  city 
of  Kumamoto  laid  in  ashes.  The  Governor  was  in  his  castle 
and  the  rebels  made  special  efforts  to  destroy  the  building 
in  which  he  was  supposed  to  be.  The  buildings  were  battered 
and  in  many  places  were  the  marks  of  bullet  holes.  It  was 
interesting  to  see  the  animation  of  the  old  man  as  he  described 
his  experience. 

And  here,  before  I  forget  it,  I  must  record  the  fact  that 
nearly  ninety-nine  out  of  a  hundred  intelligent  people  I  have 
met  in  our  country  confound  the  phases  of  the  moon  with 
eclipses.  The  captain  of  our  steamer,  an  Englishman,  had 
no  conception  of  the  matter  till  I  explained  it  to  him,  and  in 
the  discussion  I  found  that  he  knew  nothing  about  the  laws 
of  gravitation  and  had  an  idea  that  we  were  held  to  the  earth 
by  the  pressure  of  the  atmosphere !  I  cannot  spend  the  time 
recounting  our  discussion,  but  here  was  an  English  captain 
navigating  a  steamer,  and  knowing  thoroughly  the  coast 
with  its  hidden  rocks  and  sandbars,  yet  utterly  ignorant  of 
the  simplest  facts  in  astronomy.  He  asked  me,  though  in 
an  abashed  way,  if  Darwin  lived  in  the  days  of  Aristotle  (for 
he  seemed  to  know  that  name  and  that  he  lived  centuries  ago), 
or  was  of  the  present  time ! 

To  return  now  to  the  Governor  I  told  him  the  objects  of 
our  work,  and  he  offered  to  send  an  officer  to  accompany  us, 
as  I  intended  going  to  Yatsushiro,  thirty-four  miles  south.  By 
this  time  it  was  late  in  the  afternoon  and  we  were  very  tired, 
yet  we  took  a  long  walk  around  the  outskirts  of  the  city. 
Here,  as  at  Kagoshima,  and  at  other  places,  the  absorbed 


way  in  which  every  one  looked  at  me  showed  how  rare  was 
the  sight  of  a  foreigner. 

That  evening  the  officer  sent  by  the  Governor  came  to 
our  inn  and  a  delightful  gentleman  he  proved  to  be.  Such 
profound  bows  as  he  made,  and  I  could  not  help  laughing  at 
myself  to  find  how  natural  it  seemed  to  me  to  be  kneeling  on 
the  floor  and  bowing  again  and  again  till  my  head  repeatedly 
touched  the  mat,  and  I  had  even  acquired  the  curious  sipping 
sound  in  drawing  the  air  into  my  mouth. 

The  next  morning  we  were  off  at  five  o'clock,  and  after  a 
long,  tiresome  jinrikisha  ride  of  twenty-four  miles  over  the 
roughest  of  roads  came  to  Onomura,  where  I  found  the  shell 
heaps  I  had  been  looking  for.  The  road  passes  through  them 
and  they  are  at  least  five  miles  from  the  sea.  The  deposits 
may  prove  to  be  equal  in  depth  to  the  shell  heaps  of  Florida, 
at  least  thirty  feet.  The  solid  mass  of  shells  consisted  of  Area 
granosa,  though  many  other  species  of  shells  were  found. 

We  examined  and  dug  until  nearly  dark,  and  then  pushed 
on  to  Yatsushiro,  arriving  there  at  nine  o'clock  at  night,  when 
we  reported  to  the  Governor  of  the  Ken  and  met  a  most  cour- 
teous gentleman;  every  movement,  every  action  was  that  of 
grace  and  refinement.  In  the  Shogunate  his  rank  was  very 
high,  but  with  all  his  charm  of  manner  there  was  not  the 
slightest  trace  of  affectation.  He  ordered  a  merchant  to  find 
accommodations  for  us,  and  this  my  assistant  informed  me 
was  customary  when  they  wished  to  do  special  honor  to  a 
visitor;  instead  of  letting  him  go  to  a  public  house  they  open 
a  private  house  for  him.  What  unfathomable  lies  my  assis- 
tant told  him  about  me  I  did  not  learn,  but  in  my  somewhat 


fatigued  condition  the  hospitality  was  indeed  gratefully  re- 
ceived. The  house  where  we  spent  the  night  was  large  and 
ample;  the  rooms  were  much  higher-studded  than  in  the  usual 
house,  and  spacious.  The  space  between  the  sliding  parti- 
tions and  the  ceiling  had  a  remarkable  carving  representing 
long  gutters  of  wood  conveying  water,  for  irrigation  prob- 
ably; the  grasses,  supports  for  the  gutters,  and  other  details 
were  beautifully  made.1 

The  next  morning  the  Governor  brought  to  me  as  a  pre- 
sent four  Koda  teacups  which  he  said  had  been  made  by  the 
order  of  his  father  thirty-five  years  before. 
Figure  583  is  a  sketch  of  one  of  them.  I 
was  delighted  to  possess  them,  as  I  have 
developed  a  passion  for  Japanese  pottery, 
old  and  new.  He  told  me  he  had  a  large 
collection  of  tea-jars,  and  that  he  would 
bring  them  to  Kumamoto  for  me  to  examine.  He  expressed 
a  desire  to  examine  the  Onomura  shell  heaps  with  us. 

We  started  for  Onomura  in  a  driving  rain;  we  were  soon 
wet  through  and  were  in  that  condition  all  day.  We  made  as 
thorough  an  examination  as  possible  of  the  shell  heaps  in 
the  limited  time  we  had.  We  got  many  bones,  among  them 
fragments  of  human  bones  as  in  the  Omori  deposit  showing 
evidences  of  cannibalism.  One  human  tibia  was  unusually 
flattened,  an  index  of  50.2,  one  of  the  lowest  ever  recorded. 
Some  extraordinary  forms  of  pottery  were  found ;  one  shallow 
bowl  with  unique  arrow  design  (fig.  584). 

Professor  Lyman,  the  geologist,  who  first  told  me  about 

1  The  sketch  of  this  ramma  has  been  reproduced  in  Japanese  Homes,  fig.  149. 


the  Onomura  shell  heaps,  also  described  a  curious  stone  coffin 
near  the  shell  heaps.  We  easily  found  it.  It  was  a  huge  stone 
sarcophagus.  The  end  of  the  cover  had  been  broken  and  was 
face  down,  and  it  was  hard  to  get  the  villagers  to  assist  us  in 

turning  it  over  on  account 
of  superstitions  connected 
with  burial.  Our  jinrikisha 
man,  however,  had  no  scru- 
ples, and  by  digging  around 
the  stone  with  a  beam  for 
a  lever  we  got  it  turned. 
Figure  585  is  a  rough  sketch 
of  its  appearance ;  the  inside 
was  cut  in  panels.  It  is  be- 
lieved to  date  back  a  thou- 
sand or  twelve  hundred 
years.  The  Governor  of  Ya- 
tsushiro  knew  nothing  about  it,  and  regarded  it  with  the 
greatest  interest. 

The  rain  continued  all  day  and  we  were  wet  and  muddy. 
At  noon  we  stopped  to  take  a  hasty  lunch.  The  jinrikisha 
men  had  brought  their  lunch  with  them:  cold  rice,  a  pickled 
plum,  and  possibly  a  little  raw  fish  with  the  customary  shoyu. 
We  found  a  fisherman's  hut,  a  rather  poverty-stricken  place, 
and  humbly  asked  for  rice,  and  the  fisherman  and  his  wife 
politely,  and  without  a  sign  of  being  flustered,  set  about  the 
task  of  getting  us  something  to  eat  —  a  dark-colored  rice 
and  some  small  dried  fish  as  hard  as  a  bone.  There  was  no 
servile  apology  for  the  meagreness  of  the  fare,  though  they 

Fig.  584 


realized  the  august  presence  of  the  Governor,  and  had  never 
before  had  an  "outside  barbarian"  beneath  their  roof;  yet 
with  simple  dignity  they  did  what  hospitality  required.  The 
manners  of  the  Governor  were  simply  exquisite;  he  ate  the 
poor  food  with  an  apparent  relish  and  returned  bow  for  bow. 
I  cannot  find  words  to  describe  the  way  he  charmed  those 

Fig.  585 

*t<*  n 

poor  people  by  his  apparent  enjoyment  of  the  simple  food. 
Had  he  been  entertained  by  the  Emperor  with  a  sumptuous 
feast  he  could  not  have  shown  his  appreciation  and  gratitude 
more  strongly. 

While  we  were  eating,  some  villagers  looked  in  to  wonder 
and  admire.  One  of  the  men  told  us  there  was  a  cave  in  the 
side  of  the  hill  in  which  were  a  few  pottery  vessels.  Knowing 
the  peculiar  form  of  cave  pottery  farther  north  and  that  the 
caves  were  burial-places,  and  that  the  vessels  were  placed 


there  for  offerings  of  rice,  wine,  etc.,  I  asked  for  a  brush  and 
paper  and  ventured  to  draw  the  outlines  of  the  vessels  which 
were  in  the  cave.  The  Governor  showed  the  drawings  to  the 
men,  and  asked  them  if  they  were  correct.  With  curious  em- 
barrassment they  told  us  they  had  never  seen  the  pottery,  nor 
had  their  fathers,  but  their  grandfathers  had  handed  down 
the  story  that  when  a  narrow  road  had  been  built  on  the  side 
of  the  hill  the  workmen  had  broken  through  the  roof  of  the 
cave  and  had  seen  the  vessels. 

After  lunch  we  had  the  men  guide  us  to  the  place.  Though 
it  was  raining  in  torrents  we  waded  through  the  mud  up  a 
steep  incline  for  nearly  half  a  mile,  when  we  came  to  a  place 
where  they  stopped  and  pointed  over  the  precipitous  side  of 
the  road  where  ten  feet  below  was  an  opening  out  of  which 
the  muddy  water  was  pouring  like  a  sluice,  and  that  was  the 
entrance!  Only  a  muskrat  or  a  beaver  could  stem  a  current 
like  that.  In  looking  around  for  the  source  of  the  water  I 
found  that  a  flooded  gutter  beside  the  road  was  losing  much 
of  its  water  at  the  place  where  we  were  standing.  The  Gov- 
ernor got  permission  to  dig  up  the  gutter  at  this  point,  and 
we  came  to  a  number  of  logs  which  covered  the  hole  in  the 
roof  of  the  cave.  Farther  up  the  road  the  gutter  was  dammed 
in  such  a  way  as  to  divert  the  stream  over  the  steep  embank- 
ment.   The  hole  was  certainly  not  over  two  feet  in  diameter. 

A  dozen  or  more  villagers  had  collected,  and  generous  pay- 
ment was  offered  to  any  one  who  would  allow  himself  to  be 
lowered  into  the  cave,  but  superstitious  fear  at  entering  a 
sepulchral  vault  was  so  great  that  not  one  of  them  was  willing 
to  go  down.  Our  jinrikisha  men  from  Yatsushiro  shook  their 


heads  also,  and  as  my  assistant  did  not  volunteer  there  was 
nothing  to  do  but  go  myself.  The  Governor  endeavored  to 
restrain  me,  saying  that  mines  had  been  dug  there;  but  if  so 
I  knew  the  water  must  be  on  a  level  with  the  stream  outside. 
I  got  two  jinrikisha  men  to  grab  my  hands  and  lower  me.  It 
was  as  dark  as  a  pocket,  and  the  little  light  from  a  rainy  sky 
was  cut  off  by  the  curious  and  awe-stricken  crowd  that 
shaded  the  hole.  I  stretched  out  my  legs  in  vain  to  find  some- 
thing to  touch,  and  finally  jerked  my  hands  from  the  grasp 
of  the  men  and  dropped  into  the  water  nearly  up  to  my 
middle.  There  was  a  momentary  silence  and  then  shouts  of 
horror  came  echoing  down  from  the  opening.  I  called  back 
to  my  assistant  that  I  was  all  right,  when  in  agitated  tones 
he  told  me  that  great  poisonous  centipedes  were  crawling 
out  of  the  opening !  I  had  on  my  wide-brimmed  hat  and  a 
slippery  rubber  coat,  and  what  I  had  supposed  to  be  crumbs 
of  earth  and  pebbles  tumbling  from  the  sides  of  the  ragged 
hole  were  huge  centipedes  dropping  on  me !  I  stood  literally 
in  a  cascade  of  the  venomous  creatures.  They  were  scam- 
pering around  the  walls  of  the  cave  and  dropping  off  from 
the  ceiling  as  frightened  spiders  will.  As  I  got  accustomed 
to  the  dim  light  I  saw  them  by  hundreds  floating  in  the 
water,  and  after  waiting  till  the  current  had  drained  them 
off  I  groped  around  in  the  sand  for  the  pottery.  The  sand  and 
mud  had  been  accumulating  and  a  deposit  two  feet  or  more 
in  depth  covered  the  whole  floor.  It  was  a  hideous  experience, 
but  my  slippery  raincoat  and  broad-brimmed  hat  saved 
me,  for  the  creatures  could  not  retain  a  hold  and  tumbled 
into  the  water  as  fast  as  they  struck  me.  Had  I  not  been  so 


excited  over  the  pottery,  my  loathsome  position  in  this  dark 
and  noisome  cave,  crouching  in  a  cascade  of  centipedes, 
would  have  horrified  me.  I  got  three  specimens  of  the  crea- 
tures for  the  Museum,  made  a  sketch  of  the  wall  of  the  cave 
toward  the  opening,  and  then  had  a  rope  lowered  to  me  and 
was  pulled  up.  The  ground  around  the  hole  outside  was 
marked  with  the  mangled  remains  of  many  centipedes  that 
had  been  crushed  as  they  crawled  out. 

With  the  water  dammed  above  and  drained  away  from  the 
cave,  I  finally  induced  two  jinrikisha  men  to  go  down,  and 
with  hoes  they  carefully  scratched  away  the  sand,  and  after 
an  hour's  hard  digging  discovered  four  specimens  of  pottery, 
one  perfect,  another  slightly  broken,  and  large  fragments  of 
two  others.  The  Governor  drew  out  the  sketch,  and  I  heard 
him  speak  to  the  natives  in  wonder  that  I,  a  foreigner,  who 
had  come  ten  thousand  li  across  the  seas,  should  describe 
precisely  the  shape  of  the  vessels  to  be  found,  which  they 
had  never  seen.  The  natives  looked  at  me  as  a  foreign  devil, 
indeed,  and  showed  much  discontent  when  I  took  the  pottery 
away.  The  Governor  explained  that  it  was  to  be  placed  in 
the  Museum  of  the  University.  Figure  586  shows  the  ap- 
pearance of  the  cave  looking  toward  the  entrance.  The  centre 
arch  shows  the  opening  into  the  cave;  from  the  outside,  where 
the  opening  is  small,  the  entrance  enlarges  to  the  cave  and 
the  alleyway  is  curved  as  well;  on  each  side  within  were  two 
blind  arches. 

At  five  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  we  started  for  a  twenty- 
four  mile  ride  to  Kumamoto,  and  a  more  dismal  and  weari- 
some ride  I  never  had  —  raining  all  the  time  and  the  roads  in 


frightful  condition.  I  was  tired  out,  and  so  cold  that  I  shiv- 
ered, so  sleepy  that  it  was  a  struggle  to  keep  awake;  and  yet 
if  I  dozed  for  a  moment  my  head  would  be  nearly  wrenched 
off  by  the  jolts  of  the  jinrikisha.  I  had  left  Mr.  Tanada  be- 
hind to  pack  the  pottery  and  other  specimens  we  had  got 
at  the  shell  heaps,  and  my  only  companion  was  the  Governor, 
who  did  not  understand  a  word  of  English,  and  my  Tokyo- 

Fig.  586 

Japanese  —  almost  a  dialect  —  was  nearly  unintelligible  to 
him.  At  eight  o'clock  we  hired  extra  jinrikisha  men,  and  they 
sang  the  entire  way,  each  one  in  turn  giving  a  grunt  or  a  note 
uttered  at  every  step.  The  novelty  of  jinrikisha  men  singing 
kept  me  awake  for  a  while,  but  even  this  attraction  wore 
away,  and  when  I  got  to  Kumamoto  I  was  more  dead  than 
alive.  The  Governor  of  Kumamoto  had  ordered  a  private 
house  for  our  abode,  but  I  was  too  cold  and  even  sick  to  ap- 
preciate the  accommodation,  and  having  taken  off  my  shoes, 
crept  into  the  house  and  lay  down  on  the  floor  in  my  wet 
clothes  and  slept  like  a  log. 

The  next  morning  I  called  on  the  Governor  of  Kumamoto 
to  thank  him  for  his  courtesies  and  to  tell  him  of  the  discov- 
eries we  had  made  and  of  the  curious  cave  at  Onomura.  He 


then  told  me  that  in  the  castle  rocks  were  some  caves.  He 
smiled  at  my  impatience  to  see  them,  but  amiably  got  up  and 
guided  me  to  them.  My  limited  time  permitted  only  the 
briefest  examination  of  them.  The  openings  appeared  on  the 
side  of  the  cliff;  foliage  hung  down  so  as  to  obscure  many  of 
them,  and  some  were  difficult  to  reach.  I  entered  a  few  of  the 
caves,  which  were  square  in  shape.  In  one  there  was  a  trans- 
verse partition  and  in  others  there  were  recessed  portions  in 
the  farther  end  about  four  feet  up  from  the  floor,  making  a 
ledge  on  which  probably  offerings  of  food  were  placed.  An 
interesting  field  of  study  would  be  an  examination  of  the 
caves  of  Japan;  they  are  found  widespread  throughout  the 
Empire,  and,  so  far  as  I  know,  are  mortuary  caves. 

In  the  afternoon  I  returned  to  Takahashi  and  found  that 
the  boys  had  done  wonders  in  collecting.  I  feasted  my  eyes 
on  tubfuls  of  the  big  green  Lingula,  and  ate  a  few  of  them  as 
the  natives  do.  The  peduncle  only  is  eaten  and  I  found  them 
rather  tasteless. 

After  reaching  the  little  fishing  village  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Takahashi  River,  I  learned  with  disgust  that  the  steamer 
would  not  sail  until  the  next  day  on  account  of  the  threatening 
storm  and  I  therefore  spent  the  rest  of  the  day  studying  Lin- 
gula, On  the  mud  flats  were  a  number  of  creatures  hopping 
about  which  I  first  mistook  for  small  toads  or  frogs.  Catch- 
ing one  with  difficulty  I  found  they  were  little  fish  with  an 
extraordinary  development  of  the  pectoral  fin.  These  little 
animals  gamboled  about  as  if  playing  with  one  another.  It 
was  not  difficult  to  see  how  Lamarck  got  his  ideas  of  the  result 
of  effort  in  modifying  parts,  etc. 


The  kites  at  Takahashi  were  of  enormous  proportions  — 
eight  or  ten  feet  square  with  a  stout  rope  for  a  string.  One 
kite  had  the  same  flashing  eyes  already  mentioned. 

On  our  way  from  Onomura  yesterday  we  passed  a  fine  old 
tree  beyond  which  was  a  shrine.  It  is  interesting  that  every- 
where in  Japan,  where  there  is  a  picturesque  view  or  some 
natural  object  of  interest,  a  shrine  is  erected.  Figure  587  is  an 
illustration  of  this  cus- 
tom. The  tree  being 
quaint  and  of  interest 
the  shrine  is  erected 
back  of  it.  Here  they 
utilize  nature  to  call 
attention  to  their  reli- 
gious duties;  in  our 
country  beautiful  scen- 
ery is  either  hidden  by 
huge    signs   for    liver 

troubles,  or  the  landscape  is  ruined  by  other  vulgar  advertise- 
ments. At  Takahashi  is  a  camphor  tree,  magnificent  in  form 
and  size  and  greatly  treasured  by  the  people;  its  trunk  ten 
feet  from  the  ground  is  eight  feet  in  diameter  (fig.  588). 

Looking  west  from  Takahashi  across  the  Shimabara  Gulf  is 
seen  a  noble  mountain  mass  known  as  Onsendake.  The  tops 
of  these  volcanic  mountains  are  obscured  by  clouds  most  of 
the  time,  but  now  and  then  glimpses  can  be  had  and  the  out- 
lines shown  in  figure  589  are  fairly  correct.  The  steamer  that 
carried  us  to  Nagasaki  made  a  hasty  trip  to  the  island  and 
town  of  Shimabara,  reaching  there  at  five  in  the  afternoon. 

Fig.  587 


It  is  one  of  the  most  picturesque  places  in  Japan.  You  sail  in 
and  out  among  little  rugged  islands  and  finally  reach  the  town, 
at  the  water's  edge,  and  just  back  of  the  town  rise  the  rocky 
slopes  of  Onsendake.   We  rode  through  the  town  a  mile  and  a 

half  to  a  famous  inn  and  ordered  a  fine  dinner  consisting  of 
a  large  gasteropod,  Rapana  bezoar,  served  in  its  beautiful  shell, 
boiled  cuttlefish,  fried  eel,  and  rice, — all  delicious.  On  our  way 
back  to  the  boat,  which  was  to  stop  only  two  hours,  we  hunted 
for  shells,  the  natives  eyeing  us  with  reluctant  and  unfriendly 
gaze.  Here  is  where  the  people  opposed  to  the  last  the  landing 


of  foreigners,  and  every  look  and  action  betrayed  their  aver- 
sion to  the  barbarian. 

I  managed  to  get  one  little  hasty  sketch  of  a  stone  bridge. 
Everywhere  one  sees  stone  bridges,  many  of  them  constructed 

Fig.  589 

precisely  like  a  wooden  one,  but  its  beams,  supports,  and  rails 
are  hewn  out  of  stone,  as  shown  in  figure  590. 

At  seven  in  the  evening  we  started  for  Nagasaki  and  such 
beautiful  little  islands  as  we  passed!  It  seemed  like  going 
home  after  the  somewhat  fatiguing  dash  we  had  made  in  Sa- 
tsuma  and  Higo.  Our  steamer  was  the  smallest  one  I  have  yet 
traveled  in.  It  was  so  small  and  cranky  that  when  I  walked  to 
one  side  it  would  tip  in  that  direction.  No  wonder  the  cap- 
tain waited  for  a  few  days  on  account  of  the  stormy  weather. 



The  next  morning  we  reached  Nagasaki,  where  I  was  again 
to  find  European  food,  a  chair  to  sit  in,  and  a  table  with  a  kero- 
sene lamp  at  which  to  write.  Living  in  Japan,  I  notice  the 
absence  of  a  table  more  than  I  do  the  food,  to  which  I  am  grad- 
ually becoming  accustomed.  To  go  without  coffee,  milk,  and 
bread-and-butter  is  indeed  a  deprivation;  but  it  is  awkward 
and  painful  to  sit  on  the  floor  to  write  and  draw,  and  when 
one  is  tired  it  is  almost  impossible.  At  Nagasaki  I  remained 

Fig.  591 

several  days  studying  the  living  Lingula  I  had  brought  from 
Higo  and  also  a  minute  Descina  which  I  had  dredged  in  the 
harbor.  Mr.  Mangum,  the  American  consul,  and  his  wife  were 
very  kind  to  me.  They  gave  me  the  use  of  a  fine  room  in  their 
house  for  my  microscope,  and  furthermore  insisted  that  I 
should  come  to  dinner  every  day  while  in  Nagasaki.  As  the 
hotel  was  poor,  it  was  enjoyable  to  get  one  good  meal  a  day. 
A  river  runs  through  the  town  spanned  by  a  number  of 
stone-arched  bridges,  some  of  them  very  old.  Figure  591 
shows  the  type  of  these  bridges.  A  form  of  kite  which  the  boys 
fly  from  the  bridges  is  shown  in  figure  592;  it  is  unlike  the 
northern  kite  and  the  two  circles  are  entirely  black.  There  are 

Fig.  592 


other  forms  and  designs,  but  the  form  figured  seems  the  most 

Many  of  the  measures  —  wet  as  well  as  dry  —  are  made  in 
the  form  of  a  square  instead  of  round.  In  the  dry  measures 
for  grain  a  piece  extends  from  one  corner 
diagonally  to  the  other  corner  flush  with 
the  edge  of  the  measure  (fig.  593).  Figure 
594  shows  the  sake  measures  with  conven- 
ient handles  and  a  tub  of  sake  near  by. 

Nagasaki  is  famous  for  its  tortoise-shell 
work.  It  was  interesting  to  visit  the  place 
where  they  made  objects  of  tortoise  shell. 
The  workmen  in  every  trade  sit  on  the  ground,  and  in  this 
place  they  sat  cross-legged,  like  Turks,  and  not  in  the  usual 
way  already  described  (fig.  595).  It  seemed  wonderful  that 
they  could  apparently  mould  and  melt  together  the  thin 
plates  of  tortoise  shell.  They  use  ponderous  iron,  pincers 
which  they  heat  in  a  furnace  (fig.  596),  and  squeeze  the  sheets 
of  tortoise  shell  together  or  make  curved  or  other  forms. 

On  our  way  back  from  Nagasaki  to  Kobe  we  again  passed 
through  Shimonoseki  Straits,  and  came  to  anchor  off  the  vil- 
lage of  Shimonoseki  consisting  of  a  long  stretch 
of  low  buildings.  I  was  told  that  the  people 
were  very  unfriendly  to  foreigners,  and  no 
wonder  when  one  recalls  the  cruel  bombard- 
ment years  ago  by  the  warships  of  four  Chris- 
tian nations.  We  desired  to  land,  but  were  told  by  the 
Japanese  purser  that  foreigners  rarely  landed  at  the  village. 
Relying  on  the  uniform  courtesy  of  the  Japanese,  I  was 

Fig.  593 


bound  to  land,  though  my  passport  did  not  cover  the  place 
or  even  the  province.  I  told  the  purser  that  it  was  important 
to  get  a  glance  of  the  shore  at  low  tide  in  the  interests  of 
the  University.   He  then  permitted  me  to  go  ashore  in  his 

boat.  A  glance  at  the  shore  was 
made,  and  then  I  walked  through 
the  main  streets  of  the  town  and 
peered  into  every  shop.  I  could 
readily  see  that  a  foreigner  was 
persona  non  grata.  I  was  not  treated 
rudely,  but  was  simply  ignored.  The 
children  ran  from  me  as  if  I  were  the 
Devil,  and  one  sweet  little  boy, 
whom  I  could  not  resist  patting, 
held  his  breath  as  if  it  required  the 
greatest  courage  to  endure  the  caresses  of  the  hated  foreigner. 
At  Kobe  we  stopped  for  dredging  for  a  few  days  and  I  made 
various  excursions  into  the  country.  At  the  hotel  I  met  the 
surgeon  of  the  British  gunboat,  who  had  brought  to  me  at 
Nagasaki  a  big  package  of  mail.  We  dined  together,  and  he 
told  me  some  particulars  regarding  the  incident  of  my  mail. 
He  said  that  when  the  gunboat  left  Nagasaki  for  Kagoshima 
Gulf,  the  commander  left  word  to  have  mail  forwarded  to 
Kagoshima.  When  they  reached  Kagoshima,  they  heard  that 
a  large  bundle  of  mail  had  arrived  and  had  been  sent  back  to 
Nagasaki  overland.  They  concluded,  naturally,  that  the  mail 
was  for  them,  as  they  knew  of  no  foreigners  within  two  hun- 
dred miles  of  the  place.  They  had  had  no  letters  from  home 
for  a  long  time  and  were  all  hungry  for  their  mail.   On  their 

Fig.  594 



way  back  from  Kagoshima,  they  put  in  at  one  place  to  inter- 
cept the  mail,  but  it  had  gone  by.  The  next  day,  farther  up 
the  coast,  while  the  commander  and  officers  were  in  the  cabin,  a 

Fig.  595 

bundle  of  mail  was  sent  aboard  and  they  all  gathered  about  the 
table  in  great  glee  and  tore  open  the  bundle;  the  surgeon  told 
me  that  I  would  not  have  been  edified  if  I  had  heard  the  com- 
ments upon  my  name  as  the  commander  read  over  the  ad- 
dresses. It  ranged  all  the  way  from  damning  me,  to  inquiries 
as  to  who  in  h — 1  I  was. 
Every  piece  of  mail  to  the 
last  scrap  was  for  me ! 

While  in  Osaka  we  were 
told  that  there  were  cer- 
tain ancient  mounds  in 
the  villages  of  Hattorigawa, 
and  Korigawa,  about  twelve 

miles  from  Osaka.  Our  ride  carried  us  across  a  large  plain 
under  complete  cultivation.  As  far  as  the  eye  could  reach 
were  innumerable  well-sweeps  after  the  typical  New  Eng- 

Fig.  596 


land  style,  which  were  used  in  bringing  up  water  from  shal- 
low wells  for  irrigating  purposes.  The  mounds  were  typical 
dolmens  such  as  have  been  described  in  Brittany  and  Scan- 
dinavia: a  huge  mound  of  earth  covered  a  long,  narrow 
entrance-way  leading  to  a  square  chamber,  ten  or  twelve  feet 
across.  We  examined  them  with  great  interest,  and  wondered 
how  these  people,  twelve  hundred  years  or  more  ago,  could 
have  raised  the  immense  blocks  of  stone  that  form  the  roofs 
of  these  chambers.1 

A  hasty  trip  from  Kyoto  to  Nara  was  through  delightful 
woods  and  charming  scenery.  It  is  beyond  me  to  add  any 
words  to  the  many  descriptions  of  the  charms  of  Nara.  Cer- 
tain memories  of  the  place  will  last  forever :  the  quiet  roads,  the 
deep  shadows,  the  deer  from  the  forests  tranquilly  walking 
through  the  village  street,  with  the  inhabitants,  young  and 
old,  equally  inoffensive.  Ruskin  has  somewhere  said  that  he 
hoped  the  time  would  come  when  man  would  make  as  much 
effort  to  make  wild  animals  tame  as  he  now7  does  to  make  tame 
animals  wild;  and  it  is  a  fact  that  wild  birds  and  mammals  in 
Japan  are  in  many  instances  tamer  than  are  our  domestic 
birds  and  mammals  at  home.  Nara  is  the  ancient  capital  of 
Japan,  and  a  spirit  of  a  hallowed  antiquity  broods  over  the 
place.  One  may  spend  weeks  in  a  study  of  the  grand  old  tem- 
ples. A  marvelous  old  wooden  storehouse  perched  on  high 
posts  was  built  a  thousand  years  ago  to  preserve  the  objects 
belonging  to  an  emperor  of  that  time.  It  is  certainly  one  of 
the  marvels  of  Japan.    In  this  building  are  preserved  the 

1  These  structures  were  described  and  figured  by  me  in  an  article,  entitled 
"Dolmens  in  Japan,"  in  the  Popular  Science  Monthly,  March,  1880,  p.  593. 


household  objects  and  utensils  actually  owned  by  the  emperor, 
from  the  simplest  hairpin  to  the  finest  musical  instrument, 
some  inlaid  with  gold;  objects  of  the  kitchen,  decorative 
pieces,  pictures,  books,  pottery,  furniture,  clothing,  weapons, 
walking-canes,  ink-stones  and  sticks  of  ink,  fans;  indeed,  the 
entire  contents  of  the  palace.  To  appreciate  the  marvelous 
character  of  the  collection  one  must  imagine  a  similar  store- 
house in  England  which  should  contain  the  household  objects 
belonging  to  King  Alfred.  Once  a  year  Government  officials 
open  the  single  entrance  and  examine  all  the  objects  to  see  that 
none  have  been  injured  by  dampness  or  other  influences.  I 
was  fortunate  in  being  in  Nara  during  this  annual  examina- 
tion, and  knowing  one  of  the  officials  was  permitted  to  enter 
the  building  with  them  and  allowed  to  make  sketches  of  the 
old  pottery.  It  was  interesting  to  watch  the  reverent  behav- 
ior of  the  grave  officials.  All  wore  white  cloth  gloves  and  all 
spoke  in  a  low  tone.1 

The  jinrikisha  ride  from  Nara  to  Kyoto  was  most  delight- 
ful. The  road  led  through  dark  forests  and  out  again  into 
charming,  open  scenery,  and  the  purest  of  Japanese  life  was 
seen.  There  is  no  better  way  of  absorbing  the  beauties  of  the 
country  than  in  jinrikisha  riding.  To  ride  in  one  is  like  sitting 
back  in  an  easy-chair,  and  the  speed  is  just  fast  enough  to  fan 
you  and  yet  sufficiently  rapid  to  make  you  realize  that  pro- 
gress is  being  made  toward  your  destination.  At  one  place  we 
crossed  a  river  ford,  not  by  going  down  a  deep  and  sandy  em- 
bankment, but  by  climbing  up  a  gentle  incline  to  ford  the  river 

1  Within  a  few  years  the  Japanese  Government  has  published  an  account  of  these 
treasures  with  beautiful  illustrations  of  many  of  the  objects. 


far  above  the  general  level  of  the  plains,  the  river  literally 
running  on  a  ridge!  For  centuries  it  has  been  confined  to  its 
channels,  not  by  digging  out  the  detritus  swept  down  from  the 
mountains,  but  by  piling  up  embankments  on  the  sides,  with 
the  result  that  the  river-bed  is  conspicuously  above  the  sur- 
rounding country,  resembling  a  railroad  embankment.  On 
both  sides  of  the  road,  as  one  enters  the  ford,  are  stone  posts 

Fig.  597 

with  deep  vertical  grooves,  and  at  times  of  freshets  planks  are 
fitted  into  these  grooves  to  keep  the  water  from  washing  away 
the  road. 

Kyoto  was  approached  through  interesting  surroundings, 
a  proper  frame  for  a  city  of  art  and  refinement,  prominent  be- 
cause of  its  varied  points  of  interest.  The  cleanliness,  the  so- 
briety, and  the  artistic  atmosphere  impress  you.  A  visit  to 
the  pottery  districts — for  there  are  a  number:  Kiyomizu,  Go- 
jiosaka,  Awata  —  was  most  interesting.   Instead  of  finding  a 


rough  neighborhood  and  coarse  surroundings  and  acres  dis- 
figured by  broken  pottery,  it  was  like  visiting  some  of  the 
famous  studios  near  Paris.  The  children  in  the  region,  pret- 
tily dressed,  bowed  politely  to  us  as  we  walked  along.  The 
entrance  of  the  potteries  was  reserved  and  modest  (fig.  597), 
and  within  we  were  greeted  by  the  head  of  the  family,  and  tea 

Fig.  598 

and  cake  were  immediately  offered  us.  It  seems  that  the  mem- 
bers of  the  family  alone  are  engaged  in  the  work,  from  the 
little  boy  or  girl  to  the  old  grandfather,  whose  feeble  strength 
is  utilized  in  some  simple  process  of  the  work.  The  output  is 
small  except  in  those  potteries  given  up  to  making  stuff  for  the 
foreign  trade  (fig.  598),  known  to  the  Japanese  as  Yokohama 
muke,  meaning  "Yokohama  direction";  that  is,  for  export,  a 


contemptuous  expression.  In  these  cases  many  outsiders  are 
employed,  boys  ten  years  old  splashing  on  the  decorations  of 
flowers,  butterflies,  and  the  like,  motives  derived  from  their 
mythology,  but  in  sickening  profusion,  so  contrary  to  the  ex- 

Fig.  599 

quisite  reserve  of  the  Japanese  in  the  decoration  of  objects  for 
their  own  use.  Previous  to  the  demands  of  the  foreigner,  the 
members  of  the  immediate  family  were  leisurely  engaged  in 
producing  pottery  refined  in  form  and  decoration.  Now  the 
whole  compound  is  given  up  to  a  feverish  activity  of  work, 


with  Tom,  Dick,  and  Harry  and  their  children  slapping  it  out 
by  the  gross.  An  order  is  given  by  the  foreign  agent  for  a  hun- 
dred thousand  cups  and  saucers.  "Put  on  all  the  red  and  gold 
you  can"  is  the  order,  as  told  to  me  by  one  agent,  and  the 
haste  and  roughness  of  the  work,  which  is  exported  to  Amer- 
ica and  Europe,  confirms  the 
Japanese  that  they  are  deal- 
ing with  people  whose  tastes 
are  barbaric.1  And  yet  these 
Japanese  products  are  re- 
garded as  attractive  in  our 

As  before  remarked,  one 
sees  but  few  potters  at  work, 
and  every  member  of  the 
family  is  utilized,  from  the 
young  child,  who  carries  the 
pieces  from  the  thrower  to 
the  shelves  for  drying,  to  the 
old  man,  who  may  be  blind,  yet  able  to  grind  the  clay  (fig. 
599),  or  to  knead  clay  with  his  feet  (fig.  600).  I  had  to 
ask  a  good  many  questions  regarding  the  work  and  history 
of  the  Kyoto  potteries,  and  was  told  that  in  order  to  get 

Fig.  600 

1  A  year  afterward  I  noticed  a  parallel  case  in  this  country.  At  Minneapolis  I  was 
invited  to  inspect  a  large  department  store.  On  one  of  its  floors  was  a  vast  array  of 
tables  crowded  with  objects  made  of  hard  rubber:  combs,  bracelets,  breastpins, 
cheap  jewelry  of  such  atrocious  vulgarity  that  I  was  forced  to  inquire  as  to  the  people 
who  bought  such  stuff,  as  I  had  never  seen  such  shocking  things  worn  by  the  poor- 
est creature.  The  answer  was  that  they  were  made  for  the  Northwest  trade  — 
probably  mongrels  and  half-breeds,  as  no  true  savage  would  endure  them.  But 
where  were  they  made?  I  inquired.  In  Attleboro,  thirty  miles  from  Boston! 


these  interviews  a  little  money  present  in  advance  would 
facilitate  matters.  It  seemed  odd  enough  and  rather  mer- 
cenary to  send  in  advance  a  dollar  or  more  to  secure  the 
desired  information,  and  yet  what  right  has  one  to  intrude 
on  a  busy  man  without  offering  some  compensation  for  the 

Fig.  601 

time  demanded?  I  realized,  furthermore,  that  in  our  coun- 
try men,  even  millionaires,  were  too  busy  to  attend  direc- 
tors' meetings  unless  a  ten  or  a  twenty  dollar  bait  were  held 
out  as  a  proper  compensation.  The  results  of  all  these  inter- 
views, which  inquired  into  the  history  and  origin  of  the  pot- 
ters, the  number  of  generations,  impressions  of  the  various 
stamps  used  by  the  different  families  and  generations,  were 
got  by  patient  and  laborious  inquiries  through  an  inter- 
I  made  many  hasty  sketches  of  the  ovens,  which  are  built 


after  Chinese  models.1  The  ovens  are  built  on  a  hillside,  each 
oven  eight  to  ten  feet  in  length,  six  feet  high,  and  three  feet 
in  width,  and  they  are  placed  side  by  side,  one  behind  the 
other.  Figure  601  will  illustrate  the  arrangement.  They 
are  one  compact  mass  of  brick  and  mortar.  The  ovens  open 
at  the  end  and  communicate  with  each  other  by  openings. 


Fig.  602.    Ovens  of  Rokubei 

Fire  is  kindled  in  the  lowest  oven  and  the  heat  from  this 
passes  through  each  oven  in  turn  till  it  issues  through  rude 
chimneys  in  the  upper  one.  By  this  device  all  the  heat  is  uti- 
lized as  the  current  of  heat  rises  to  the  last  oven.  After  the 
first  oven  has  been  heated  sufficiently,  fuel  in  the  shape  of 
long  slender  sticks  is  thrust  into  the  second  oven  through  a 
little  hole  in  the  bottom,  and  then  into  the  third,  and  so  on, 
till  all  have  been  sufficiently  heated  and  the  pottery  com- 

1  These  were  not  so  strongly  and  compactly  constructed  as  those  I  afterwards 
saw  some  forty  or  fifty  miles  back  of  Canton. 


pletely  fired.  This  is  ascertained  by  test  objects  which  may 
be  observed  through  an  opening  in  the  upper  end  of  each  oven. 

Every  Sunday  Ninagawa  has  come  to  my  house  to  identify 
the  pottery  I  have  collected  during  the  week.  One  day  I 
actually  abducted  him,  carrying  him  in  my  jinrikisha,  against 
his  protestations,  to  a  photographer,  and  had  his  picture  made, 
the  first  and  only  one  he  ever  had.  Ninagawa  was  a  Kyoto 
man,  and  his  sister  still  lived  in  the  old  homestead  in  Kyoto, 
which  was  over  three  hundred  years  old.  He  gave  me  a  letter 
of  introduction  to  her,  and  with  a  copy  of  his  photograph  I 
visited  her,  and  her  delight  at  the  picture  of  Ninagawa  en- 
abled me  to  make  a  study  of  the  house,  inside  and  out.1 

Most  of  my  time  in  Kyoto  was  spent  at  the  various  pot- 
teries and  from  the  more  famous  ones,  Dohachi,  Kichizaemon, 
Yeiraku,  Rokubei,  and  Kitei,  I  made  a  large  addition  to  my 
pottery  studies,  getting  from  them  a  history  of  the  families 
of  the  past  generations,  impressions  of  their  pottery  signa- 
tures, etc.2 

From  Kyoto  we  went  to  Osaka  again.  Here  a  Japanese 
student,  Mr.  Ogawa,  whose  acquaintance  I  had  made  in 
Tokyo,  desirous  of  entertaining  me,  and  not  realizing  that 
I  had  become  accustomed  to  Japanese  food  and  enjoyed  it, 
invited  me  to  a  Japanese  restaurant  to  have  what  was  sup- 
posed to  be  food  cooked  and  served  in  foreign  style.  The 
Japanese  make  excellent  cooks  when  properly  taught.  I  had 
had  experience  in  a  Japanese  foreign  restaurant  before,  but 
of  all  abominable  stuff  the  Osaka  attempt  was  the  climax. 

1  Sketches  of  the  house  and  garden  are  given  in  Japanese  Homes. 

2  This  information  is  given  in  my  Catalogue  of  Japanese  Pottery,  published  by 
the  Boston  Museum  of  Fine  Arts. 

Fig.  603.   A  Potter  making  Flowers  in  Relief  in  a 
Recessed  Panel  on  Vase 


Fig.  604.    An  Artist  decorating  Pottery 
Observe  the  kerosene  oil  lamp 


Every  dish  was  a  travesty,  and  I  wondered  how  the  Japanese 
were  impressed  when,  out  of  curiosity,  they  attempted  our 

Cholera  was  very  prevalent,  and  one  had  to  resist  the  temp- 
tation to  eat  of  everything  raw,  such  as  grapes  and  other  fruit, 
and  green  things  of  various  kinds.  Moreover,  not  a  swallow  of 
cold  water  could  be  drunk.  Tea,  tea,  tea,  morning,  noon,  and 
night,  and  on  every  possible  occasion.  Speaking  of  tea,  how- 
ever, it  is  one  of  the  pleasant  features  of  Japan  that  wherever 
you  go,  friend's  house  or  shop,  tea  is  offered  you.  No  matter 
how  poor  and  humble  the  place,  this  courtesy  is  never  omitted. 
But  we  must  realize  that  preparing  tea  as  they  do  is  a  very 
simple  act,  and  it  is  drunk  without  cream  or  sugar.  Along 
the  road  are  little  resting-places  at  intervals  where  a  tray 
with  tea  and  a  few  rice  cakes  are  offered  you,  for  which  it 
is  customary  to  drop  in  the  tray  a  coin  the  value  of  a  cent. 
You  give  a  public  lecture,  and  instead  of  the  customary 
pitcher  of  cold  water  and  a  glass,  a  tray  with  a  teapot  and 
cup  is  placed  upon  your  desk.  At  the  University  one  man's 
whole  duty  is  to  prepare  tea  for  the  teachers,  and  at  inter- 
vals throughout  the  day  he  brings  to  your  laboratory  a  tea- 
pot of  hot  tea.  The  tea  is  very  mild,  but  always  refreshing. 
For  centuries  the  Japanese  have  realized  the  danger  of 
drinking  water  in  a  country  where  the  sewage  is  saved  and 
utilized  on  the  farms  and  rice-fields. 

A  very  attractive  feature  seen  in  the  paper  shops  are  the 
envelopes  and  writing-paper.  The  envelopes  are  of  compara- 
tively recent  origin,  having  been  adopted  from  abroad.  For- 
merly there  was,  as  with  us  before  the  invention  of  the 

Fig.  605.   Potter  making  Toy  Houses 

The  potter  rolls  the  clay  into  thin  sheets,  cuts  the  sheets  into  desired  shapes  and 
unites  them  with  wet  clay 

Fig.  606.   Potter  applying  Liquid  Glaze  to  Pottery 


envelope,  a  definite  and  formal  way  of  folding  a  letter.  The 
writing-paper  is  in  long  rolls,  six  inches  or  more  in  width. 
The  writing  is  in  vertical  lines  and  the  lines  begin  at  the  right. 
The  writing  is  done  with  a  brush,  the  India  ink  being  rubbed 
for  the  occasion.  The  roll  forms  the  support  upon  which  one 
writes,  beginning  at  the  free  end.  As  line  after  line  is  written 
the  paper  is  unrolled,  and  when  the  letter  is  finished  the  strip 
may  be  five  or  six  feet  in  length.  It  is  then  torn  off  and  loosely 
rolled  up  again,  flattened  by  the  fingers,  and  slipped  into  the 
end  of  the  envelope,  which  is  a  little  longer  than  the  roll  and 
two  inches  or  more  in  width.  The  envelopes,  and  often  the 
paper,  are  made  attractive  by  pretty  designs  in  color,  the 
paper  with  the  lightest  suggestions  of  cherry  blossoms,  petals, 
pine  needles,  and  even  entire  landscapes,  all  subdued  in  color 
so  that  the  writing  is  not  interfered  with.  The  envelopes  have 
more  pronounced  designs,  generally  around  the  margin  so 
as  not  to  interfere  with  the  address.  One  is  amazed  at  the 
infinite  variety  of  designs.  Many  subjects  are  derived  from 
foreign  objects,  some  of  them  prosaic  to  the  last  degree,  yet 
rendered  attractive  by  these  facile  artists.  Many  of  the  de- 
signs are  enigmatical  unless  one  is  familiar  with  the  folklore 
or  mythology  of  the  Japanese.  Others  reveal  their  meaning 
at  once,  as  a  steaming  teapot  in  the  foreground,  and  in  the 
distance  a  railroad  train  or  a  shaft  of  lightning  and  a  telegraph 
pole,  indications  that  the  origin  of  the  discoveries  of  steam 
and  electricity  is  understood. 

My  colleague,  Professor  Mendenhall,  has  lately  been  in- 
terested in  the  speed  of  movements  made  by  insects  and 
snails.    By  carefully  measuring  the  time  made  by  a  large 


species  of  snail,  he  found  that  it  covers  a  mile  in  fourteen 
days  and  eighteen  minutes.  He  also  estimated  the  speed  of 
a  common  species  of  ant,  and  found  that  in  ordinary  walk- 
ing the  creature  moved  at  the  rate  of  one  mile  in  one  day 
and  seven  hours.  These  estimates  are  rough  approximations. 

The  Japanese  remember  sacredly  the  anniversary  of  a 
parent's  death  and  observe  it  with  appropriate  ceremonies. 
Even  the  anniversary  of  a  grandparent's 
death  is  remembered  and  observed, 
fresh  flowers  and  fruit  offerings  being 
placed  before  the  gravestone.  The  Bud- 
dhists also  have  a  stated  festival  for  the 
dead.  A  curious  form  of  lantern  (fig. 
607)  is  made  for  the  occasion,  and  pic- 
tures over  two  hundred  years  old  show 
the  same  form  of  lantern. 

A  brief  visit  again  to  Osaka  gave  me 
an  opportunity  of  visiting  a  few  of  the 
many  places  of  interest.  In  this  great 
city  is  one  of  the  largest  bronze  bells 
in  the  world ;  and  an  ancient  Buddhist 
temple  containing  a  gilded  Buddha,  said 
to  have  been  brought  from  Korea  a 
thousand  years  ago,  and  many  other  features  of  interest. 
Alluring  as  all  these  places  were  I  realized  that  they  had 
already  been  described  in  guidebooks  or  special  memoirs,  and 
throughout  the  keeping  of  this  journal  I  have  endeavored  to 
sketch  and  record  only  those  trifling  matters  so  often  over- 
looked by  the  student  and  traveler. 

Fig.  607 

196  JAPAN  DAY  BY   DAY 

No  one  should  visit  Osaka  without  inspecting  the  ruins  of  a 
famous  castle  built  by  Hideyoshi  in  1583.  These  ruins  stand 
on  a  high  elevation,  and  in  its  time  the  castle  must  have  been 
well-nigh  impregnable.  In  its  second  siege  in  1615  it  was  over- 
thrown and  burned,  and  the  rounded  edges  of  the  huge  blocks 
of  stone  of  which  the  walls  are  built  attest  to  the  intense  heat 
of  the  conflagration.  I  was  permitted  to  roam  about  at  pleas- 

Fig.  608 

ure,  and  no  one  objected  to  the  sketches  I  freely  made.  Figure 
608  represents  the  highest  portion  of  the  castle;  figure  609, 
the  outer  wall.  The  large  block  in  the  centre  is  thirty-five 
feet  in  length  and  ten  or  more  feet  in  thickness  and  height. 
The  stones  were  brought  from  distances  of  fifty  to  a  hun- 
dred miles  in  vessels,  and  the  gigantic  size  of  some  of  them 
baffles  the  imagination  as  to  how  they  were  quarried,  and  it  is 
still  more  inexplicable  as  to  how  they  were  transported  and 
dragged  up  to  the  high  plateau  on  which  the  ruins  stand. 


These  enormous  stones  were  put  in  place  without  steam  der- 
ricks, hydraulic  devices,  or  other  of  the  appliances  of  to-day, 
and  yet  the  ancient  Egyptians  were  performing  similar  mir- 
acles twenty-five  hundred  years  before.  One  hardly  associates 
colossal  structures  with  the  Japanese  after  becoming  familiar 
with  their  diminutive  houses  and  gardens,  the  dainty  dishes, 
and  the  delicate  and  tiny  objects  associated  with  their  life,  and 

Fig.  609 

yet  the  Osaka  castle  is  a  marvel  in  the  gigantic  structure  of  its 
walls.  There  are  many  instances  of  huge  and  ponderous  struc- 
tures, as  the  giant  bells  in  Kyoto  and  Osaka,  the  Dai  Butsu 
in  Kamakura  and  Kara,  and  the  great  stone  tori-i,  but  with 
the  exception  of  the  old  castles  and  castle  walls  and  the  great 
temples,  which  tower  above  the  dwellings  as  the  cathedrals 
dominate  everything  in  Europe,  the  structures  are  usually 
diminutive  and  delicate. 

An  exhibition  of  natural  products  and  manufactures  was 
going  on  at  Osaka,  and  it  was  filled  with  objects  of  various 
kinds.  The  remarkable  character  of  the  people  was  seen  in  the 



great  number  of  devices  which  they  have  adopted  from  Amer- 
ica and  Europe.  The  ability  of  a  nation  not  only  to  recognize 
immediately  the  convenience  and  usefulness  of  a  device,  but 
to  proceed  to  its  adoption  and  manufacture,  is  an  indication 

Fig.  610 

of  the  long  civilization  of  the  people.  Only  a  high  civilization 
is  capable  of  doing  this;  the  savage  and  the  barbarian  are  in- 
capable of  it.  At  the  exhibition  were  the  remains  of  a  boat 
dug  up  near  Osaka.  The  portion  preserved  was  thirty-five 
feet  in  length,  four  and  a  half  feet  in  width,  and  two  feet  in 
depth.  It  was  made  in  two  parts  interlocking,  with  the  wood 
wrought  into  the  bottom  in  such  a  manner  as  to  leave  trans- 
verse loops  through  which  a  bar  passed  to  hold  the  two  parts 
together.  It  was  very  much  decayed  and  the  details  of  its 
structure  were  hard  to  make  out  (figs.  610,  611,  612).  It  was 

Fig.  611 

supposed  to  be  over  a  thousand  years  old.  It  is  curious  that 
a  boat  divided  into  two  portions  may  be  seen  to-day  in  Kago- 
shima  Bay.  (Fig.  568,  p.  154,  vol.  n.) 


The  mosquitoes  are  a  great  scourge  in  Japan.  The  big, 
square,  box-like  netting,  already  described,  enables  one  to  sit 
inside  with  table  and  lamp,  and  in  this  way  in  summer  and 
fall  I  have  been  able  to  write. 

Fig.  612 

My  children  early  adopted  Japanese  dress  as  being  much 
cooler  in  summer  than  their  own  form  of  dress.  Many  of  the 
Japanese  teachers  in  the  University,  while  adopting  our  form 
of  dress,  as  more  convenient  than  theirs  with  the  flowing 
sleeves  and  skirts,  nevertheless  find  their  own  dress  much 
cooler  in  summer  and  warmer  in  winter,  and  always  wear  their 
native  costume  during  hot  and  cold  spells. 



Have  been  hard  at  work  preparing  examination  papers  for 
my  class  in  zoology.  This  forenoon,  I  spent  four  solid  hours  in 
examination,  and  I  pitied  the  students,  for  during  the  whole 
week  they  have  stood  examinations  in  chemistry,  geology, 
paleontology,  and  botany.  These  examinations  are  all  in  Eng- 
lish, a  language  they  have  fully  to  acquire  before  entering  the 

General  Grant,  on  his  way  around  the  world,  is  now  in 
Japan  with  his  wife,  son,  and  Mr.  Young  the  writer.  The 
Americans  in  Tokyo  and  Yokohama  gave  a  dinner  and  recep- 
tion to  him  at  Uyeno  Park.  I  paid  my  subscription,  but  had 
no  special  desire  to  go,  having  no  time  for  such  affairs.  My 
friends,  however,  urged  me  to  do  the  proper  thing,  and  so  re- 
luctantly I  attended  the  dinner.  I  was  presented  to  General 
Grant  in  turn  with  a  long  string  of  others,  and  despite  my  prej- 
udice admired  the  quiet,  dignified,  yet  easy  tone  of  his  voice. 
My  daughter,  who  was  with  me,  greatly  enjoyed  the  affair. 
General  Grant  spoke  to  her  while  she  was  standing  near  a 
doorway,  took  hold  of  her  hand,  and  introduced  his  son  to  her 
with  some  witty  remarks  about  his  little  boy,  who  was  a  six- 
footer,  big  and  robust.  My  prejudices,  due  to  the  infernal 
slanders  of  our  newspapers,  were  promptly  swept  away  when 
I  watched  the  man.  As  others  had  brought  their  boys  to  the 
reception,  I  got  away  quietly  and  hurried  to  Kaga  Yashiki  in 


a  jinrikisha,  and  had  my  boy,  nine  years  old,  awakened  from  a 
sound  sleep,  dressed,  and  hurried  to  the  reception,  that  he 
might  remember  in  after  years  that  he  had  seen  the  great 
General.1  At  the  dinner  General  Grant  did  not  touch  a  drop 
of  wine  of  any  kind,  and  the  stories  of  his  intemperate  hab- 
its, I  was  told,  were  gross  exaggerations.  His  reception  at  the 
College  of  Engineering  was  of  the  greatest  interest.  The  royal 
princesses  in  their  archaic,  yet  beautiful  court  costumes;  mem- 
bers of  the  Chinese  Legation  in  their  curious  and  rich  clothing, 
with  their  white,  conical  hats  with  red  horsetail  plumes  pend- 
ent; the  Koreans  in  their  quaint  garments,  ceremonial  belts, 
and  unique  head-dresses;  European  officials  wearing  their 
decorations  —  were  all  new  and  interesting  to  me.  A  number 
of  teachers  from  the  Nobles'  School,  with  a  class  of  forty 
young  girls,  were  very  attractive,  They  were  all  beautifully 
dressed  and  excited  much  admiration  from  the  foreigners,  of 
whom  there  were  many.  In  the  Japanese  dress  as  seen  in 
masses  the  soft,  harmonious  colors  and  graceful  folds  form  a 
striking  contrast  to  the  dress  of  foreign  ladies.  I  know  of  no 
more  perfect  illustration  of  the  artistic  character  of  the  people 
than  the  grace  and  beauty  of  their  clothing  in  strict  harmony 
with  their  short  stature,  and  their  jet-black  hair  wonderfully 
arranged  and  ornamented.  The  contrast  is  immediately  rec- 
ognized when  they  attempt  our  costume;  their  appearance  is 
sometimes  shocking.  The  charming  group  of  little  girls  and 
their  teachers  stood  near  the  centre  of  the  hall  in  an  innocent, 
bewildered  sort  of  way,  somewhat  abashed  by  the  admiration 

1  Later  by  a  fortunate  coincidence,  we  returned  to  San  Francisco  on  the  same 
steamer  with  General  Grant  and  he  taught  my  son  how  to  play  chess. 


they  excited.  I  got  a  Japanese  to  guide  them  to  where  General 
Grant  stood  with  others  in  receiving.  Later  I  noticed  that  no 
one  helped  them  to  the  ice-cream  and  cake,  so  I  got  a  Japanese 
to  assist  me  in  bringing  them  refreshments.  They  were  all 
sitting  in  a  row  on  the  mats  against  the  wall,  and  it  was  diffi- 
cult for  them  to  hold  the  plate  of  ice-cream  and  cake  in  their 
hands,  and  crumbs  of  cake  naturally  fell  on  the  floor.  A  drop 
of  the  melting  cream  would  drip  on  their  beautiful  crape 
dresses,  and  they  would  laugh  and  carefully  remove  the  drop 
with  paper  they  carried  with  them.  This  paper  was  crumpled 
up  and  stowed  away  in  their  pocket-like  sleeves,  and  when 
they  finally  got  up  to  go  the  mats  were  carefully  scrutinized 
and  every  crumb  gathered  and  wrapped  in  paper  to  be  thrown 
away  later.  It  was  a  revelation  to  me  to  realize  that  children 
of  nobles  were  taught  such  behavior. 

I  was  invited  to  give  a  course  of  four  lectures  at  the  Nobles' 
School,  which  only  the  children  of  nobles  attend.  Count 
Tachibana,  the  Director,  was  a  most  charming  man,  and  pa- 
tiently answered  a  hundred  inquiries  I  made.  Among  other 
questions  I  asked  him  if  the  Japanese  were  ever  demonstra- 
tive in  meeting  after  a  long  absence.  I  was  led  to  ask  this  by 
observing  that  the  Japanese  greeting  seemed  cold  and  formal, 
no  hearty  handshake  or  hearty  embrace.  He  told  me  that  it 
was  not  uncommon  for  Japanese  nobles  after  a  long  absence 
to  greet  each  other  with  an  embrace,  and  he,  putting  his  arms 
about  my  shoulder  to  illustrate,  gave  me  an  affectionate  hug. 
I  may  add  that  later  I  asked  a  dear  little  boy  (now  a  distin- 
guished lawyer  and  at  one  time  Councillor  of  the  Japanese 
Embassy  in  Germany  and  in  the  United  States),  who  called 


me  his  "American  papa,"  if  his  father  never  took  him  in  his 
arms  on  meeting  him  after  an  absence.  "Never,"  he  said. 
"But  how  does  he  show  his  affection?"  "He  shows  it  in  his 
eyes."  And  afterwards  I  was  present  when  his  father,  from  a 
distant  town,  came  to  my  house  and  greeted  the  boy,  his  eyes 
showing  parental  love  in  the  tenderest  manner. 

The  Nobles'  School  is  a  huge,  two-storied,  wooden  building 
with  a  front  of  two  hundred  feet  or  more,  as  barny  and  inartis- 
tic as  many  of  the  structures  the  Japanese  have  erected  after 
foreign  models.  At  the  ends  are  wings  running  backward  a 
hundred  feet  or  more,  and  the  enclosed  ground  space  between 
these  wings  is  utilized  in  making  a  great  map  of  Japan:  the 
ground  built  up  like  a  relief  map  with  mountain  chains,  rivers, 
lakes,  etc.,  the  lakes  filling  with  water  and  the  water  running 
in  the  rivers  when  it  rained;  the  top  of  Fuji  painted  white  to 
represent  snow;  short  green  grass  for  the  levels  and  actual 
rock  for  the  mountains;  and  towns  and  villages  indicated  by 
little  tablets  bearing  the  names  of  the  places.  The  ocean  is 
represented  by  little  gray  pebbles  which,  reflecting  the  rays  of 
the  sun,  glisten  like  water.  Across  this  beautiful  and  instruc- 
tive area  black  wires  are  stretched  to  indicate  the  degrees  of 
latitude  and  longitude.  It  was  a  pretty  sight  to  see  little  girls 
daintily  walking  across  the  pebbles  to  point  out  the  town  or 
village  in  which  they  lived.  The  main  island  of  Japan  ran 
across  the  area  diagonally,  and  was  over  a  hundred  feet  in 
length.  It  was  designed  with  the  delicacy  and  precision  which 
characterize  all  Japanese  work  and  was  in  a  perfect  state  of 
preservation  despite  the  fact  that  it  was  in  a  school  yard 
of  hundreds  of  pupils.  Again  I  could  not  help  surmising  in 


what  condition  a  similar  device  would  be  in  a  school  yard  at 

It  was  in  this  school  that  I  learned  for  the  first  time  that 
even  the  children  of  nobles  dressed  in  the  simplest  and  plain- 
est of  clothing.  They  were  no  better  dressed  than  the  school- 
children of  the  public  schools  from  the  primary  to  the  high 
schools,  though  this  plainness  of  garb  was  in  no  way  a  school 
uniform.  My  attention  has  slowly  been  drawn  to  this  sim- 
plicity of  clothing  of  school-children  no  matter  of  what  grade 
or  class,  and  here  at  the  Nobles'  School  I  got  an  answer  to  my 
query.  Asking  of  Count  Tachibana  an  explanation  of  this 
method  of  simple  dressing,  he  said  it  had  always  been  the  cus- 
tom in  Japan  for  wealthy  families  to  dress  their  children 
plainly  when  they  attended  school  so  that  the  poor  children 
would  not  be  ashamed  of  their  own  clothing!  The  same  in- 
quiry was  afterwards  made  in  the  great  commercial  city  of 
Osaka,  with  the  same  reply. 

My  last  lecture  at  the  Nobles'  School  was  attended  by 
members  of  the  Imperial  family  as  well  as  by  many  nobles  and 
their  families.  Nobles  indeed  they  were  in  their  simplicity  and 
courtesy.  The  unaffected  charm  of  manner  was  beyond  ex- 
pression. It  was  an  interesting  experience,  and  though  awk- 
ward at  first,  in  that  I  had  to  lecture  through  an  interpreter, 
I  finally  got  used  to  uttering  a  sentence  at  a  time  which  my 
interpreter,  Professor  Yatabe,  repeated  in  Japanese.  After 
this  last  lecture  a  regular  course  dinner  was  given  in  our  style, 
and  it  was  excellent.  There  were  three  hundred  and  fifty  at 
the  dinner,  and  I  quietly  observed  their  movements  and  be- 
havior. The  subdued  conversation,  the  modest  acknowledg- 


ments,  the  bows  and  concessions,  were  all  marked  by  extreme 
simplicity  and  exquisite  refinement. 

I  received  an  invitation  to  lecture  before  Mr.  Fukuzawa's 
famous  school.  Among  the  many  distinguished  men  I  have 
met  in  Japan,  Mr.  Fukuzawa  impressed  me  as  one  of  the  stur- 
diest in  activity  and  intellect.  I  illustrated  my  lecture  with 
objects  and  drawings  on  the  blackboard  and  endeavored  to 
explain  to  the  students  the  simple  factors  of  natural  selection. 
In  every  experience  of  this  kind  I  have  noticed  how  quickly 
the  Japanese  grasp  the  points,  and  I  soon  realized  the  reason. 
The  Japanese  are  more  familiar  with  the  animals  and  plants  of 
their  country  than  are  we  with  ours;  indeed,  the  familiarity  of 
the  country  boy  with  flowers,  fungi,  and  insects  and  the  like  is 
akin  to  that  of  those  who  collect  and  study  these  objects  in  our 
country.  The  country  boy  has  common  names  for  hundreds 
of  species  of  insects  where  our  country  boy  has  ten.  I  have 
often  been  amazed  at  his  knowledge  of  structural  detail.  An 
experience  I  had  with  a  little  country  boy  will  illustrate  this. 
I  was  showing  him,  with  the  aid  of  a  pocket  magnifier,  a  pecu- 
liar feature  of  an  elater  beetle  which  when  placed  on  its  back 
jumps  into  the  air.  One  has  to  examine  the  structure  with  a 
lens.  It  consists  of  a  projection  on  the  last  thoracic  ring  be- 
low, and  this  fits  into  a  socket  on  the  first  abdominal  segment. 
The  insect  bends  the  thorax  and  the  abdomen  dorsally  while 
resting  on  its  back;  the  projection  comes  out  of  the  socket  and 
rests  on  the  edge;  and  then,  by  bending  the  body  ventrally, 
the  projection  rests  for  a  moment  on  the  edge  of  the  socket  and 
finally  snaps  in  with  a  violent  jerk  causing  the  beetle  to  jump 
into  the  air  several  inches.  Now,  I  am  sure  that  with  us  only 


entomologists  are  familiar  with  this  structure;  yet  this  Jap- 
anese country  boy  knew  all  about  it,  and  told  me  it  was  called 
a  rice-pounder,  the  spur  or  projection  representing  the  pestle 
and  the  cavity  the  mortar.  The  boy  was  delighted,  however, 
to  see  this  structure  magnified  with  a  fine  lens. 

After  the  lecture  Mr.  Fukuzawa  gave  me  a  remarkable  exhi- 
bition of  fencing  by  the  students.  They  were  all  dressed  in 
fencing  armor.  This  consisted  of  a  thickly  wadded  headpiece, 
with  lappets  protecting  the  neck  and  heavy  bars  of  iron  in 
front  to  protect  the  face,  and  a  stiff  jacket  with  arms  and 
shoulders  additionally  protected  by  polished  pieces  of  bam- 
boo. The  jacket  had  a  skirt  of  several  wadded  lappets.  The 
foil  was  made  up  of  slats  of  bamboo  tied  together  with  a  han- 
dle long  enough  for  the  two  hands  to  grasp  as  in  the  long 
Japanese  sword.  The  great  blow  is  directly  down  upon  the 
head,  and,  with  the  hands  holding  the  foil  vertically,  the  push- 
ing of  one  hand  forward  at  the  same  time  the  lower  hand  is 
drawn  backward  brings  the  sword  down  with  lightning-like 

The  class  was  divided  into  two  groups  of  fifty,  the  leader  of 
each  class  standing  back  with  his  retainers  protecting  him. 
The  leaders  had  tied  on  top  of  the  hood  a  disk  of  soft  pottery, 
two  and  one  half  inches  in  diameter,  with  two  holes  for  the 
string,  and  the  object  wTas  to  smash  the  disk  of  the  opponent. 
The  noise  of  the  clash  was  terrific;  the  slats  of  bamboo  made  a 
resounding  whack,  though  the  blows  did  no  damage.  Mr. 
Fukuzawa  called  my  attention  to  one  of  the  boys  who  was  the 
son  of  a  famous  fencing-master.  It  was  wonderful  to  see  the 
dash  with  which  he  penetrated  the  crowd  and  smashed  the 


pottery  disk  on  the  head  of  his  opponent.  The  disk  flew  into 
many  fragments,  and  one  could  instantly  see  the  result  of  the 
combat.  Though  the  boys  wore  long-sleeved  gauntlets,  many 
came  out  of  the  fray  with  bruises  and  bleeding  scratches  on 
their  wrists. 


JAPAN  IN  1882 

After  an  absence  from  Japan  of  two  years  and  eight  months 
I  arrived  for  the  third  time  in  Yokohama  on  June  5, 1882,  and 
again  experienced  the  novelties  of  sounds,  odors,  and  sights 
which  invariably  impress  the  traveler.  Doctor  William  Stur- 
gis  Bigelow,  an  ardent  admirer  and  collector  of  Japanese  art, 
was  my  companion.  It  was  ten  o'clock  at  night  when  we 
landed,  but  nevertheless,  we  ate  a  hearty  meal  after  having 
nearly  starved  to  death  on  the  steamer,  and  despite  the  rain 
which  was  falling,  started  off  for  a  brief  walk.  Grossing  the 
creek  near  the  hotel  we  sauntered  along  the  narrow  road 
known  as  Homura,  bordered  on  both  sides  by  little  shops, 
most  of  them  closed.  The  people  clattering  along  on  their 
wooden  clogs,  the  flickering  of  lanterns,  the  curious  hum  of 
voices  within  the  houses,  the  odors  of  tea  and  cooked  food,  all 
were  as  interesting  to  me  as  if  I  were  experiencing  them  for 
the  first  time. 

We  went  the  next  morning  to  Tokyo  and  by  jinrikisha  to 
Kaga  Yashiki.  As  the  Ginza  and  Nihonbashi  were  torn  up 
for  the  construction  of  a  horse  railway,  we  rode  through  the 
castle  grounds,  passing  over  the  moat  and  along  its  side  for  a 
while.  As  we  rode  through  the  Hongo  it  was  delightful  to 
see  that  no  changes  had  taken  place.  The  watch-repairer  on 
the  corner;  the  curious  little  dwarf  with  no  chin;  the  fish- 
chopper  with  hisrap-a-tap;  the  gold-beater  w,ith  his  monoton- 


ous  pounding;  the  cooper  and  the  straw-hat  maker,  —  they 
were  all  at  work  as  I  had  left  them  nearly  three  years  ago. 
Great  changes  have  taken  place  in  Kaga  Yashiki.  Large  sheds 
are  erected  back  of  the  house  Dr.  Murray  used  to  occupy,  in 
preparation  for  laying  the  foundation  of  the  University  build- 
ing. Dr.  Murray's  house  has  had  a  large  ell  added  to  it,  and 
the  building  is  to  be  a  school  for  foreign  music.  An  old  teacher 
of  music  in  the  Boston  public  schools,  Dr.  Mason,  has  been 
employed  as  instructor,  and  the  work  he  has  already  accom- 
plished is  little  short  of  marvelous.  He  has  worked  with  de- 
votion with  his  young  pupils  and  the  progress  already  made  is 
incredible.  Foreigners  find  the  greatest  difficulty  in  learning 
Japanese  music,  but  apparently  the  Japanese  children  find 
no  difficulty  in  learning  ours. 

On  the  steamer  coming  over  I  had  given  three  lectures  on 
Evolution,  raising  over  fifty  dollars  for  the  benefit  of  thirteen 
shipwrecked  Japanese  fishermen  who  had  been  rescued  by  the 
United  States  steamer  Pensacola  and  brought  to  San  Fran- 
cisco. The  officers  had  raised  fifty  dollars  for  them  and  pro- 
vided them  with  clothing.  Dressed  in  blue,  with  hats  bearing 
the  name  Pensacola,  they  were  an  odd-looking  lot.  With  Mr. 
Tashiro,  a  Japanese  merchant,  who  came  on  the  same  steamer, 
we  went  to  the  money  exchange  and  I  converted  my  money 
into  Japanese  paper  currency,  getting  nearly  ninety  yen.  We 
then  went  to  a  Japanese  inn  where  the  shipwrecked  men  were 
waiting  to  be  transported  to  their  native  provinces.  Mr. 
Tashiro  ascertained  how  many  had  families.  By  a  tremendous 
feat  of  mathematics  I  found  that  each  man  could  be  given 
three  yen,  each  wife  two  yen,  and  each  child  one  yen.  It  was 


delightful  to  witness  the  pleasure  and  gratitude  they  showed. 
Though  the  amount  was  small,  it  was  for  each  a  month's  earn- 
ings, or  more. 

A  quest  for  pottery  showed  unexpected  conditions,  for 
where  formerly  the  bric-a-brac  shops  were  filled  with  interest- 
ing pieces,  now  they  are  scarce;  tea-jars,  particularly,  as  the 
cult  of  the  tea  ceremony  has  been  revived,  and  tea-bowls,  tea- 
jars,  and  other  utensils  have  come  into  use  again.  Further- 
more, in  England  and  France,  the  collecting  of  Japanese  pot- 
tery has  become  a  craze,  and  a  few  in  the  United  States  have 
begun  to  see  the  charm  of  Japanese  pottery  and  even  art 
museums  are  beginning  to  appreciate  these  objects. 

The  dear  little  boy,  Miyaoka,  who  bade  me  good-bye  nearly 
three  years  ago,  came  to  see  me  to-night  and  I  hardly  knew 
him.  He  was  dressed  in  foreign  clothes  and  had  grown  to 
manhood.  He  had  lost  a  little  of  his  English  and  stuttered 
slightly  when  embarrassed.  When  I  visited  the  Museum  the 
next  morning  I  found  gathered  in  Director  Kato's  room  a 
number  of  the  Japanese  professors  expecting  me;  Professors 
Kikuchi,  Mitsukuri,  Yatabe,  Toyama  and  Vice-Director 
Hattori.  Soon  after,  Dr.  Kato  came  in.  If  warmth  of  hand- 
shaking and  hearty  voices  betoken  anything,  it  was  evident 
that  they  were  as  glad  to  greet  me  as  I  was  to  greet  them. 
The  finest  tea  in  Kutani  cups  and  the  best  cigars  were  passed 
around  and  we  had  a  delightful  time  comparing  notes.  All  the 
clerks  bowed  profoundly,  the  servants  smiled  a  glad  welcome, 
and  I  felt  that  I  had  not  been  forgotten.  With  Professor  Mi- 
tsukuri, who  is  Professor  of  Zoology,  I  entered  the  old  labora- 
tory.  My  old  servant,  Matsu,  fairly  beamed  with  joy.    Mr. 


Ishikawa  was  working  away  at  some  exquisite  drawings;  Mr. 
Tanada,  my  former  assistant,  was  on  hand  looking  a  little 
older,  but  was  the  same  faithful  fellow.  He  has  charge  of  the 
Museum,  and  Matsu  has  become  one  of  the  officers  of  the  col- 
lege with  higher  pay. 

After  looking  about  for  a  while  we  crossed  the  street  to  a 
large  two-storied  building  erected  since  I  was  here  before. 
This  was  the  Zoological  Museum.  The  last  work  I  did  before 
I  went  home  was  to  draw  the  plans  of  a  two-storied  building. 
My  plans  had  been  carried  out  to  the  letter.  Many  new  cases 
had  been  built  similar  to  the  first  ones  I  made,  and  I  must 
confess  to  a  feeling  of  gratification  when  I  entered  the  main 
hall  to  see  a  full-sized  portrait  of  myself,  neatly  framed,  hang- 
ing on  one  side  of  the  main  entrance,  with  the  Director's  por- 
trait on  the  other  side.  The  artist  who  drew  the  pottery  for 
my  Omori  shell  mound  memoir  had  made  a  full-sized  portrait 
from  a  small  photograph,  and  had  certainly  got  a  good  like- 
ness. The  Museum  wTas  in  far  better  condition  than  I  had 
expected  to  find  it,  though  I  can  see  that  my  help  will  brighten 
it  a  little. 

In  the  afternoon  Dr.  Bigelow  and  I  were  invited  by  Mr. 
Takamine  to  dinner  at  his  house  at  Koishikawa,  Mr.  Miyaoka 
and  his  brother,  Mr.  Takenaka,  coming  for  us  to  show  us  the 
way.  The  house  and  garden  were  in  pure  Japanese  style.  One 
room  only  was  furnished  with  bed,  high  desk,  tables,  chairs, 
and  the  like,  as  Mr.  Takamine,  a  graduate  of  the  Oswego 
Normal  School,  found  our  ways  more  convenient.  Among 
other  features  of  interest  he  had  an  archery  range.  I  tried 
shooting,  but  found  the  bow  very  awkward,  as  their  method 


of  release  with  the  arrow  on  the  right  of  the  bow  is  so  different 
from  our  method  of  shooting.  He  had  also  a  croquet  ground, 
and  his  mother,  a  sweet  old  lady,  and  Takamine's  brother 
played.  Young  Mrs.  Takamine  is  charming  and  very  intelli- 
gent, speaking  English  fluently.  About  six  o'clock  dinner  was 
brought  in  for  three,  the  ladies  and  boys  acting  as  waiters. 
It  was  a  most  delicious  dinner  in  pure  Japanese  style,  and  it 
was  interesting  to  see  how  promptly  Dr.  Bigelow  ate  every 
course  with  a  genuine  relish.  Before  we  had  finished  our  din- 
ner two  beautiful  kotos  (Japanese  harps)  were  brought  in  and 
placed  on  the  mats.  One  belonged  to  young  Mrs.  Takamine, 
the  other  to  her  blind  teacher,  one  of  the  most  famous  koto 
players  in  Tokyo.  Mrs.  Takamine  revealed  herself  as  a  skill- 
ful player.  She  then  brought  out  a  violin,  and  the  blind 
teacher  tuned  his  koto  to  the  scale  of  our  music,  the  bridges 
supporting  the  strings  being  moved  up  and  down  the  instru- 
ment to  bring  it  in  tune  with  the  violin.  I  wondered  what  kind 
of  an  ear-destroying  performance  was  coming,  for  it  seemed 
incredible  that  Mrs.  Takamine  should  be  able  to  make  a  true 
note  on  so  difficult  an  instrument  as  a  violin.  I  was  not  pre- 
pared for  the  surprise  that  followed,  for  she  played  with  great 
strength  and  accuracy  "Auld  Lang  Syne,"  "Home,  Sweet 
Home,"  and  "  Glorious  Apollo,"  while  the  blind  teacher  played 
an  elaborate  accompaniment  on  the  koto,  such  as  one  might 
play  on  the  harp.  Mrs.  Takamine  played  without  her  notes, 
and  the  blind  player,  of  course,  had  never  been  able  to  see  a 
note!  The  music  was  simple  enough,  but  the  perfect  harmony 
in  the  performance  was  what  amazed  me.  Her  violin  instruc- 
tion covered  only  forty-seven  days.    I  hardly  knew  which 


most  to  admire,  Mrs.  Takamine  playing  on  a  foreign  and  dif- 
ficult instrument  or  the  koto  player  changing  his  instrument 
and  playing  in  a  key  and  scale  entirely  foreign  to  him  and 
playing  in  a  very  elaborate  manner.  We  stayed  very  late  and 
the  experience  was  delightful. 

June  10.  At  the  dry-goods  shop  and  at  other  places  where 
my  children  used  to  go  I  was  immediately  recognized,  and 
inquiries  were  made  for  0  baa  san,  John  san,  and  0  Edie  san. 
Tatsu,  my  old  jinrikisha  man,  with  his  little  girl,  called  on  me, 
and  the  next  day  his  wife  came  with  a  present  of  a  box  of  cake 
from  Tatsu. 

June  15.  Attended  the  parting  dinner  given  to  Professors 
Netto,  Chaplin,  and  Houghton.  The  dinner  was  given  in  a 
new  building  at  Shiba  Park  known  as  the  Koyokwan,  be- 
longing to  a  club  of  Japanese.  The  rooms  are  very  beautiful; 
wonderful  bits  of  old  wood-carving  have  been  worked  into  the 
rooms  in  a  very  effective  manner.  The  dinner  was  excellent  as 
all  good  Japanese  dinners  are.  Before  we  were  through  some 
old  Japanese  comic  acting  was  introduced,  one  act  being  a 
man  fighting  the  spirit  of  a  mosquito.  Koto  players  gave 
some  curious  music.  (I  was  told  by  a  Japanese  that  their  word 
for  music,  literally  translated,  meant  "  tone  pleasure.")  After 
dinner  the  geisha  girls  danced  and  sang  and  the  same  old  jug- 
gler that  I  saw  here  three  years  ago  performed  his  tricks.  When 
I  came  away  a  box  was  given  me  which  contained  cake  and 
candy.  The  box,  eight  inches  square,  was  made  of  thin  white 
wood  and  a  little  handle  to  the  cover  was  cut  out  of  green 


bamboo  (fig.  613).    (I  was  told  by  Takamine  that  the  bam- 
boo attained  its  growth  in  one  year.) 

I  called  on  Ninagawa  and  it  seemed  to  give  him  a  melancholy 
pleasure  to  see  me.  He  appeared  not  a  day  older  than  when  I 
last  saw  him.  I  bought  of  him  one  hundred  and  twenty-seven 

pieces  of  pottery,  many  very 
rare.  I  attended  a  meeting 
of  the  Biological  Society  at 
the  University.  The  society 
has  now  thirty-eight  mem- 
bers. I  gave  them  a  little 
talk  on  changes  of  fauna. 
Mr.  Ishikawa  communicated 
some  facts  regarding  pro- 
tective coloring  in  Crustacea. 
It  was  interesting  to  see 
the  society  which  I  had  es- 
tablished not  only  in  exis- 
tence, but  holding  its  regu- 
lar monthly  meetings. 
The  University  authorities  have  given  me  a  little  house  just 
back  of  the  astronomical  observatory.  The  house  has  two 
rooms,  one  of  which  Dr.  Bigelow  has,  and  a  large  closet,  and 
accommodations  for  a  Japanese  servant  and  his  wife.  Back  of 
the  house  is  the  insane  hospital,  and  we  are  lulled  to  sleep  by 
the  songs  of  the  maniacs,  enlivened  now  and  then  by  the 
shrieks  of  some  cases  of  acute  mania. 

By  appointment  my  old  jinrikisha  man  came  for  me  to  take 
me  to  his  home.   He  was  neatly  dressed,  and  though  I  sug- 

Fig.  613 


gested  going  in  my  own  jinrikisha,  he  leading  the  way,  he 
would  not  listen  to  it,  but  insisted  upon  taking  me  off  in  tri- 
umph for  a  ride  of  three  miles.  He  has  a  nice  house,  given  to 
him  by  his  father,  who  lives  in  Owari.  His  wife  and  child  were 
dressed  in  their  best,  and  cake,  candy,  and  tea  were  offered  me, 
and  I  endeavored  to  show 
my  appreciation  of  their  wel- 
come. Conversation  is  diffi- 
cult between  persons  who  do 
not  speak  each  other's  lan- 
guage, and  so  we  had  to  con- 
verse with  bows  and  smiles. 
I  was  asked  to  remain  to  din- 
ner, but  excused  myself  on  ac- 
count of  other  appointments. 
This  evening  I  attended  a 
dinner  in  foreign  style  given 
by  the  Japanese  professors  at 
the  Seiyoken.  Dr.  Bigelow 
was  also   invited.     Imagine 

my  surprise  and  delight  when  I  found  that  they  had  invited 
a  number  of  my  old  friends.  There  were  thirty-two  present, 
all  Japanese,  and  as  I  passed  round  the  room,  greeting  each 
one  in  turn,  I  was  glad  to  find  that  not  a  single  name  had  I 
forgotten.  One  Japanese  said  that  he  had  been  associated 
with  his  English  professor  for  a  year  or  more  and  the  English- 
man could  not  call  him  by  his  right  name  yet!  It  was  gratify- 
ing to  find  that  all  my  old  special  students  were  professors 
in  the  University,  or  in  other  colleges,  while  my  old  assistant 


is  now  permanently  engaged  as  an  officer  of  the  Museum. 
Professor  Toyama  made  the  address  of  welcome  in  English; 
Mr.  Fujita,  of  the  Hochi  Shinbun  (newspaper),  made  a  speech 
in  Japanese.  Mr.  Kaneko,  in  his  speech,  directed  part  of  it 
to  Dr.  Bigelow,  and  the  Doctor  made  his  first  after-dinner 
speech  in  return.  He  urged  the  importance  and  necessity  of 

Fig.  615 

the  Japanese  adhering  to  their  own  methods  of  drawing  and 
painting.  It  was  certainly  the  most  delightful  experience  I 
ever  had. 

The  construction  of  a  house  near  by  gives  me  the  opportun- 
ity to  watch  every  detail  of  the  work.  Mr.  Greenough,  a  Bos- 
ton architect,  on  his  way  to  India,  tells  me  that  the  Japanese 
way  of  mortising  beams,  curious  as  it  is,  is  no  better  than  the 
method  practiced  by  our  carpenters.  Certainly  the  Japanese 
mortising  is  very  complex  in  design.  Mr.  Greenough  admired 
the  way  the  Japanese  use  the  adze  and  would  like  to  see  more 
of  that  kind  of  work  in  America.  The  Japanese  tools  seem 
sharper  than  ours,  and  the  planed  surfaces  of  the  woods  are 

(Character  reversed  on  screen) 

Fig.  616 


delightful  to  smooth  with  the  hands.  Dr.  Bigelow  called  my 

attention  to  the  fact  that  in  a  Japanese  saw  the  teeth  are 

small  near  the  hand,  but 

increase  in  size  toward  the 

end.1   The  roofing  tiles  are 

bedded  in  dark,  sticky  mud 

which  is  kneaded  into  balls 

and  is  passed  up  from  one 

man    to    another    till    it 

reaches  the  roof  (fig.  614). 
A  few  days  ago  a  Japa- 
nese sword  dealer,  of  whom 

Dr.  Bigelow  had  bought  a 

good  many  swords  and  sword-guards,  offered  to  bring  his 

friends  to  the  yashiki  and  show  the  Japanese  style  of  fencing. 
He  came  accompanied  by  a  number  of 
famous  fencers  and  wrestlers.  It  was  an 
interesting  sight  to  see  them  grouped  on 
the  grass  in  front  of  the  house.  A  long 
white  curtain,  decorated  in  black  with 
swords  and  Chinese  characters,  was  hung 
up  as  an  awning,  making  a  protection  from 
the  oblique  rays  of  the  sun  (fig.  615).  The 
characters  and  sketch  (fig.  616)  were  re- 
peated on  the  screen.  They  fenced  with 
foils  of  bamboo,  with  spear  and  sword, 
and  with  a  weapon  known  as  the  "chain 
This  weapon  was  used  in  feudal  times,  and  their 

Details  of  house  construction  are  given  in  Japanese  Homes. 

Fig.  617 


Fig.  618 


handling  of  it  was  very  interesting  to  watch.  A  peculiar  kind 
of  wrestling  called  jujitsu  was  demonstrated,  in  which  one  was 

taught  how  to  kill  a 
man  in  combat  with- 
out the  use  of  weapons. 
In  this  method  of  wres- 
tling, a  weaker  man  is 
taught  how  to  take  ad- 
vantage of  the  efforts 
of  a  stronger  man.  It 
was  impossible  to  get 
any  sketches  of  the 
fencers  so  rapid  were  their  movements,  but  a  few  outlines 
were  made  of  their  weapons  (fig.  617).  The  fencers  stooped 
opposite  one  another  with  their  masks 
on  the  ground.  When  their  names 
were  announced  they  tied  on  their 
masks  (fig.  618)  and  banged  away  at 
one  another  in  lusty  fashion,  keeping 
up  a  most  infernal  yelling  at  the  same 
time.  These  men  had  come  to  the  ya- 
shiki  expressly  to  demonstrate  to  for- 
eigners their  various  arts  of  fencing, 
and  their  services  were  given  gratui- 

In  making  tea,  if  the  tea  is  choice, 
the  teapot  is  first  filled  with  water  hot 
from  the  kettle.   The  water  is  then  poured  away,  and  the 
tea  is  immediately  put  in,  and  at  the  same  time  the  cups  are 

Fig.  619 



filled  with  water.  The  tea  becomes  slightly  moist  in  the 
teapot  from  the  steam  which  remains,  and  the  water  in  the 
cups  is  then  poured  into  the  teapot,  and  though  lukewarm 
a  fine  flavor  is  produced.  Care  is  taken  not  to  pour  the  tea 
from  the  canister  directly  into  the  teapot,  as  the  steam  would 
affect  the  tea  in  the  canister.  It  must  be  taken  out  with  a 
scoop.  Even  the  tea-scoops  are  dainty  bits  of  art.  Figure  619 
represents  a  few  forms.  Miyaoka 
while  illustrating  this  process  told 
me  that  if  a  man  had  drunk  too 
much  sake  the  night  before,  the  tea 
grounds  of  tea  made  in  this  way, 
eaten  with  a  little  sauce,  was  an  ex- 
cellent antidote. 

On  June  30  I  gave  a  public  lecture 
under  the  auspices  of  the  Biological 
Society  in  a  large  hall  recently  built 
in  foreign  style  and  having  a  capa- 
city for  seating  fifteen  hundred  per- 
sons.   It  was  densely  crowded  when 

I  got  there.  Mr.  Ariga  acted  as  my  interpreter,  and  my  sub- 
ject was  the  antiquity  of  man  with  a  sketch  of  the  evidences 
of  his  lowly  origin.  In  my  audience  were  several  Buddhist 
priests  and  one  Korean.  I  saw  many  familiar  faces,  and  it 
seemed  like  getting  back  among  old  friends  as  they  watched 
me  with  kindly  eyes.  Many  Japanese  ladies  were  present, 
Viscount  Tanada  and  his  wife,  Ninagawa,  and  other  anti- 
quarians and  scholars.  Figure  620  represents  the  ticket  of 

&$ <T>  <!>  <t>  35  2>  3>  2>  <M>  <!>*J»5 

Fig.  620 


The  other  night  a  number  of  Koreans  came  to  the  observa- 
tory with  Mr.  Dan,  who  had  them  in  charge.  I  was  presented 
to  them  collectively,  and  they  immediately  bowed  and  pre- 
sented their  cards  and  we  exchanged.  The  Koreans  seemed 
much  interested  in  what  they  saw  and  were  a  fine-looking  body 
of  men.  Their  dress  was  of  silk  and  more  like  the  Chinese  than 
the  Japanese  dress.  Their  hats,  which  were  tied  on  with  rib- 
bon behind  the  ears,  terminating  in  a  long  pendant  in  front, 
appeared  to  be  made  of  mosquito  netting,  but  were  made  of 


Fig.  621 

horsehair,  and  within  could  be  seen  their  hair  tied  in  a  knot. 
Their  language  sounded  like  a  cross  between  that  of  the  Japa- 
nese and  Chinese.  I  talked  with  them  through  a  Japanese  in- 
terpreter who  could  not  speak  English,  so  I  had  first  to  converse 
with  Mr.  Dan  in  English  and  he  translated  my  words  into  Jap- 
anese, and  the  interpreter  converted  them  into  Korean.  I  also 
talked  to  them  directly  with  my  limited  knowledge  of  Japa- 
nese, for  in  their  residence  here  they  had  picked  up  about 
as  much  Japanese  as  I  had.  They  shook  hands  cordially  on 
going  away. 

Figure  621  is  a  rough  sketch  of  the  house  in  which  the  jani- 
tor of  the  observatory  and  his  wife  reside.  My  room  (fig.  622) 



is  about  twelve  feet  square,  and  in  it  I  have  a  double  bed,  two 
trunks,  a  desk,  two  bureaus,  two  chairs,  and  a  washstand. 
The  bureaus  are  entirely  covered  with  pottery,  books,  papers, 
etc.  One  may  imagine  how  I  am  crowded,  and  yet  I  enjoy 
having  things  where  I  can  literally  lay  my  hands  upon  them. 
Mr.  Takenaka,  who  is  a  student  in  the  Medical  College, 
which  is  carried  on  by  German  doctors,  and  where  the  instruc- 

Fig.  622 

tion  is  in  German,  is,  of  course,  a  good  German  scholar,  but  he 
has  learned  English  from  his  younger  brother,  Miyaoka.  He 
has  given  me  many  items  of  interest.  The  Medical  College 
that  he  attends  has  for  this  year  (1882)  1457  students,  of 
whom  397  are  in  the  preparatory  school;  159  are  studying 
medicine  and  surgery  in  German;  818  are  studying  medicine 
and  surgery  in  Japanese;  and  83  are  studying  pharmacy.  It  is 
really  wonderful  that  the  Japanese  are  so  promptly  giving  up 
the  ancient  practice  of  Chinese  medicine  and  adopting  what 


their  common  sense  teaches  them  is  based  on  reason  and  sci- 
ence—  remarkable  in  the  fact  that  next  to  one's  religious 
belief  one  clings  to  one's  methods  of  medical  practice,  no 
matter  how  absurd  they  may  be. 

Dr.  Bigelow  and  I  were  invited  to  the  house  of  Mr.  Kik- 
kawa,  whose  family  runs  back  thirty  generations.  Mr. 
Kikkawa  was  formerly  Daimyo  of  the  Province  of  Suo.  He 
has  a  large  estate  and  five  houses  near  the  Meganebashi.  A 
large  gate  was  swung  open  on  our  arrival  and  an  attendant 
escorted  us  ceremoniously  through  certain  passages  to  rooms 
where  we  were  introduced  to  Mr.  Kikkawa  and  to  several 
officers  of  the  household.  Then  we  were  led  upstairs  to  a 
beautiful  room  having  that  simplicity  of  detail  and  absolute 
cleanliness  that  characterize  their  house  interiors.  Mr.  Naka- 
wara  acted  as  interpreter.  In  the  recesses  of  the  room  were 
most  superb  specimens  of  gold  lacquer  and  rare  old  kakemono. 
The  guardian  of  the  family  —  I  suppose  one  might  say  the 
steward  —  was  a  delightful  spirit  of  the  past.  Compliments 
were  exchanged,  and  then,  on  our  expressing  a  wish  to  see  ex- 
amples of  ancient  swords,  one  after  another  was  brought  out, 
each  sword  in  a  silk  bag  contained  in  a  fine  lacquer  box  on 
which  was  the  crest  of  the  family  in  gold.  The  first  one  shown 
was  seven  hundred  years  old  and  had  been  used  by  an  ancient 
Kikkawa  in  beheading  some  famous  opponent.  The  scab- 
bard was  of  leather  as  was  also  the  cord  which  bound  the  han- 
dle. Portions  of  this  were  reduced  to  powder  by  age  and  this 
powder  was  wrapped  in  paper.  This  scabbard,  handle,  guard, 
and  other  parts  were  laid  out  on  the  mats  with  great  formal- 
ity and  dignity,  and  we  were  invited  to  examine  the  blade. 


Other  swords  were  shown  us,  and  such  magnificent  blades  I 
never  saw  before.  The  Doctor  went  wild  over  them,  but  this 
enthusiasm  on  both  our  parts  was  suppressed  to  the  last  de- 
gree. It  was  very  interesting  to  see  Mr.  Kikkawa  kneeling  in 
an  immovable  attitude  and  all  the  attendants,  never  for  a 
moment  forgetting  their  dignity,  speaking  in  low,  measured 
tones  with  that  interrupted  and  hesitating  manner  betokening 
the  utmost  humility  and  awe. 

We  expressed  a  wish  to  see  a  beautiful  piece  of  lacquer  in 
one  of  the  recesses.  The  attendant  who  brought  it  rose  from 
his  knees  in  one  movement,  reverently  approached  the  piece, 
knelt  down  before  it,  gently  took  it  in  his  hands,  rose  again  in 
the  same  manner  and  with  measured  step  approached  us, 
again  knelt  down,  and  deposited  the  box  where  we  could 
examine  it.  These  attendants  were  all  high  samurai  and  have 
their  own  attendants  in  Suo,  where  the  Kikkawa  family  have 
a  residence,  and  at  which  place  they  have  fine  old  pottery, 
lacquer,  and  pictures  which  will  be  brought  to  Tokyo  as  soon 
as  the  brick  fireproof  building  is  finished.  We  saw  the  building 
on  entering  the  gate. 

During  our  visit  servants  came  into  the  room  at  intervals 
bearing  in  their  partly  outstretched  arms  the  low  bon,  or  tray, 
containing  delicious  food.  We  had  a  most  enjoyable  time,  and 
realized  that  we  had  had  a  genuine  glimpse  of  one  of  the  many 
interesting  features  of  old  Japan.  When  we  came  away  we 
were  given  a  little  souvenir  of  Suo,  consisting  of  a  thin  wooden 
box  about  four  inches  long  lined  with  gold  paper,  across  which 
was  a  narrow  strip  of  black  cloth  on  which  were  pasted  seven 
caddis  worm-cases  (fig.  623) !  These  common  objects  in  our 


streams  are  found  in  the  river  at  Iwakuni.  On  the  outside  was 
a  picture  of  the  wonderful  wooden  arched  bridge  with  a  curi- 
ous formula  of  trusses. 

I  was  shown  through  the  insane  asylum  near  the  house.  It 
was  interesting  to  see  the  same  expressions  on  the  faces  of 
these  unfortunate  creatures  that  one  may  see  in  going  through 
our  asylums  at  home,  —  dementia,  melancholia,  acute  mania, 
and  other  types  of  mental  disease. 

Fig.  623 

We  heard  the  most  wonderful  music  of  the  flute  by  a  Japa- 
nese court  musician.  The  flute,  much  larger  than  ours,  was 
made  of  bamboo,  and  the  number  and  position  of  the  openings 
were  different  from  those  in  our  flute.  The  enjoyment  for  us 
consisted  in  the  delicious  contrasts  between  note  after  note. 
The  notes  were  long  and  of  exquisite  purity.  It  was  a  revela- 
tion to  us.  With  harmony  one  gets  these  effects  in  our  music, 
but  in  Japanese  music  there  is  no  harmony,  only  melody.  In 
the  "Oratorio  of  St.  Paul,"  our  leader,  Carl  Zerrahn,  always 
became  specially  alert  in  anticipation  of  a  delicious  terminal 
note  in  one  phrase  in  the  choral  "To  God  on  High." 

On  July  2  I  attended  a  public  exhibition  of  the  normal 


school  classes  that  Mr.  Mason  has  trained  to  sing  in  our  meth- 
ods. The  exhibition  was  in  the  old  Chinese  college,  a  fine  hall 
with  good  acoustic  properties.  Class  after  class  came  in  and 
sang  various  selections.  The  music  was  our  common  school 
music,  and  therefore  not  very  difficult,  yet  it  was  amazing  to 

Fig.  624 

hear  them  sing  in  our  way.  Their  voices  lacked  the  vim  and 
snap  that  are  characteristic  of  our  school-children,  yet  there 
was  no  doubt  that  the  Japanese  could  be  taught  to  sing  in 
our  way;  whether  it  is  desirable  to  engraft  our  musical  meth- 
ods on  them  is  another  question.  There  was  piano  playing, 
and  some  of  it  was  remarkably  good;  also  an  orchestra  of 


violins,  clarinet,  flute,  bass-viol,  etc.,  which  played  "Glorious 
Apollo,"  "Angel  of  Peace,"  "Men  of  Harlech,"  and  other 
compositions,  and  really  did  very  well.  Kosaka  Sankishi,  a 
little  boy  of  five  years,  scarcely  large  enough  to  reach  the  keys, 
played  some  simple  thing  on  the  piano  with  remarkable 

skill  (fig.  624).  His  play- 
ing excited  a  good  deal  of 
interest,  and  Mr.  Mason 
called  him  a  Japanese 
Mozart !  Figure  625  rep- 
resents him  writing  mu- 
sic on  a  black-board  as 
Mr.  Mason  played  it  on 
the  violin.  The  boy  then 
sang  it,  and  it  was  re- 
markable to  see  how  rap- 
idly he  caught  the  notes. 
He  was  so  small  that  a 
stool  was  needed  to  en- 
able him  to  reach  the 
blackboard,  but  he  was  a 
bright  little  fellow,  and  when  I  showed  him  the  rough  sketches 
I  had  made  of  him  he  seemed  to  appreciate  them. 

One  morning  my  servant  called  my  attention  to  a  curious 
procession  of  worms,  evidently  the  maggot  of  some  fly.  They 
were  transparent  or  colorless  larvae  about  a  third  of  an  inch  long, 
having  black  heads,  and  being  very  moist  they  were  adhering 
to  one  another  and  were  crawling  in  a  long  compact  mass 
across  a  smooth  walk  in  front  of  my  room.  They  glided  over 

Fig.  625 


one  another,  and  only  in  this  way  could  they  crawl  over  the 
dry  surface,  and  in  no  other  way  could  they  protect  them- 
selves from  the  number  of  little  yellow  ants  that  hovered  on 
the  flanks  of  the  column.  Now  and  then  a  worm  got  detached 
from  the  column  and  the 

£  Mr 

ants  immediately  seized  the     -s&^^^^^^^^^iBmmJ^ 
straggler   and    dragged  it  ^ 

away.   If  the  forward  end  Fig.  626 

of  the  column  was  dis- 
turbed, the  entire  column  instantly  stopped.  I  dug  a  long 
ditch  in  front  of  the  column,  and  it  was  interesting  to  observe 
the  leaders  deploy  in  fan  shape  to  feel  for  a  place  to  cross. 
Figure  626  shows  a  portion  of  the  column,  which  was  two  feet 
long,  and  figure  627  shows  the  head  of  the  column  deploying. 
The  column  made  its  way  slowly  to  the  side  of  the  house  and 
then  disappeared  in  a  crevice.  It  was  evident  that  this  method 
— of  traveling  was  a  means  of  protection,  for  an 

ant  could  not  pull  away  an  individual  worm 

from  the  mass. 

July  5,  I  was  invited  to  give  a  lecture  before 

the  Japanese  Fish  Commission  and  had  an 
Fig.  627 

audience  of  intelligent  Japanese.    One  of  the 

princes  I  had  met  at  the  Nobles'  School  was  in  attendance 
and  greeted  me  very  kindly.  I  spoke  of  the  work  accom- 
plished by  the  fish  commissions  of  Europe  and  America  and 
the  success  attending  the  artificial  propagation  of  fish  and 
other  marine  forms. 

Takenaka  tells  me  many  items  of  interest.   In  mentioning 
some  of  our  proverbs  or  sayings  he  matched  them  with  similar 


ones  in  Japan;  thus,  "Every  little  helps,  as  the  old  woman  said 
when  she  tried  to  row  a  boat  with  a  needle";  the  Japanese  say, 
"To  dip  out  the  ocean  with  a  shell,"  and  also,  "To  make  a 
hole  in  a  mountain  with  an  awl";  and  in  describing  a  dense 
crowd  in  a  hall,  "There  was  no  room  to  put  an  awl  to  the 
floor."  Our  saying,  "Lock  the  barn  door  after  the  horse  is 
stolen,"  is  paralleled  by  the  Japanese  saying,  "Carry  the 
stick  after  the  quarrel." 

In  numbering  the  volumes  of  their  books,  besides  the  usual 
1,  2,  3  the  Japanese  use  other  characters.  For  example,  if 
there  are  three  volumes  they  use  the  characters  for  "above," 
"middle,"  "below";  if  there  are  two  volumes,  "above"  and 
"below";  or  for  a  work  of  three  volumes  they  may  use  the 
characters  meaning  "heaven,"  "earth,"  and  "man";  two 
volumes  may  be  designated  by  characters  meaning  "north- 
west" and  "northeast."  It  is  customary  in  the  case  of  a  num- 
ber of  volumes  to  preface  the  numbering  by  a  character  which 
means  "roll,"  as  in  ancient  times  the  books  were  in  form  of 
rolls;  our  word  "volume"  has  the  same  origin.  The  Japanese 
signs  of  the  zodiac  are  called  after  the  names  of  animals,  as 
with  us.  The  compass  is  also  divided  into  twelve  points  with 
the  signs  of  the  zodiac;  north,  being  "rat";  east,  "rabbit"; 
south,  "horse";  west,  "birds."  There  are  two  intermediate 
points  between  these  greater  ones,  and  for  northeast  they  have 
the  name  "bull-tiger." 

The  Japanese  used  to  have  many  superstitions  about  build- 
ing a  house  that  are  still  believed  in  by  the  lower  classes. 
Takenaka  said  that  when  he  was  a  small  boy  and  the  family 
moved  to  Tokyo,  his  father  consulted  a  compass  and  found 


that  a  certain  part  of  the  house  was  not  in  the  right  direction, 
and  on  account  of  this  he  after  a  while  moved  into  another 
house.  This  superstition  has  long  been  outgrown  by  the  intel- 
ligent classes.  It  is  a  common  matter  when  friends  meet  to 
allude  to  the  last  time  they  met  or  to  speak  of  a  letter  they 
may  have  written  to  one  another. 

A  region  in  Tokyo,  known  as  Asakusa,  is  famous  for  its  high 
temple  and  avenue  lined  with  toy  shops  and  curious  side- 
shows, and  flocks  of  pigeons  which  alight  upon  you.  The  Doc- 
tor and  I  visited  one  of  these  shows.  There  was  a  little  room 

Fig.  628 

with  seats  for  thirty  or  forty  persons,  and  a  raised  table,  be- 
hind which  were  a  number  of  small  cages  containing  a  peculiar 
species  of  native  bird  smaller  than  our  sparrow  and  very  intel- 
ligent. The  man  who  exhibited  them  had  the  kindest  manner 
and  a  most  winning  face,  and  seemed  to  have  the  most  perfect 
control  over  the  birds.  The  little  fellows  were  pecking  away 
at  their  cages  impatient  to  come  out  and  go  through  their 
tricks.  Some  of  them  were  remarkable.  One  wondered  how 
they  could  have  been  trained  to  do  such  things. 

I  made  the  most  hasty  sketches,  which  will,  nevertheless, 
present  a  better  idea  of  the  tricks  than  any  descriptions  could 


do.  In  figure  628  the  cages  stood  open  opposite  each  other,  a 
foot  apart,  and  a  little  toy  horse  stood  between.  In  this  trick 
one  bird  jumps  on  the  horse,  while  the  other  takes  the  reins  in 
his  bill  and  drags  the  horse  about  the  table  by 
a  series  of  jerks.  It  was  amusing  to  see  the 
prompt  way  in  which  the  birds  came  out  of 
their  cages  and  went  through  the  trick.  In 
another  trick  (fig.  629)  a  bird  hops  up  a  ladder, 
step  by  step,  to  a  staging  above  and  draws  up 
a  bucket  with  his  beak,  holding  on  to  the  slack 
string  with  his  feet.  In  the  next  trick  (fig.  630)  four  birds 
come  out  of  their  respective  cages,  and  three  of  them  peck 
away  at  the  drums  and  samisens  which  are  fixed  to  little  plat- 
forms, while  the  fourth  tosses  about  some  bells  and  jingling 
affairs  that  lie  upon  the  table.  Of  course  no  music  is  made  nor 

Fig.  629 



Fig.  630 

time,  but  a  lively  noise  is  kept  up,  and  it  is  interesting  to  see 
the  birds  go  through  their  parts  so  eagerly. 

In  figure  631  a  bird  runs  from  its  cage,  mounts  a  flight  of 


steps  to  a  bell  tower,  and  pulls  the  swinging  stick  so  as  to  ring 
the  bell  after  Japanese  fashion.  Figure  632  represents  a  bird 
shooting  with  a  bow.  What  he  really  does  is  to  detach  the 
string  from  a  notch  in  the 
stick  which  terminates  in  a 
horse's  head  (a  hobby  horse 
which  is  a  common  toy  for 
Japanese  children).  The  ar- 
row is  shot,  however,  and  the 
fan  which  forms  the  target 
drops  from  its  support. 

In  figure  633  a  bird  runs  out 
and  pulls  a  string,  which  rings 
a  bell  in  front  of  a  shrine. 

The  bird  then  runs  to  a  box 

,      .  .  .  r  x.  Fig.  631 

and   picking  coins  from  the 

table,  drops  them  into  the  box.    In  Japanese  churches,  or 

temples,  a  number  of  bells  hang  suspended  above  and  cords 

Fig.  632 

hang  down  by  them  so  that  they  may  be  struck  by  means 
of  the  cord.    Worshipers  do  this  when  they  pray.  The  con- 


tribution  box,  instead  of  being  a  small  affair  on  the  end  of  a 
handle,  passed  around  once  a  week,  is  a  huge  box,  even  four 
or  five  feet  long  and  two  feet  deep,  open  above,  but  protected 

Fig.  633 

by  triangular  shaped  bars  just  wide  enough  apart  to  allow 
the  metal  coin  to  drop  through.   This  box  stands  in  front 

of  the  place  of  worship  year  in 
and  year  out,  and  a  man  may 
stand  in  the  street,  mutter 
his  prayer,  and  toss  his  coin 
into  the  box,  often  missing  his 
mark,  as  may  be  seen  by  the 
number  of  coins  on  the  earth 

The  most  amazing  trick  is 
shown  in  figure  634,  in  which  a 
bird  picks  from  the  table,  one 
after  the  other,  three  kake- 
mono and  hangs  them  on  pegs  which  are  on  miniature  trees. 
The  bird  is  compelled  to  jump  up  on  a  low  roost  to  reach 


the  pegs.  To  teach  a  bird  to  perform  such  a  series  of  acts 
must  have  required  an  infinite  amount  of  patience.  In  another 
trick  a  little  bird  runs  up  a  ladder  to  a  platform  and  throws 
off  a  number  of  coins,  one  after  another,  with 
great  energy.  In  still  another  a  bird,  holding  an 
umbrella  over  its  head,  runs  up  a  long  ladder  and 
walks  out  on  a  tight  rope;  it  also  picks  out  a  cer- 
tain card  and  puts  a  cover  on  a  box.  The  trainer 
brought  out  a  talking  parrot  and  a 
large  parrot-like  bird;  then,  holding 
one  in  each  hand,  he  made  them  utter 
phrases  alternately,  such  as,  "How  do 
you  do,"  "Good-bye,"  etc.,  in  Japa- 
nese, of  course.  It  was  altogether  the 
most  interesting  exhibition  of  trained 
animals  I  ever  saw.  Some  of  the  tricks 
were  in  line  with  the  natural  movements  of  birds 
in  their  daily  life,  such  as  picking  up  things, 
pulling  strings  in  nest-building;  but  how  a  bird 
could  be  taught  to  pick  up  pictures  and  hang 
them  on  appropriate  pegs  was  more  than  we  could 

The  Japanese  candle  is  made  of  vegetable  wax, 
and  there  are  a  number  of  varieties;  a  kind  made 
in  Aidsu  has  decorations  in  color  (fig.  635),  and 
in  some  the  figures  are  in  relief.  The  wick  con- 
sists of  a  hollow  tube  of  paper;  the  candlestick  has  a  barb 
of  iron  instead  of  a  socket,  and  the  opening  in  the  wick  be- 
low allows  the  barb  to  fit  into  it  securely.  Such  a  candle- 


Fig.  635 

Fig.  636 


stick,  long  extinct,  was  known  in  England  as  a  " pricket" 
candlestick.  The  candle  is  finished  above  with  the  wick  pro- 
truding and  pointed.  The  economy  of  this  shape  is  seen  when 

the  piece  of  candle  burning 
low  is  taken  off  the  pricket 
and  adjusted  to  the  top  of  the 
new  candle,  so  that  not  a  par- 
ticle of  candle  is  wasted  (fig. 
636) .  The  ordinary  candle  has 
the  same  diameter  through- 
out, but  in  some  of  the  finer  forms  the 
upper  part  is  much  larger  in  diameter 
than  the  rest  and  thus  lasts  longer  in 
burning.  The  lanterns,  which  nearly 
every  one  carries  at  night,  burn  candles. 
Figures  637,  638  and  639  show  sketches 
of  various  forms  of  candlesticks.1  There 
are  many  forms  of  portable  candle- 
holders,  some  quite  ingenious  in  design; 
also  bamboo  tubes  with  cover,  so  that 
one  can  carry  candles  in  his  little  pack 
done  up  in  a  bundle  handkerchief.  (Fig. 
639  represents  fig.  638  folded.) 

A  curious  form  of  weather-vane  was 
made  of  a  thin  sheet  of  metal  in  the 
form  of  a  pennant,  painted  and  shaded  as  if  fluttering  in  the 
wind  (fig.  640). 

1  At  the  Peabody  Museum,  Salem,  is  a  large  collection  of  Japanese  candlesticks, 
some  of  which  are  portable  and  fold  up. 

Fig.  638 


July  15.  I  went  to  the  graduating  exercises  of  the  Tokyo 
Female  Normal  School,  and  was  given  a  seat  on  the  platform 
in  a  position  where  I  could  see  all  the  exercises.  Before  going 
to  the  main  hall  I  saw 
the  kindergarten  children 
with  their  pretty  little 
games  of  marching.  It 
was  a  charming  sight  to 
see  a  hundred  little  girls, 
all  beautifully  dressed, 
their  sleeves,  in  some 
cases,  touching  the  floor, 
and  so  many  with  the 
sweetest  faces.  After  this 
performance   they  went 

into  the  main  hall,  where  the  children  marched  up  the  centre 
aisle,  keeping  step  with  music  played  on  the  piano  by  Miss 
Nagai,  a  graduate  of  Vassar  College.  When  they  were  seated, 
their  various  names  were  called  out  by  one  of  the  teachers, 
and  each  in  turn  came  up  to  the  platform  to  receive  a  pres- 
ent, which  consisted  of  a  roll  of  Japanese 
paper  of  large  size,  a  stick  of  ink  and  a  brush, 
done  up  in  the  neat  way  of  the  Japanese 
present,  with  the  noshi  slipped  in  under  the 
cord  that  held  it.  When  they  approached, 
a  very  low  bow  was  made.  On  receiving  the 
present,  which  they  did  with  both  hands,  they  raised  it  to 
their  heads,  made  another  deep  bow,  and  backed  away  to  the 
steps.  Such  little  tots  came  toddling  along,  and  as  some  child 

Fig.  639 

Fig.  640 


approached,  particularly  shy  in  her  demeanor,  it  was  interesting 
to  watch  the  pleased  and  sympathetic  smiles  of  the  company, 
from  the  Prince  and  Princess,  who  sat  on  the  stage,  to  the  door 
attendants.  It  was  curious  to  look  over  the  large  hall  and  see 
such  a  crowd  of  black  heads,  —  no  light  hair,  nor  red,  not 
even  a  gray-headed  one,  —  all  polished  black  hair  beautifully 
dressed  with  bright  red  crape  and  dancing  hairpins,  and  a 
background  of  attendant  nurses  standing  up  and  peering 
anxiously  to  find  out  the  position  of  their  individual  charges. 
The  smaller  children  having  retired,  the  larger  girls  came  in, 
and  the  bright-colored  hairpins,  like  flowers  sticking  up  here 
and  there,  produced  a  very  pretty  effect  in  the  sea  of  black. 
The  larger  girls,  as  their  names  were  called,  came  up  the  main 
aisle  very  slowly  and  bowed  low  to  the  Prince  and  the  Princess 
and  the  assembled  guests  on  the  stage,  then  approached  the 
desk,  made  another  low  bow,  received  the  present,  which  was 
raised  to  the  head  in  another  bow,  then  slowly  turned  to  the 
left,  and  went  back  to  their  seats.  Among  these  were  a  num- 
ber that  were  being  graduated,  and  when  they  had  received 
the  folded  diploma  they  retired  two  steps  backward,  opened 
the  diploma  with  formality,  quietly  examined  it,  folded  it 
carefully,  and  then,  holding  it  in  the  right  hand  in  a  peculiar 
manner,  bowed  again  and  retired. 

After  the  graduating  exercises  the  audience  strolled  to  vari- 
ous rooms  where  lunch  was  served  in  Japanese  style.  In  a 
Japanese  room  the  graduates  were  served,  and  as  I  knew  Miss 
Nagai  and  young  Mrs.  Takamine,  I  crossed  a  garden  to  the 
room  where  they  were  and  ventured  to  join  the  class.  It  was  a 
pretty  sight  to  see  the  girls  sitting  on  the  mats  in  two  long  rows 

Fig.  641 


facing  each  other,  all  beautifully  dressed  and  served  by  a  num- 
ber of  equally  prettily  dressed  girls.  I  was  invited  to  drink 
sake  with  some  of  them,  and  many  bowed  to  me  whom  I 
did  not  remember  having  seen 
before.  During  the  exercises  a 
few  of  our  songs  were  sung, 
"Angel  of  Peace,"  "Auld  Lang 
Syne,"  the  latter  particularly 
well;  then  a  Japanese  song  was 
sung  accompanied  by  three  ko- 
tos, three  shos,  and  two  biwas. 
This  song  was  sung  by  the  entire 
school.  It  was  started  by  a  young  lady  striking  a  long,  flat, 
thin  piece  of  wood  with  another  piece  of  the  same  shape  at 
right  angles.  The  click  was  sharp  and  peculiar.  She  then 
uttered  a  long,  high  note  without  the  slightest  inflection,  as 
a  keynote,  and  the  chorus  began.  The  music  was  certainly 
very  weird  and  very  impressive,  and  with  the  peculiarly 

sweet  accompaniment  and  curi- 
ous rhythm,  gave  me  an  impres- 
sion of  the  merit  of  Japanese 
music  that  I  had  never  had  be- 
fore. Their  music  sounded  dis- 
tinguished as  they  sang  it,  com- 
pared with  ours.  Of  course  they 
did  not  sing  the  best  of  our 
music,  or  in  the  best  way;  nevertheless,  here  was  a  chance 
for  some  one  to  secure  ideas  in  regard  to  the  power  of  music 
in  a  new  direction. 

Fig.  642 


In  pounding  rice  a  large  wooden  mortar  is  used.  The  ham- 
mer or  pestle  is  of  large  size  and  very  heavy  and  is  raised  high 
above  the  head  (fig.  641).  The  man  wears  a  cushion  on  his  left 
leg  against  which  the  end  of  the  handle  rests  as  he  raises  the 
hammer  in  the  air.  It  requires  a  strong  man  to  do  the  work. 
The  face  of  the  hammer  is  hollowed  deeply,  with  sharp  edge, 
and  in  the  mortar  is  a  thick  ring  of  straw  rope  as  shown  in 
figure  642.  When  the  blow  is  given  the  rice  is  forced  up  outside 
the  ring  and  drops  down  inside.  By  this  arrangement  a  cir- 
culation of  the  rice  is  secured  so  that  all  the  rice  in  turn  comes 
under  the  blow  of  the  hammer.  This  idea  I  have  never  seen 
carried  out  in  similar  processes  before.  A  yellow  dust,  which 
comes  from  rice  after  it  is  pounded,  is  tied  in  a  bag  and  used 
to  wash  the  face.  At  home  corn  meal  is  used  in  a  similar  way. 
This  rice  dust  is  also  used  to  cleanse  greasy  dishes  or  lamps. 



July  16.  I  have  been  busy  packing  for  our  great  trip 
through  the  southern  provinces,  going  overland  to  Kyoto  and 
then  by  steamer  through  the  Inland  Sea.  My  passport  is  made 
out  for  at  least  a  dozen  provinces.  Mr.  Nakawara  has  brought 
me  a  long  letter  from  Mr.  Kikkawa,  introducing  me  to  his 
people  in  Iwakuni,  Province  of  Suo.  On  the  envelope  was 
written  first  the  name  of  the  place  and  province,  then  the  name 
of  the  person,  and  in  one  corner  of  the  envelope  the  charac- 
ters, "Ordinary  tidings,"  to  signify  that  there  is  no  bad  news 
in  the  letter.  If  these  characters  are  omitted,  then  bad  news 
is  expected  and  the  recipient  has  time  to  compose  himself. 
We  shall  see  a  little  of  the  life  of  old  Japan;  I  shall  add  a  great 
many  specimens  to  my  collection  of  pottery ;  Dr.  Bigelow  will 
secure  many  forms  of  swords,  guards,  and  lacquer;  and  Mr. 
Fenollosa  will  increase  his  remarkable  collection  of  pictures,  so 
that  we  shall  have  in  the  vicinity  of  Boston  by  far  the  greatest 
collection  of  Japanese  art  in  the  world. 

July  26.  We  started  on  our  overland  trip  to  Kyoto,  having 
a  stage  and  three  horses  for  conveyance.  At  Sammaibashi 
we  left  the  stage  to  ascend  a  steep  mountain  road  paved  with 
irregular  boulders  in  the  steepest  portions.  Fenollosa  and  I 
walked  a  distance  of  eight  miles  to  the  village,  while  the  Doc- 
tor and  the  rest  of  the  party  took  kagos.  The  Doctor  enjoyed 

Fig.  643 


this  mode  of  traveling  very  much.  At  times  the  most  charm- 
ing views  came  in  sight.  It  was  refreshing  to  get  on  one's  legs 
again  for  a  good  sturdy  walk,  for  though  portions  of  the  road 

were  very  steep  we  made  good 
time.  It  was  interesting  to  ob- 
serve that  our  kago  men  kept 
up  with  us  the  whole  way  — 
though  we  walked  rapidly  — 
and  each  man  was  support- 
ing nearly  a  hundred  pounds, 
counting  the  weight  of  the 
kago  and  all.  We  met  at  in- 
tervals men  carrying  heavy  loads  on  their  shoulders  travel- 
ing through  the  pass  and  walking  rapidly  too.  They  were  on 
their  way  to  Odawara,  twelve  miles  distant.  In  every  village 
we  passed  there  were  some  new  forms  of  balcony,  gateway,  or 
pretty  interior,  but  it  was  impossible,  going 
over  the  ground  so  rapidly,  to  get  more  than 
a  few  hasty  outlines.  The  road  is  so  fre- 
quently traveled  by  foreigners  going  to  pleas- 
ure resorts  that  the  Japanese  took  no  notice 
of  us.  The  children  did  not  run  away  and 
showed  no  timidity.  Besides  men  of  burden 
on  foot,  horses  with  heavy  pack-saddles  and 
enormous  loads  were  being  led  by  country- 
men. Figure  643  is  a  sketch  of  a  pack-saddle  not  loaded,  ex- 
cept with  the  owner's  sun  hat,  raincoat,  and  a  pair  of  straw 
sandals;  a  clumsy  cushioned  affair  passes  under  the  tail. 
In  a  house  where  two  rooms  come  together  they  are  separ- 

Fig.  644 

Fig.  645 


ated  only  by  sliding  screens  running  in  grooves  in  the  floor  and 
a  hanging  partition;  the  space  above  this  partition  is  usually 
filled  in  with  an  open  device  of  lattice,  carved  wood,  or  designs 
cut  in  stencil.1  The  skill  and  taste  of  these 
designs  and  the  perfect  cabinet-work  shown 
were  due  to  the  fact  that  in  the  region 
were  many  men  employed  in  making  in- 
laid work  of  colored  woods.  Hakone  is  a 
great  place  for  the  manufacture  of  boxes, 
cabinets  of  drawers,  and  the  like,  in  which 
pretty  effects  are  produced  by  various  patterns  of  colored 
woods.  The  different  woods  are  built  up  solidly  in  firmly 
glued  blocks,  as  shown  in  figure  644,  and  transverse  slices  are 
cut  off  as  seen  in  figure  645,  and  used  with  other  forms  to 
decorate  the  cover  of  a  box  or  the  front  of  a  drawer.  These 

drawings  are  half  size. 
Figure  646  shows  the 
man  at  work  with  his 
glue-pot  over  a  few 
coals  buried  in  ashes. 
No  end  of  intricate  de- 
signs are  made,  and 
the  interesting  feature 
about  it  is  that  the  man 
seems  to  use  only  the 
common  tools  of  a  house 
carpenter.  He  sits  on  the  floor  and  has  for  a  bench  a  large 
block  of  wood. 

1  This  detail  is  called  a  ramma,  and  I  found  many  interesting  forms  which  are 
given  in  Japanese  Homes. 

Fig.  646 


Our  inn  at  Hakone  is  within  a  stone's  throw  of  the  lake  and 
beyond  rises  Fuji  high  above  the  mountains  that  border  the 
lake.  We  are  two  thousand  feet  above  sea-level,  the  lake 
water  is  cold  and  pure,  and  the  air  fresh  and  invigorating. 
At  every  moment  my  pencil  has  been  busy  sketching  pictur- 
esque places.    Figure  647  is  a  sketch  of  one  of  the  stronger 

Fig.  647 

kinds  of  fences  to  resist  the  high  winds  that  come  with  the 
typhoons.  All  along  the  road  one  sees  spinning  and  weaving 
going  on  in  the  houses.  Figure  648  shows  a  woman  weaving 
coarse  straw  matting  used  for  rice  bags  and  for  other  rough 

We  started  early  in  the  morning  for  a  kago  ride  of  eight 
miles.  The  descriptions  of  this  form  of  transport  do  not  at  all 
convey  an  idea  of  this  method  of  conveyance.  There  are,  in 
the  first  place,  three  men  to  each  kago,  and  they  take  turns 
in  the  work.  In  my  journal  four  years  ago  I  made  a  sketch  of 
the  ordinary  kago  used  by  the  Japanese.    Now  at  Hakone, 

Fig.  648 


and  probably  at  other  places,  a  special  kago,  much  longer  and 
heavier,  is  made  for  the  foreigner.  They  travel  with  the  kago 
diagonally  across  the  road  (fig.  649).  Changes  are  often  made. 
Thus,  two  men  will  start  off  tak- 
ing about  ninety  steps  on  a  hill 
and  perhaps  one  hundred  and 
forty  steps  on  a  level,  when  they 
will  rest  the  kago  on  the  bam- 
boo poles  they  carry  with  them, 
and  then  change  shoulders,  tak- 
ing the  same  number  of  steps 
again,  when  the  spare  man  re- 
lieves the  forward  man;  then, 

after  two  more  turns,  the  man  that  slipped  out  relieves  the 
rear- one.  Going  downhill  or  on  a  level  they  proceed  in  a 
sort  of  jolting  run  giving  vent  to  a  series  of  pe- 
culiar grunts.  The  weight  each  one  carried  was 
a  hundred  pounds  at  least,  and  this  for  eight  or 
ten  miles  without  a  rest,  uphill  and  down,  showed 
great  strength  and  endurance. 

It  was  difficult  to  keep  an  itinerary  of  the  jour- 
ney overland.  We  lost  the  day  of  the  week  and 
even  the  month.  We  had  grand  rides  and  tire- 
some ones,  saw  beautiful  scenery,  crossed  long 
bridges  over  wide  and  shallow  streams,  stopped 
at  interesting  tea-houses;  and  at  all  times  re- 
ceived that  courteous  attention  which  charac- 
terizes this  people  above  all  others.  We  spent  an  hour  or 
so  —  or  a  day,  as  we  did  at  Hamamatsu  and  at  Shizuoka  — 

Fig.  649 


in  hunting  up  old  pottery,  pictures,  and  the  like;  at  Na- 
goya  we  stopped  a  few  days.  On  our  way  across  the  coun- 
try we  noticed  that  in  the  inns  where  we  spent  the  night 
the  chambers  were  adorned  with  mottoes  or  sentiments, 
which,  when  translated,  were  invariably  found  to  refer  to 
the  beauties  of  nature  or  were  moral  precepts  or  admoni- 
tions. Even  in  places  where  one  may  get  sake  the  sentiments 
expressed  by  these  inscriptions  are  highly  moral.  I  have 
never  seen  a  barroom  in  Japan,  but,  in  seeing  these  refined 
sentiments,  moral  precepts,  and  the  like,  I  could  not  help  re- 
calling a  similar  grade  of  country  inns  at  home  and  the  usual 
character  of  pictures  one  sees  in  the  public  rooms.  Many  of 
these  sentiments  are  derived  from  Chinese  classics.  It  is  amaz- 
ing how  much  may  be  conveyed  by  four  or  five  Chinese  char- 
acters: here  is  one  in  five  characters,  "Facing  water  shame 
swimming  fish,"  wThich,  fully  rendered  in  our  language,  means, 
"When  we  contemplate  the  water  in  which  the  fish  are  swim- 
ming with  calmness  and  ease,  we  feel  ashamed  of  ourselves 
that  we  are  such  busy  beings."  How  far  this  is  correct  I  do  not 
know;  the  translation  was  made  by  our  Japanese  interpreter. 
When  we  arrived  at  Shizuoka,  Province  of  Suruga,  an  out- 
break of  cholera  was  killing  thirty  or  forty  a  day.  The  largest 
inns  were  closed,  and  it  was  with  difficulty  that  we  obtained 
entrance  into  one  of  them.  The  landlord  said  that  if  a  death 
from  cholera  occurred,  it  would  greatly  injure  the  reputation 
of  his  hotel.  We  were  promptly  disinfected  even  before  we 
could  get  out  of  our  jinrikisha.  Everybody  seemed  to  be  pro- 
vided with  a  simple  atomizer,  consisting  of  a  tin  tube  soldered 
to  the  top  of  a  small  tin  dipper,  in  which  was  put  a  weak  solu- 


tion  of  carbolic  acid.  We  had  been  sprayed  upon  at  other 
places  as  if  we  brought  the  infection  with  us.  At  one  place, 
Dr.  Bigelow  said,  a  man  standing  at  the  entrance  of  a  house 
made  a  vigorous  gesture  at  him  as  if  to  cut  him  down  with  a 
sword.  These  hostile  demonstrations  are  of  the  rarest  occur- 
rence. I  have  but  once  experienced  a  similar  hostile  gesture. 
Walking  with  my  daughter  in  Tokyo  I  passed  three  men  who 
were  straggling  slowly  along.  We  did  not  know  that  it  is  con- 
sidered a  rude  thing  to  overtake  and  pass  one  without  an  apol- 
ogy. To  resent  our  rudeness  one  of  the  men  ran  ahead  and, 
turning,  Mocked  our  way  and  swung  an  imaginary  sword  in 
the  air  as  if  to  cut  us  down.  His  two  companions,  laughing, 
grabbed  him  and  drew  him  away.  The  man  was  evidently 
slightly  intoxicated.  Directly  after  the  Doctor's  experience, 
when  passing  along  a  country  road,  two  middle-aged  and  re- 
spectable-appearing Japanese  bowed  very  low  to  us  as  we 
passed  by,  and  Mr.  Ariga  said  the  act  was  to  show  their  re- 
spect for  foreigners. 

We  spent  two  nights  in  Shizuoka  and  devoted  the  entire  day 
to  collecting.  I  penetrated  every  place  where  objects  might  be 
found,  feeling  no  fear  of  the  pestilence,  being  always  careful 
not  to  eat  things  which  might  bear  cholera  bacilli,  or  to  drink 
water,  as,  in  fact,  one  rarely  does  in  Japan.  The  next  morning 
early  we  started  in  a  rude,  lumbering  stage  without  springs, 
and  had  the  toughest  shaking-up  imaginable;  indeed,  at  noon, 
when  we  reached  the  crest  of  a  high  range  of  hills,  the 
Doctor  gave  up  the  carriage  in  disgust,  and  I  was  only  too 
happy  to  follow  his  example.  Fenollosa  and  Ariga  went  on, 
and  we  snoozed  until  three  in  the  afternoon  and  then  hired 

246  JAPAN   DAY  BY  DAY 

jinrikishas,  each  with  two  men,  and  had  a  grand  ride  to  Ha- 
mamatsu,  Totomi,  where  we  spent  the  night.  In  the  evening 
we  saw  a  curious  dance  by  a  lot  of  pilgrims  on  their  way  to  the 
top  of  Fuji.  They  occupied  the  large  room  in  the  hotel  that 
opened  on  the  street,  and  formed  a  ring.  Each  one  had  a  stiff 
fan  in  his  hand  with  which  he  beat  time  and  then  went  through 
a  curious  dance  and  chant,  turning  first  one  way  and  then 
another,  the  circle  moving  partly  around.  It  made  a  weird 
and  peculiar  sight.  The  dancers  evidently  enjoyed  our  inter- 
est in  their  performance  and  I  was  invited  to  join  them.  Their 
heads  were  tied  up  in  white  cloth,  and  before  the  dance  I  had 
seen  them  in  a  room  upstairs  kneeling,  praying,  and  chanting, 
evidently  rehearsing  for  Fuji. 

After  leaving  cholera-infected  Hamamatsu,  somewhat  de- 
pressed with  the  melancholy  atmosphere,  we  came  in  our 
journey  to  a  steep  ravine  up  which  the  men  had  hard  work  to 
drag  the  jinrikishas.  Halfway  up  we  passed  what  was  appar- 
ently a  mountain  brook  tumbling  down  the  sides  of  the  ravine. 
It  was  too  much  for  Fenollosa  and  me  to  resist,  and  though 
Dr.  Bigelow  urged  us  not  to  drink  the  water,  we  nevertheless 
ventured  on  a  few  swallows  and  found  it  dead  and  unpalat- 
able. When  we  got  to  the  top  of  the  ravine  imagine  our  horror 
to  find  a  wide  expanse  of  rice-fields,  the  drainage  of  which  was 
our  mountain  brook! 

Our  next  day's  ride  brought  us  to  Toyohachi,  and  the  next 
morning  we  made  a  raid  after  pottery  and  secured  a  number 
of  good  pieces.  The  following  morning  we  left  at  eleven 
o'clock  and  reached  the  great  city  of  Nagoya  in  the  evening. 
Here  we  spent  four  days,  Dr.  Bigelow  after  lacquer  and  sword- 


guards,  Fenollosa  after  pictures,  and  I  ransacking  every  place 
for  pottery.  A  good-natured  old  fellow  named  Gonza,  of  whom 
I  bought  a  few  pieces  of  pottery,  became  interested  in  my 
quest  and  volunteered  his  services  in  showing  us  around  the 
city  from  one  curio-dealer  to  another.  Whether  he  got  a  com- 
mission on  each  purchase  I  do  not  know,  but  he  carried  our 
parcels  and  beat  down  the  price  when  he  thought  it  was  too 
high,  conducted  us  to  places  we  should  never  have  found  but 
for  him,  got  dealers  to  come  to  our  rooms  with  their  treasures, 
and  at  the  end  helped  pack  the  pottery  I  had  bought,  which 
filled  two  large  boxes  that  were  shipped  to  Tokyo.  At  the 
hotel  where  we  stopped  we  had  large  tables  and  chairs,  which 
were  of  great  convenience.  The  dealers  were  coming  to  our 
rooms  all  the  time,  sometimes  eight  or  ten  at  a  time,  spreading 
out  their  stock  in  trade  on  the  floor.  Up  to  the  last  hour  of  our 
stay  we  were  buying  things,  and  I  made  some  fine  additions 
to  the  pottery  collection. 

Gonza  took  me  to  a  friend  of  his  on  the  outskirts  of  the  town 
who  was  the  founder  of  an  oven  known  as  Fujimi,  where  I 
spent  the  entire  forenoon.  Ceremonial  tea  was  made  for  me, 
the  potter  grinding  the  tea  in  my  presence.  He  showed  me  his 
collection  of  old  pottery,  in  which  were  many  good  pieces, 
drew  a  picture  for  me,  and  requested  me  to  draw  one  for  him 
in  return,  and  invited  me  to  a  formal  cha-no-yu  (tea  ceremony) 
the  next  day;  so  altogether  wre  had  an  interesting  time.  I  was 
most  kindly  treated  by  the  family,  and  on  the  veranda,  where 
I  sat,  a  large,  shallow,  lacquered  tub  was  placed  filled  with 
cold  water  and  over  this  I  was  fanned  by  the  daughter.  The 
cool  breeze  thus  made  was  very  agreeable. 










The  tea  ceremony  to  which  we  had  been  invited  was  of  such 
interest  that  I  made  copious  notes  of  the  formalities,  though 
doubtless  a  number  of  details  escaped  me.  The  summer  tea- 
room was  a  little  house  by  itself  about  ten  feet  from  the  main 
house.  This  little  building,  fifteen  feet  square,  was  made  ex- 
pressly for  ceremonial  tea  and  was  extremely  simple  in  all  its 
appointments.  Between  the  tea-house  and  the  main  house 
ran  a  stone  path,  at  one  side  of  which  was  a  large  stone  recep- 
tacle filled  with  water.  It  is  neces- 
sary to  describe  these  particulars  in 
order  to  appreciate  the  ceremonial 
offering  of  powdered  tea.  A  bell 
sounded,  and  we  —  that  is  Gonza, 
Kimura,  and  I  —  took  our  seats  on 
circular  cushions  on  the  veranda 
facing  the  tea-room  (marked  A,  in  figure  650).  The  name  of 
the  tea-house  was  on  a  long  pottery  tile  in  four  characters, 
the  literal  translation  of  which  is  "wind,  moon,  clear,  stall," 
which  was  fully  translated  to  me  as,  "The  little  house  as  clean 
and  clear  as  the  wind  and  moon!"  (fig.  651).  While  we  sat  here 
contemplating  the  house,  a  sliding  screen  in  it  was  pushed 
aside  and  the  daughter  Miki  crept  in  on  her  hands  and  knees 
and  filled  a  lacquered  wooden  vessel  from  the  stone  water 
basin  and  returned,  closing  the  screen  after  her.  When  she 
had  first  entered  the  tea-house  she  had  walked  a  few  steps  on 
the  ground  and  had  left  her  sandals  resting  one  against  the 
other  on  the  stone  steps,  as  in  figure  652.  After  a  few  minutes 
we  were  bidden  to  go  to  the  tea-house.  Wooden  sandals  were 
placed  at  our  feet,  and  on  these  we  hobbled  along  solemnly  to 

Fig.  650 

A   TEA    CEREMONY  249 

the  stone  urn,  where  the  host  stood  and  poured  water  on  our 
hands  from  a  little  wooden  dipper  and  offered  us  a  towel. 
Having  dried  our  hands  we  entered  the  house  by  opening 
the  screen  and  crawl-  j 


Wn  >^ 

\   A    \ 

{*y»( ifc&tvi    i  i ^>~ — -     v 

/     \'«J«|/-U    \)  •*-*  <^>  zz>  isS* 

Fig.  651 

ing  on  our  hands 
and  knees  under  the  ^ 
lattice  screen,  which 
was  hanging  halfway 
down.  We  first  crept 
to  the  tokonoma  (re- 
cess in  room)  and  con- 
templated the  kake- 
mono, which  was  ex- 
ceedingly plain;  then  we  crept  to  the  sunken  fireplace,  which 
consisted  of  a  triangular  space  in  which  were  a  few  stones 
on  which  rested  a  box  of  incense;  and  then  back  to  the  other 
side  of  the  room,  where  we  adjusted  ourselves  in  a  row  and 
remained  in  silence.  Some  writers  have  described  the  cere- 
mony as  a  religious  one  on  account  of  the  solemnity  and 
austerity  of  the  occasion.  The  room  was  of 
the  simplest  character:  the  ceiling  made  of 
thin,  wide  ribbons  of  dark  wood  braided 
like  a  mat,  the  corners  and  jogs  of  bamboo, 
or  of  natural  branches  of  wood,  with  a 
warm  brownish  plastering.  The  simplicity 
and  absolute  cleanliness  of  the  room  were  remarkable.1 

After  a  few  moments  the  sliding  screen  opposite  us  was 
gently  pushed  aside  and  Miki  appeared  bringing  triangular 

1  This  room  is  figured  in  Japanese  Homes,  p.  153. 

^  V  V   V  w 

Fig.  652 




Fig.  653 

lacquer  trays,  one  at  a  time.  The  various  dishes  were  of  the 
finest  description :  the  rice-dish  was  of  pottery  as  was  the  large 
rice-spoon;  the  sake  pots  were  of  metal  richly  wrought,  and 
the  sake  cups  of  fine  lacquer.  The  rice  was  in  one  bowl,  raw 
fish  with  pickles  in  another,  fried  eels  and  melon  in  another, 
miso  soup  and  lily  bulbs  in  another;  and  a  covered  dish  was 
filled  with  richest  soup  served  in  the  very  dish  in  which  it  was 
cooked.  The  host  in  the  main  house,  with  his  son,  was  being 
served  in  the  same  way, 
it  not  being  proper  for  ^gr; 
him  to  be  present  dur- 
ing the  serving  of  the 
dinner.  We  could  see 

him,  however,  in  plain  sight  across  the  veranda.  While  we 
were  eating,  the  old  man  entered  to  drink  sake  with  us. 
We  first  drank  sake  with  Miki,  her  father  doing  likewise. 
There  was  no  haisen  in  which  to  rinse  the  cup,  but  back  and 
forth  it  was  passed  on  the  little  stand.  After  drinking  with 
the  daughter  we  drank  with  the  host.  Then  a  very  beauti- 
ful lacquer  tray  was  offered,  in  which  was  a  little  pile  of 
cake  and  another  in  which  were  some  vegetables;  these  I 
was  too  busy  sketching  to  taste.  The  cake  was  placed  in 
the  cover  of  our  rice  bowl.  After  this  the  cake  that  was  left 
was  wrapped  in  two  packages,  the  daughter  putting  one 
in  her  sleeve,  the  old  man  taking  his  in  his  hand,  and  both 
retiring  from  the  room.  Hot  water  was  then  brought  and 
a  little  poured  into  each  vessel  from  which  we  had  eaten. 
Courtesy  should  have  compelled  me  to  eat  the  entire  con- 
tents of  each  dish,  but  I  was  too  hot  to  eat  much,  and  was 

A   TEA   CEREMONY  251 

consequently  spared  the  disagreeable  necessity  of  drinking 
dishwater  and  wiping  my  own  dishes  with  paper,  which  the 
others  did  and  with  great  care.  Every  dish  was  thoroughly 
cleaned  and  placed  in  the  trays  and  removed  one  by  one  by 
Miki.  Then  was  brought  in  a  lacquer  box  containing  three 
square  pieces  of  jelly,  which  wras  served  on  beautiful  square 
lacquer  trays  (fig.  653).  After  eating  the  jelly  with  the  single 
chop-stick,  it  was  proper  to  keep 
this  as  a  souvenir  of  the  occasion. 
While  eating  the  jelly,  Miki  entered 
with  great  formality  bearing  an  iron 
vessel  (fig.  654)  full  of  burning  char- 
coal, and  placed  it  piece  by  piece  in 
the  sunken  fireplace,  using  iron 
chopsticks  for  the  purpose; x  she 
then  took  a  large  feather  which  hung 

on  a  little  peg,  and  kneeling  in  the  opening  by  which  she 
entered,  carefully  swept  the  mat  and  retired,  closing  the 
screens.  One  of  our  company  then  took  up  the  little  trays 
and  carried  them  to  the  opening  by  which  Miki  had  entered. 
Just  before  this,  however,  Miki  brought  in  an  iron  kettle  and 
placed  it  on  the  coals.  The  old  man  in  the  mean  time  showed 
us  the  incense  box  which  we  were  to  inspect  and  sniff.  Here 
we  rose  to  pur  feet  and  walked  out  on  the  veranda,  stepped 
into  our  sandals,  washed  our  hands  at  the  urn,  and  then 
crossed  to  our  host's  house,  where  we  rested,  smoked,  and  I 
got  a  drink  of  cold  water  warranted  free  from  all  pathogenic 

1  These  are  called  hashi,  and  represent  our  tongs. 


After  a  while  another  gong  was  struck,  much  deeper  in 
sound  than  the  first  one,  and  we  went  through  the  same  for- 
mality of  washing  our  hands  and  crawling  into  the  tea-room. 
The  kakemono  had  been  removed,  and  in  its  place  was  a  sim- 
ple vase  holding  some  flowers  arranged  as  only  these  people 
know  how  to  arrange  them.  Miki  then  appeared  bearing  the 
tea-bowl,  and  as  she  brought  in  the  various  utensils,  one  after 
the  other,  she  pushed  aside  the  screen,  being  on  her  knees. 
She  then  rose  formally  and  walked  straight  through  the  open- 
ing, turned  squarely  round, 
facing  the  fireplace,  walked  a 
step  toward  it,  paused  and 
looked  ahead  in  an  absent- 
Fig.  655  minded  way,  then  knelt  and 

reverently  deposited  the  ob- 
jects on  the  mat.  She  rose  without  touching  her  hands  to 
the  floor  and  retired  in  the  same  moderate  manner.  After 
the  bowl  had  been  brought  in,  she  brought  in  a  delicate  bam- 
boo dipper.  I  should  have  mentioned  that  when  we  entered 
the  room  the  water-vessel  and  the  jar  had  already  been  placed 
in  their  proper  positions.  At  this  stage  the  objects  appeared 
as  in  figure  655.  The  tea-jar  was  untied  and  the  bag  pushed 
down  on  each  side  by  the  edge  of  the  hand;  the  bag  was  then 
hung  on  the  peg  from  which  hung  the  feather  duster.  Water 
was  dipped  out  of  the  kettle,  poured  into  the  tea-bowl,  and 
by  a  rotary  movement  of  the  tea-stirrer  (fig.  656)  and  a  cir- 
cular movement  round  the  bowl  at  the  same  time,  the  bowl 
and  the  stirrer  were  both  washed;  the  bowl  was  then  wiped 
with  a  piece  of  white  cotton  cloth  and  this  act  was  performed 


in  a  certain  way.  Not  a  word  was  spoken  during  all  this 
performance.  A  slender  bamboo  spoon  was  then  used  in 
scooping  out  the  powdered  tea  from  the  tea-jar.  Miki,  hav- 
ing taken  out  the  customary  three  teaspoonfuls,  was  about 
to  stop  when  her  father  said  in  an  undertone  "More,"  and 
"Still  more,"  and  several  times  till  she  had  put  a  lot  of  the 
tea  in  the  bowl.  We  sat  facing  her  in  a  semi-circle,  I  on  the 
extreme  left,  then  Gonza,  next  Kimura,  and  then 
our  host.  The  water  was  then  added  and  stirred 
briskly,  though  every  movement  was  made  with 
extreme  formality.  The  host  then  approached  the 
daughter  on  his  knees,  took  the  bowl  with  a  pro- 
found bow,  crawled  along  to  me,  and  presented  the 
bowl  with  another  deep  bow.  The  tea  was  like  the 
thickest,  green  syrup,  and  was  delicious.  I  took  a 
swallow,  wiped  the  edge  of  the  bowl,  where  my  lips 
had  touched,  with  my  finger,  and,  not  having  a  roll  of  paper, 
wiped  my  finger  on  my  coat  inside,  then  turned  the  bowl  in 
such  a  way  that,  when  it  was  passed  to  the  next  one  his 
mouth  should  strike  a  clean  place  on  the  rim.  At  this  point 
it  was  my  duty  to  inquire  of  the  host  what  tea  it  was,  which 
I  did,  and  he  gave  me  the  name.1  It  was  actually  made  by 
a  noted  man  and  was  considered  the  most  precious  tea  in 
Japan.  The  cup  went  from  one  to  another  till  it  reached  the 
host,  who  finished  what  remained,  and  this  he  did  kneeling 
upright  as  if  in  the  attitude  of  .prayer,  with  a  most  beatific 
countenance,  smacking  his  lips  with  great  gusto.  After  he 

1  The  tea  was  called  Hatsumu  kashi,  and  was  raised  in  Uji,  near  Kyoto;  the  style, 
or  school,  of  the  tea-making  was  that  of  Rikiu,  in  the  time  of  Taiko. 


had  drunk  the  tea  he  wiped  the  bowl  in  such  a  way  as  to 
leave  a  pointed  oval  area  in  the  bottom.  The  bowl  was  then 
passed  round  and  commented  upon,  as  it  was  a  rare  old  speci- 

After  this  the  girl  took  out  all  the  utensils  and  the  old  man 
brought  in  the  boxes  that  held  the  various  objects  and  we 
examined  them.  Some  of  the  boxes  were  lacquered  with  the 
name  of  the  object,  pottery,  and  maker  in  gilt  letters;  the 
plain  wooden  boxes  were  marked  in  black  with  the  seal  of 
the  maker  in  red.  While  showing  them  to  us  the  host  said  that 
when  in  use  they  become  "tiger,"  and  when  not  in  use 
they  become  "rat,"  meaning  that  when  in  use  they  become 
useful  like  the  tiger  and  when  not  in  use  valueless  as  a  rat. 

On  the  afternoon  of  the  last  day  we  visited  the  castle  of 
Nagoya,  one  of  the  best-preserved  castles  in  Japan.  It  stands 
one  hundred  and  fifty  feet  high,  the  walls  are  massive,  the 
rooms  immense.  It  was  built  in  1610-12,  and  towers  up  far 
above  the  surroundings,  and  one  gets  grand  views  from  the 
window  openings.  It  is  surrounded  by  massive  stone  walls  and 
deep  moats.  The  buildings  surrounding  it  have  spacious 
rooms,  and  the  sliding  screens  have  been  decorated  by  the 
most  celebrated  artists  of  the  period  and  the  wood-carvings 
have  been  done  by  famous  wood-carvers.  In  one  room  was 
a  model  of  the  castle  about  seven  feet  high.  It  was  very  inter- 
esting, as  it  was  made  as  a  model  to  follow  before  the  castle 
itself  was  built. 

Figure  657  is  a  hasty  sketch  I  made  while  waiting  for  the 
sentry  to  carry  our  cards  to  the  authorities  within.  The 
sketch  gives  the  merest  idea  of  its  appearance.  The  massive- 


ness  and  grandeur  of  the  building  are  remarkable.  Architec- 
turally it  impresses  one  as  marvelous,  with  its  succession  of 
upturned  roofs  and  successive  gables,  massive  copper  tiles, 
heavy  ribs  to  the  roof  angles,  imposing  sweeps  of  the  great 
roofs,  and  on  the  ends  of  the  highest  ridge  immense  bronze 
dolphins  covered  with  scales  of  pure  gold,  resplendent  in  the 
sun.  The  gold  represents  a  value  of  nearly  a  third  of  a  million 
dollars.  We  were  led  to  the  main  cas- 
tle through  heavy,  walled,  passage- 
ways and  up  broad  stone  stairways. 
We  entered  through  heavy  doors,  and 
found  ourselves  in  a  vast  room  where 
ponderous  beams  in  walls  and  ceilings 
revealed  the  strength  of  such  struc- 
tures in  feudal  times.  We  ascended 

flight  after  flight  of  stairs,  landing  at  the  head  of  each  flight 
in  wide,  low  rooms  of  massive  construction,  and  came  to  the 
upper  rooms,  having  climbed  one  hundred  and  twelve  high 
steps,  not  counting  the  flights  of  stone  steps  and  inclines  we 
met  with  in  approaching  the  entrance.  From  the  windows 
of  the  upper  hall  we  had  a  comprehensive  and  charming 
view  of  the  country.  A  delicious  breeze  poured  through  the 
place  which,  after  our  hot  climb,  was  very  grateful. 

We  left  the  castle  reluctantly  and  hurried  back  to  the  hotel 
to  pack  for  our  start  to  Kyoto  at  seven  o'clock.  Our  jinriki- 
shas  dragged  slowly  along,  but  the  scenery,  brilliant  sunset, 
and  rest  were  delightful.  At  nine  o'clock  we  came  to  a  river 
and  for  five  miles  were  rowed  tranquilly  over  its  quiet  waters. 
Our  landing-place  was  to  be  Yokkaichi,  a  place  famous  for  its 


pottery,  known  as  Banko.  The  place  was  brilliantly  illumi- 
nated and  in  the  distance  looked  like  a  New  England  town. 
As  we  landed  on  the  stone  slope  we  found  a  festival  of  some 
kind  was  going  on.  The  shore  was  lined  with  booths  provid- 
ing ices,  and  we  sat  down  on  a  bench  and  were  served  several 
times.  The  ice  is  planed,  the  plane  being  upside  down  and 
fixed.  A  chunk  of  ice  is  moved  back  and  forth  over  the  plane,  a 
dish  underneath  catching  the  shavings,  so  to  speak;  a  little 
sugar  is  added  and  a  flavoring  of  powdered  tea,  and  it  made  a 
very  cooling  refreshment.  It  was  an  approach  to  our  boyhood 
snow  ice-cream.  Though  ice  is  very  high,  sixteen  to  twenty 
cents  a  pound,  this  article  is  sold  for  a  cent  a  glass.  In  poorer 
quarters  of  our  cities  a  similar  custom  might  be  introduced. 

Owing  to  the  festival  the  town  was  crowded  and  every 
hotel  full,  so  we  were  compelled  to  ride  on  to  the  next  town, 
starting  at  2.30  in  the  morning,  and  the  cocks  were  beginning 
to  crow  and  dawn  was  breaking  when  we  reached  our  resting- 
place.  We  were  completely  tired  out,  and  were  glad  to  lie 
down  in  a  mean  little  inn  for  a  few  hours'  sleep.  I  was  up  at 
eight,  and  after  a  breakfast  of  poor  rice  started  back  to 
Yokkaichi  to  find  out  how  the  hand-made  Banko  pottery  was 
made.  I  came  across  the  famous  Hansuke,  who  cleverly 
moulds  clay  with  his  fingers  alone  and  produces  a  beautiful 
little  teapot.    I  made  full  notes  and  sketches  of  the  potter. 

At  2.30  we  started  again,  having  a  most  picturesque  ride 
up  a  mountain  ravine  and,  still  in  the  Province  of  Ise,  reached 
Sakanoshita  in  the  midst  of  mountain  scenery.  Here  we  spent 
the  night,  and  the  next  morning,  with  two  men  to  a  jinrikisha, 
went  rapidly  along,  reaching  Otsu  at  2.30  and  Kyoto  at  4.30. 



We  rode  immediately  to  Ya-Ami  Hotel,  situated  high  up  on 
the  mountain-side  overlooking  the  entire  city.  The  hotel, 
though  Japanese,  is  kept  in  foreign  style,  and  a  rare  beefsteak, 
baked  potatoes  and  a  cup  of  good  coffee  were  delicious  after 
the  varied  Japanese  meals  we  had  had.  The  building  in  which 
we  are  is  approached  by  a  long  incline  and  a  flight  of  steps,  and 
is  tiresome  enough  to  reach.  The  rooms  are  good,  with  spa- 
cious verandas  and  charming  surroundings.    I  have  a  tiny 

Fig.  658 

house  of  one  room  to  myself;  a  little  arched  bridge  leads  to  it 
from  the  veranda  (fig.  658)  and  a  mass  of  shrubbery  comes  up 
level  with  the  floor.  My  sketch-book  is  full  of  sliding  screens, 
lattice-work,  framework  of  window  openings,  and  beautiful 
rammas.  The  grace  and  beauty  of  these  designs  it  is  impos- 
sible to  show  in  offhand  sketches.  The  stencil-cutting  in  thin 
wood  is  perfection:  the  dashing  waves,  with  curious  shepherd- 
crook  processes  and  individual  drops  poised  in  the  air,  and 
appearing  conventional  to  the  last  degree,  show  precisely  the 
appearance  the  waves  present  in  instantaneous  photography. 
What  amazes  you  in  traveling  through  the  country  covering 


hundreds  of  miles  is,  that  in  the  most  remote  country  villages 
there  are  carpenters  and  cabinet-makers  and  designers  who 
are  sufficiently  skilled  to  do  these  things. 

In  many  houses  one  sees  swallows'  nests  built  near  the  ceil- 
ing in  the  best  rooms.  As  soon  as  the  bird  begins  his  nest  a 
small  shelf  is  fastened  beneath  to  prevent  the  mud  that  is  apt 
to  drop  in  construction  from  soiling  the  mats  (fig.  659).    It 

was  interesting   to   observe 

that  the  birds  build  a  more 

Fig.  659 

delicate  and  elaborate  nest 
under  cover  than  when  built 
outside  exposed  to  the  ele- 
ments; indeed,  it  would  al- 
most seem  that  the  birds  recognized  the  tastes  of  the  people 
with  whom  they  live. 

It  was  interesting  to  note  the  change  in  the  structure  of  the 
ridge  on  the  thatched  roof  as  we  passed  through  the  Provinces 
of  Suruga,  Mikawa,  and  Owari.  I  saw  men  engaged  in  mend- 
ing a  thatched  roof  black  with  soot  that  came  from  the  kitchen 
within.  The  skillful  way  in  which  the  modeler  in  plaster  elabo- 
rates a  ridge  is  interesting. 

During  the  day  we  crossed  a  river  where  a  number  of  men 
wrere  engaged  in  making  boats.  I  noticed  two  men  pounding 
the  edge  of  a  boat's  plank  with  iron  hammers,  pounding  the 
grain  down,  so  to  speak,  so  that  when  the  plank  was  fitted  to 
the  next  plank  the  crushed  edge  would  swell  when  wet  and 
thus  make  a  tight  joint. 

The  city  of  Kyoto  is  certainly  the  artistic  centre  of  artistic 
Japan.   Everywhere  you  see  evidences  of  it  —  in  the  shops, 



houses,  fences,  roof-tops,  window-openings,  sliding  screens 
and  the  devices  for  sliding  them,  trellises,  balcony  rails.  The 
very  advertisements  are  designed  with  taste  —  art  and  refine- 
ment are  everywhere.  Moreover,  I  have  seen  no  place  in 
Japan  where  the  girls  and  little  children  are  more  prettily 
dressed.  The  hair  arrangement  is  remarkable,  and  the  crape 
for  the  obi  and  the  adornment  of  the  head  is  resplendent.  Our 
hotel  is  placed  on  the  slope  of  a  mountain  amidst  trees  and 

Fig.  660 

Buddhist  temples.  From  this  vantage-ground  one  sees  at 
sundown  the  wonderful  effects  of  sunlight  across  the  city;  at 
evening  are  heard  the  sound  of  singing  voices  and  the  notes  of 
the  koto,  with  merry  laughter.  Loud  declaiming  is  heard, 
while  intermingled  with  all  comes  the  drowsy  hum  of  the 
priests  at  their  devotions  near  by;  indeed,  the  sounds  the 
priests  emit  in  their  prayers  can  with  difficulty  be  distinguished 
from  the  hum  of  insects.  Last  night,  in  connection  with  the 
priestly  chants,  I  heard  a  rapid  tap,  or  ring,  which  sounded 

Fig.  661 


precisely  like  an  insect  I  had  heard  at  Enoshima,  and  which 
was  there  called  the  bell  insect.  As  the  higher  the  tempera- 
ture the  more  rapid  the  notes  of  these  stridulating  insects,  out 
came  my  watch,  and  I  counted  the  beats  at  thirty-five  per 
quarter  of  a  minute.  Before  seeking  a  thermometer,  how- 
ever, I  asked  a  servant  what  kind  of  an  insect  it  was  that  was 
making  the  sound  and  he  told  me  that  the 
sound  was  made  by  a  priest's  bell ! 

Through  the  city  runs  a  wide,  shallow 
river.  At  this  time  the  water  is  low  and  the 
river-bed  is  exposed  in  many  places,  showing 
large,  flattened  boulders.  These  large  areas 
are  covered  with  low  tables,  a  foot  high  and  big  enough  for 
one  mat,  sometimes  two.  The  Japanese  hire  these  tables  and 
a  large  party  will  place  them  side  by  side.  Here  families 
gather  in  the  evening  to  drink  their  tea,  eat  their  supper,  and 
enjoy  the  sunset.  From  the  bridges  crossing  the  river  the 
sight  is  of  wonderful  beauty,  as  every 
stand  is  illuminated  with  a  number 
of  bright-colored  lanterns,  and  it  is 
a  sea  of  color  as  far  as  the  eye  can 
reach,  with  here  and  there  bonfires 
kindled  on  the  dry  river-bottom. 
Mr.  Greenough,  who  is  with  us,  says 
it  rivals  a  carnival  scene  at  Venice. 
To-day  (August  8)  I  visited  the 
artist  Bairei  to  employ  him  to  make 

a  copy  of  a  picture  he  had  painted  for  Rokubei,  the  potter, 
illustrating  the  process  of  pottery-making.    I  found  Mr. 

Fig.  662 


Bairei,  who  is  a  teacher,  in  the  midst  of  a  class  of  pupils,  who 
were  busy  with  their  work,  all  on  the  floor  with  their  copies 
in  front  of  them  (fig.  660),  many  of  them  being  boys  of  twelve 
or  younger.  Some  of  the  older  pupils,  he  told  me,  had  been 
with  him  for  ten  years.  The  pupils  come  at  eight  o'clock  in  the 
morning,  leaving  at  noon  in  the  summer  and  at  5  p.m.  in  the 
winter,  every  day  except  Sun- 
day, which  has  lately  become 
a  holiday.  The  price  of  tui- 
tion is  thirty  cents  a  month, 
and  the  teacher  supplies  pa- 
per, brushes,  ink,  colors,  etc. 
In  three  years  the  pupils  learn 
to  copy  well.  The  first  les- 
sons consist  of  simple  lines, 
diaper  work,  and  the  like.  The  next  year  they  paint  flowers; 
after  that  mountains  and  scenery;  and  finally  figures,  first 
drawing  drapery,  then  the  nude  figure  from  life.  Some  of  the 
pupils  come  from  the  artisan  class,  such  as  potters  and  others 

whose  occupations  demand  designs  or 
decoration;  the  other  pupils  come 
from  the  samurai  class.  Mr.  Bairei  has 
twenty  pupils  in  his  daily  class,  besides 
a  few  who  practice  at  their  houses  and 
bring  their  work  to  him  once  a  week 
for  criticism.  After  an  interesting  in- 
terview I  rose  from  my  knees.  All  the 
pupils  immediately  bowed  low,  and  at 
the  same  time  Mr.  Bairei  presented  me  with  a  large  roll  of 

Fig.  663 

Fig.  664 


paper  which  consisted  of  the  exercises  of  the  school  for  that 
day:  beautiful  drawings  in  strong,  vigorous  brush  strokes  of 
flowers,  fruit,  and  boats.  These  drawings  illustrate  better 
than  all  the  descriptions  the  methods  of  teaching  and  the 
proficiency  of  the  young  Japanese.  With  the  tea  was  offered 
a  dainty  basket  of  candy  in  the  form  of  cherry  blossoms  (fig. 

With  us  it  is  customary  to  mark  on  boxes  containing  fragile 
objects  the  word  "glass,"  and  in  Europe  to  make  a  drawing  of 
a  wineglass  to  show  the  brittle  nature  of  the  contents.  In 
Japan  the  packer  ties  a  pearl  shell  (Haliotis)  to  the  box;  as 
shown  in  figure  662,  a  drawing  of  the  shell  is  also  made  on  the 

At  a  little  shop  where  I  stopped  to  examine  the  pottery,  a 
peculiarly  shaped  vessel  was  offered  me  containing  something 
like  spaghetti,  the  strings  more  the  size  of  cotton  twine.  It 
was  very  difficult  to  eat,  as  in  taking  one  strand  out  of  the 
dish  it  would  stretch  two  or  more  feet  before  it  could  be  wound 
up  on  the  chopstick.  A  little  cup  contained  the  sauce.  It  was 
called  hiyamugi.  The  vessel  containing  it  was  said  to  be 
Chinese  (fig.  663).  While  I  was  eating  the  food  the  little 
daughter  of  the  shopkeeper  played  to  me  on  a  kind  of  guitar 
(fig.  664). 



We  left  Kyoto  on  the  10th  of  August  on  our  way  to  the 
Inland  Sea,  and  spent  two  days  at  Osaka,  where  we  met  Mr. 
Fenollosa  and  Mr.  Ariga,  hunting  up  pottery  and  pictures. 
A  carnival  being  in  action  on  the  river  the  Doctor  hired  a  big 
boat  with  dancing-girls  and  food,  fireworks,  etc.  We  invited 
Mr.  Greenough  to  join  us.  It  was  a  lovely  night,  and  the  river 
presented  a  scene  of  gayety.  The  pleasure  boats  are  prettily 
built,  with  broad,  wide  floors  to  sit  upon,  perfectly  dry,  and  the 
hundreds  of  merry  groups  slowly  passing  back  and  forth,  with 
the  sound  of  samisen  and  koto,  singing  and  laughter,  and  the 
innumerable  bright-colored  lanterns,  made  a  scene  not  easily 
effaced  from  the  memory.  Nearly  every  town  in  our  country 
has  a  river,  bay,  pond,  or  lake.  Why  can't  our  people  indulge 
in  similar  holidays?  Such  assemblies  on  the  water  are  possi- 
ble, however,  only  in  countries  of  good  manners. 

We  left  Kyoto  at  five  o'clock  in  the  morning  in  a  little 
steamer  for  Hiroshima,  Province  of  Aki.  We  had  a  good-sized 
room  all  to  ourselves  on  one  side  of  the  boat.  The  boat  being 
built  for  Japanese  stature  was  extremely  low  in  height  of 
rooms  and  passages,  and  we  bumped  our  heads  continually  in 
moving  about.  Most  of  our  time  was  spent  on  deck  admiring 
the  beautiful  scenery.  We  arrived  off  Hiroshima  at  six  in  the 
evening,  and  then,  taking  a  boat  in  waiting  for  us,  we  had  a 
pull  of  over  an  hour,  or  rather  our  boatman  poled  most  of  the 


way  over  shallow  water,  to  the  mouth  of  the  river.  It  was  a 
wide,  shallow  expanse  of  water,  and  we  slowly  moved  along, 
passing  under  stately  piled  bridges,  one  after  the  other.  The 
banks  of  the  river  on  both  sides  were  lined  with  well-made 
high  stone  walls  surmounted  by  fireproof  buildings,  mostly 
painted  black.  Few  people  were  seen  despite  the  early  hour  in 
the  evening,  few  lanterns  were  lighted,  and  there  was  no  com- 
merce on  the  river.  The  appearance  gave  us  a  very  oppressive, 
gloomy  feeling.  The  contrast  between  the  commercial  activ- 
ity of  Osaka  and  this  sombre  place  was  marked  in  the  extreme. 
Here  was  a  city  of  a  hundred  thousand  people  —  apparently 
dead,  as  the  cholera  was  raging.  It  was  some  time  before  we 
found  an  inn.  The  one  to  which  we  had  been  recommended 
had  just  lost  its  landlord  by  cholera,  so  we  sat  in  our  boat  for 
an  hour  with  hungry  stomachs  and  tired  bodies,  depressed  to 
the  last  degree  by  the  long  row  of  black  buildings,  tall,  gaunt 
bridges,  and  the  deathlike  silence  everywhere.  Finally,  an 
inn  having  been  found  that  would  accommodate  us,  we  started 
down  the  river  and  across  to  the  other  side  and  landed,  as  it 
were,  at  the  back  side  of  the  inn.  Baggage  was  got  out  of  the 
boat,  and  the  ascent  of  a  flight  of  stone  steps  and  a  walk 
through  a  long,  dark,  narrow  lane  brought  us  to  the  neatest 
and  cleanest  hotel  we  had  yet  encountered.  Fenollosa  and 
Ariga,  hearing  of  a  restaurant  in  foreign  style,  left  us  for  what 
they  thought  would  be  better  food,  while  the  Doctor  and  I 
took  our  chances  with  the  native  food  and  had  a  first-rate 

The  next  morning  I  started  off  early  to  ransack  the  old 
pottery  shops.  A  Japanese  at  the  hotel  became  interested  in 


my  quest,  and  was  very  kind  in  conducting  me  to  all  dealers 
likely  to  have  the  objects  I  wanted.  He  also  told  them  to  get 
together  what  they  could  and  bring  them  to  the  hotel  for  my 
inspection.  The  result  was  that  a  continual  stream  of  dealers 
with  good,  bad,  and  indifferent  things  streamed  into  our  rooms 
for  the  rest  of  the  day.  Fenollosa,  being  disgusted  with  the 
so-called  foreign  food  of  the  night  before,  lost  all  interest  in 
Hiroshima  and  our  intended  visit  to  Miyajima  and  Iwakuni, 
and  with  Ariga  started  back  to  Osaka  and  Kyoto.  On  the  15th 
of  August  Dr.  Bigelow  and  I  started  in  a  clean  new  Japanese 
junk  for  a  sail  through  the  Inland  Sea.  Before  leaving  the 
hotel  it  occurred  to  me  that  a  Japanese  junk  was  about  as  un- 
stable a  craft  as  was  ever  built,  and  that  if  we  fell  overboard 
my  watch  would  be  ruined.  I  also  realized  that,  as  we  were  to 
be  the  guests  of  the  Japanese  in  Iwakuni,  it  was  not  necessary 
to  carry  along  much  money.  So  I  asked  the  landlord  if  he 
would  take  care  of  my  watch  and  money  until  I  returned,  and 
he  pleasantly  agreed  to  do  so.  A  servant  came  to  my  room 
bringing  a  shallow  lacquer  tray  without  cover,  telling  me  it 
was  to  hold  my  possessions.  These  things  were  then  deposited 
in  the  tray  which  she  held  out  to  me,  and  placing  the  tray  on 
the  floor  she  went  away.  I  waited  for  a  while  impatiently, 
supposing,  of  course,  that  she  intended  taking  them  to  the 
landlord,  who  would  protect  them  in  some  way.  The  girl  not 
returning,  I  called  her,  asking  why  she  left  the  tray.  It  was  all 
right  there,  she  said.  I  called  the  landlord,  and  he  also  said  it 
was  perfectly  safe  where  it  was,  that  he  had  no  safe  or  other 
receptacle  for  such  things.  Realizing  the  honesty  of  the  peo- 
ple in  the  fact  that  I  had  never  seen  a  lock,  key,  or  bolt  on  any 


sliding  screen  in  Japan,  I  resolved  to  risk  the  experiment,  so 
left  eighty  dollars  in  silver  and  bills  and  my  gold  watch  in  an 
open  tray  in  a  room  which  was  probably  occupied  a  dozen 
times  during  my  absence  and  to  which  access  could  be  had  by 
every  domestic  and  guest  in  the  house.  We  were  off  for  a 
week's  trip,  yet  on  my  return  every  bit  of  change  to  the  last 
cent,  and  the  watch,  of  course,  were  in  the  open  tray  as  I  had 
left  them.  When  one  recalls  the  warnings  and  admonitions  in 
printed  notices  on  the  doors  of  American  and  English  inns 
in  comparison  with  this  experience,  one  is  compelled  to  admit 
the  innate  honesty  of  these  people,  and  this  is  only  one  of  the 
many  examples  I  could  cite.  It  must  amuse  a  Japanese  when 
he  visits  our  country  to  see  dippers  chained  to  the  fountain, 
thermometers  screwed  to  the  wall,  doormats  fastened  to  the 
steps,  and  inside  every  hotel  various  devices  to  prevent  the 
stealing  of  soap  and  towels. 

Returning  to  our  junk :  we  had  a  crew  of  four  men  and  a  boy, 
and  a  boy  from  the  inn  to  help  matters.  We  were  fortunate 
in  securing  the  services  of  Mr.  Tahara,  an  old  student  of  mine 
at  the  University,  who  became  our  interpreter  and  accompan- 
ied us.  At  times  the  wind  died  out  and  the  men  rowed  with  long 
clumsy  oars.  The  experience  was  unique,  sailing  in  a  Japanese 
junk  through  one  of  the  most  picturesque  and  beautiful  wa- 
terways, in  the  world.  I  fairly  enjoyed  the  rapturous  comfort 
the  Doctor  seemed  to  take  as  he  sat  on  the  roof  of  the  cabin. 
Leaning  back  against  a  pile  of  matting  with  a  box  of  Manila 
cigars  by  his  side,  he  held  his  post  the  entire  day,  either  doz- 
ing or  admiring  the  varied  scenery,  which  was  indeed  beau- 
tiful. As  we  passed  Miyajima  Mr.  Tahara  told  us  many  in- 


teresting  facts  about  the  island.  We  saw  on  the  shore  a  large 
Shinto  temple  with  the  tide  running  under  the  corridors  and, 
rising  from  the  water,  a  colossal  tori-i  whose  base  is  immersed 
at  half  tide,  all  having  been  originally  built  high  and  dry  some 
distance  from  the  shore.  The  effect  is  striking,  for  the  island, 
except  for  the  beach,  rises  precipitously  from  the  water,  with 
mountains  of  considerable  height  and  great  abruptness.  One 
gets  an  idea  of  the  stupendous  convulsions  that  within  com- 
paratively recent  times  have  caused  this  depression  of  the 
coast-line.  Everywhere  along  the  coast  one  sees  these  evi- 
dences of  elevation  and  depression. 

During  the  evening  wre  had  a  breeze  which  finally  brought 
us  to  a  little  fishing  village,  where  we  landed  at  ten  o'clock  at 
night.  Our  host  had  had  a  man  there  all  day  in  anticipation 
of  our  arrival,  and  he  was  on  hand  to  greet  us  with  many  bows, 
and  jinrikishas  with  two  men  for  each  one.  After  some  delay 
with  the  baggage  we  were  off  for  Iwakuni,  which  lay  in  a  beau- 
tiful valley  some  miles  distant.  It  was  such  a  balmy  night,  — 
everything  looked  so  strange,  the  palms  and  palmettos,  the 
odor  of  semi-tropical  vegetation,  and  the  men  running  and 
yelling  like  mad !  It  was  delightful,  after  being  cooped  up  all 
day  in  the  junk.   It  was  an  experience  never  to  be  forgotten. 

We  entered  the  village  of  Iwakuni  with  people  still  awake 
and  evidently  expecting  us,  as  they  lined  the  street  and  stared 
at  us  in  a  way  that  I  had  not  seen  before.  We  were  told  that 
the  last  foreigner  seen  in  town  was  seven  years  before  our 
arrival.  One  has  a  curious  mixture  of  emotions  at  being  de- 
liberately stared  at  by  a  crowd;  in  a  way,  it  is  embarrassing. 
Realizing  that  every  movement  is  watched,  you  feel  how  ab- 


surd  or  inexplicable  some  of  your  movements  must  be  to  the 
starers.  You  try  to  affect  indifference,  and  yet  you  are  con- 
scious of  an  added  dignity  and  importance  at  being  stared  at. 
You  are  guilty  of  performing  acts  specially  to  excite  their 
attention,  such  as  turning  your  pockets  inside  out  in  search  of 
something,  for  a  pocket  in  Japanese  clothing  is  as  unknown  to 
them  as  it  is  to  a  woman  nowadays;  you  raise  a  laugh  by  some 
gesture  of  annoyance;  sometimes  you  find  you  are  making  a 
fool  of  yourself,  when  all  the  time  the  effort  is  to  appear  calm 
and  natural.  Mr.  Kikkawa's  agent  conducted  us  to  a  private 
hotel,  in  which  in  olden  times  the  daimyo's  guests  alone  were 
received  and  cared  for,  and  now  it  had  been  opened  for  us  and 
beautiful  old  screens  and  kakemono  had  been  brought  down 
from  the  prince's  treasures  and  displayed  in  the  rooms  we  were 
to  occupy.  A  delicious  supper  was  served  to  us,  and  at  one 
o'clock  at  night  we  went  to  bed.  From  the  openings  between 
the  shoji  I  peered  out  and  saw  a  large  booth  dimly  illuminated 
in  which  a  theatre  was  in  action.  A  number  of  other  booths 
were  seen,  and  cries  of  hucksters  indicated  that  some  kind  of  a 
fair  or  festival  was  in  progress,  and  beyond  and  above  was 
total  darkness. 

The  scene  that  greeted  us  in  the  morning  as  we  pushed  back 
the  shoji  was  surpassingly  beautiful.  We  looked  out  on  a  broad 
river-bed  whose  bottom  of  smooth  stones  and  pebbles  was 
perfectly  bare,  and  beyond  rose  picturesque  mountains,  while 
to  the  right  was  the  famous  arched  truss  bridge  of  which  no 
description  can  convey  an  idea.  After  breakfast  the  various 
officers  in  the  employ  of  Mr.  Kikkawa  came  to  pay  their  re- 
spects, among  them  Mr.  Misu,  the  agent  of  a  primitive  cotton 


factory  that  Mr.  Kikkawa  has  established  here,  a  perfect  type 
of  the  old  loyal  retainer  with  a  face  such  as  one  sees  in  some  of 
the  old  prints;  Mr.  Kikkawa,  a  distant  relation  of  the  family, 
who  looks  after  things  generally,  with  a  smiling,  genial,  and 
most  hospitable  face;  and  many  others  whose  names  it  is  im- 
possible to  recall,  and  all  most  attentive  to  our  comfort.  They 
were,  of  course,  in  their  native  dress,  and  perfect  their  dresses 
were.  Indeed,  not  a  foreign  notion  or  scrap  did  we  see  during 
our  whole  visit,  and  had  they  worn  swords  we  should  have 
seen  Japan  as  it  was  in  feudal  times.  It  was  all  there  except 
the  swords:  manners,  customs,  courtesies,  and  all,  and  it  was 

In  the  morning  we  went  through  the  town  looking  up  bric-a- 
brac  shops.  After  dinner,  at  noon,  we  were  taken  in  a  covered 
barge  up  the  river  a  few  miles  to  see  the  site  of  the  old  Tada 
ovens  established  a  hundred  and  eighty  years  ago,  but  extinct 
for  many  years.  One  man  stood  at  the  bow  poling,  another 
man  ahead  in  the  water  towing  by  a  long  rope,  and  we,  reclin- 
ing on  soft  mats,  were  regaled  with  jelly,  candy,  cake,  and  tea. 
We  went  up  rapids,  floated  quietly  across  calm  pools  of  water 
vibrating  with  wonderful  reflections  from  the  dark  forests, 
and  amidst  the  most  beautiful  scenery.  A  landing  was  finally 
made  in  a  most  picturesque  region  where  a  number  of  attend- 
ants had  assembled,  and  such  profound  bows  we  got  and  so 
many  of  them!  A  short  walk  brought  us  to  the  site  of  the 
oven,  now  in  ruins  and  covered  by  a  dense  bamboo  growth. 
An  old  man,  one  of  the  last  potters  of  the  place,  gave  us  an 
account  of  the  pottery  and  processes,  and  after  looking  about 
for  a  while  we  went  to  a  house  where  lunch  was  served.   It 


seemed  as  if  a  dinner  or  lunch  were  given  to  us  every  two 
hours.  At  this  place  were  a  number  of  specimens  of  Tada, 
Ajina,  and  Kikko  pottery,  some  of  which  were  presented  to  us 
and  others  I  had  a  chance  to  buy. 

About  eight  o'clock  we  started  for  the  boat,  and  now  bright- 
colored  lanterns  fringed  the  canopy  and  we  had  a  rapid  and 
delightful  sail  back  to  Iwakuni.  Attendants  were  awaiting  our 
arrival,  and  we  were  conducted  at  once  to  a  building  where  the 
Doctor  and  I  joined  a  cha-no-yu  party  in  a  charming  little 
tea-room  and  drank  the  delicious  powdered  tea.  After  this 
ceremonious  affair  we  went  to  an  adjoining  room  wrhere  a 
dinner  was  given  us.  After  all  this  we  went  to  a  provincial 
theatre  and  afforded  a  greater  spectacle  to  the  audience  than 
the  play  itself,  for  the  people,  young  and  old,  stared  at  us  and 
crowded  about  us  in  a  way  I  never  before  experienced  in  Japan. 
We  finally  got  to  bed,  tired  out  by  our  day's  experiences,  all 
of  which  had  been  novel  and  delightful,  and  which  gave  us 
a  vivid  conception  of  old  Japan  with  its  hospitality,  courtesy, 
and  gentle  manners. 

We  were  up  early  again  the  next  morning  to  pass  another 
eventful  day.  At  ten  o'clock  Mr.  Misu  came  to  escort  us  to  the 
cotton  factory.  After  the  Revolution  in  1868,  when  the  Sho- 
gunate  was  overthrown,  the  Prince  of  Kikkawa  made  his  resi- 
dence in  Tokyo.  The  government  of  the  province  being  de- 
ranged by  the  events  following  the  restoration  of  the  Mikado, 
a  great  many  of  the  retainers  were  thrown  on  their  own  re- 
sources, and  it  became  necessary  to  find  some  employment  for 
these  former  dependants  of  the  daimyo.  A  number  of  gen- 
tlemen, retainers  of  the  prince,  formed  a  company  among 


themselves  and  established  a  cotton  mill.  This  scheme  was 
encouraged  by  the  prince,  who  invested  a  considerable  sum  of 
money  in  the  enterprise.  To-day  there  are  extensive  buildings 
containing  all  the  machinery  for  the  manufacture  of  cotton 
cloth  —  rude,  primitive,  wooden  machines,  yet  all  bearing  a 
resemblance  to  the  great  machines  one  sees  in  our  mills  at 
home.  Over  one  hundred  women  and  thirty  men  are  engaged 
in  the  work,  the  men  all  wearing  fyakama,  showing  them  to  be 
samurai.  Besides  thread,  the  mill  turns  out  nearly  one  hun- 
dred thousand  yards  of  cotton  cloth  a  year.  It  was  interesting 
to  see  a  tread  wheel  in  which  were  two  strong-looking  samurai 
treading  away  patiently,  supplying  power  for  a  certain  portion 
of  the  machinery,  while  in  a  room  outside  were  other  arrange- 
ments to  move  certain  machines,  also  turned  by  samurai,  who, 
when  we  looked  in,  got  off  their  perches  and  politely  bowed  to 
us.  Indeed,  as  we  walked  through  a  long  room  in  the  second 
story  of  one  of  the  buildings,  every  clerk  —  and  there  were 
many  of  them  —  bowed  to  us.  We  continued  to  the  farther 
end  of  the  room,  where  upon  the  floor  a  large  carpet  was 
spread  and  tea  was  brought  to  us.  Then  the  clerks  and  others 
employed  in  the  office  came  in  groups  of  four  and  five,  and 
upon  their  knees  bowed  to  the  floor,  as  we  were  in  a  kneeling 
position.  When  we  entered  the  factory  yard  and  during  our 
entire  progress  through  the  factory,  every  one  bowed  to  Mr. 
Misu  and  to  us,  and  it  was  interesting  to  see  how  polite  and 
kind  Mr.  Misu  was  to  the  operatives.  He  borrowed  the  Doc- 
tor's powerful  hand-lens  and  showed  them  how  the  fabrics 
looked  when  magnified.  In  the  vestibule  of  the  office  was 
hung  up  a  list  of  the  clerks,  operatives,  and  attendants,  and 


these  formed  a  cooperative  society,  each  one  paying  a  small 
assessment  to  help  those  who  might  become  sick.  What 
amazed  us  beyond  expression  was  the  absence  of  all  dirt  and 
grease.  Every  girl  looked  clean  and  neat,  everybody  looked 
pleasant,  and  a  happier  and  cleaner  set  of  people  I  never  saw. 
Ruskin  would  have  thought  he  was  in  the  seventh  heaven. 

After  these  interesting  experiences  we  were  invited  to  a 
large  room,  where  all  the  operatives  gathered,  the  girls  on  one 
side  of  the  room,  the  men  on  the  other,  like  a  Quaker  meeting, 
and,  much  to  my  surprise,  I  was  asked  to  give  them  a  lecture, 
Mr.  Tahara  interpreting  for  me.  I  selected  ants  for  a  subject.  , 
I  had  no  blackboard,  but  they  all  seemed  to  be  greatly  inter- 
ested. Mr.  Yamagata,  an  old  student  of  mine,  was  there,  and 
he  helped  now  and  then  in  difficult  passages. 

We  then  went  into  the  third  story  of  the  building,  a  kind  of 
lookout,  from  which  a  magnificent  view  of  the  river  valley  and 
surrounding  country  was  obtained.  A  refreshing  dinner  was 
served  from  a  table,  with  chairs  about,  some  bright  girls, 
prettily  dressed,  waiting  upon  us,  as  did  three  beautiful  little 
boys,  one  of  whom  had  been  my  constant  companion  the  day 
before,  with  a  fan  with  which  he  often  fanned  me.  The  dinner 
was  excellent,  though  I  had  already  eaten  twice  that  day,  but 
it  is  amazing  how  often  one  can  eat  Japanese  food.  I  learned 
through  Mr.  Tahara  that  the  sendees  of  a  famous  cook  from 
some  distant  place  had  been  secured  and  there  had  been  gath- 
ered the  best  the  country  afforded.  The  appearance  of  the 
table  and  dishes  was  of  the  most  artistic  character.  One  dish, 
in  particular  had  a  beautiful  dwarf  pine,  forty  years  old,  rising 
from  its  centre;  another  dish,  on  which  was  raw  fish,  rested  on 


a  bamboo  raft,  five  feet  long,  with  a  most  graceful  arrange- 
ment of  leaves  rising  from  its  centre.  Both  of  these  devices 
were  supported  on  lacquer  stands.  Figure  665  is  a  very  rude 
sketch  of  their  appearance.  This  was  our  farewell  dinner,  and 
all  this  artistic  and  delightful  affair  in  the  third  story  of  a 
cotton  factory! 


Fig.  665 

Besides  the  cotton  factory  there  is  another  factory  for  the 
manufacture  of  paper,  and  connected  with  it  is  a  printing- 
house  where  books,  pamphlets,  and  anything  in  the  line  of 
work  of  a  printing-office  is  done. 

At  four  o'clock  we  left  the  factory  and  were  accompanied  by 
a  number  of  gentlemen  to  the  house  we  had  occupied.  At  that 
place  the  jinrikishas  were  waiting,  so  final  good-byes  were 
said.  A  large  square  package  of  white  cotton  cloth  was  given 
to  each  of  us.  The  Doctor  secured  two  sword-blades  in  their 
wooden  scabbards,  made  by  famous  Iwakuni  sword-makers, 
and  I  was  given  a  number  of  pieces  of  old  Iwakuni  pottery.  We 
managed  to  leave  little  presents  for  the  twenty-two  men  who 


had  attended  us.  When  we  asked  for  our  hotel  bill,  we  were 
informed  that  it  had  already  been  paid,  and  the  jinrikishas 
to  the  coast  had  also  been  provided.  Indeed,  we  were  liter- 
ally in  the  hands  of  these  hospitable  people.  We  learned  after- 
wards that  Mr.  Kikkawa  had  sent  a  man  from  Tokyo  to  pre- 
pare for  our  coming.  We  finally  started  amid  hundreds  of 
bows,  and  crowds  of  curious  faces  smiled  on  us  as  we  rode  rap- 
idly down  the  main  street  and  out  into  the  country  with  feel- 
ings of  overwhelming  gratitude  and  affection  for  the  Japa- 
nese race,  and  particularly  for  the  Prince  of  Kikkawa  and  his 
loyal  subjects,  who,  despite  the  change  of  political  conditions, 
preserve,  as  of  old,  their  fealty  to  their  prince. 

During  this  delightful  ride,  with  remarkable  atmospheric 
effects,  as  the  mists  were  slowly  rising  from  the  meadows  and 
rice-fields,  with  the  dark  thatched  roofs  silhouetted  against 
the  white  mists  and  a  dark  range  of  mountains  beyond,  we 
mentally  digested  the  remarkable  experience  we  had  had. 
Reaching  the  coast  village,  we  were  taken  to  a  little  tea-house 
in  a  wonderful  garden,  where  tea  and  cake  were  offered  us,  and 
finally,  when  we  got  aboard  our  junk,  a  number  of  boxes  of 
cake  and  candy  were  given  us. 

Our  next  port  was  the  famous  village  of  Miyajima,  twelve 
miles  distant,  accounted  one  of  the  most  picturesque  and  beau- 
tiful places  in  Japan.  There  being  no  wind  the  sailors  rowed 
or  sculled  the  entire  distance  to  Miyajima.  It  was  a  delightful 
experience  sitting  on  deck  in  the  balmy  southern  air  watching 
for  the  August  meteors  and  reflecting  on  the  unique  experi- 
ences we  had  enjoyed.  I  had  ample  time  to  call  the  Doctor's 
attention  to  one  beautiful  meteor  before  it  disappeared. 


We  arrived  at  Miyajima  at  midnight,  and  walked  up  through 
the  quaint  and  silent  streets  to  a  tea-house  situated  in  a  deep 
ravine,  and  soon  got  to  bed  and  to  sleep.  The  next  morning 
(August  17)  we  had  a  delightful  surprise  as  we  opened  the 
shoji  and  looked  out  on  a  beautiful  wild  ravine,  cool  and  re- 
freshing. Deer  came  out  of  the  wild  forest  and  looked  at  us 
with  gentle  eyes;  one  even  came  into  the  enclosure  in  front  of 
our  room  and  ate  a  rind  of  watermelon  from  my  hand.  I  sup- 
posed they  were  deer  kept  in  confinement  and  tamed,  but 
when  I  walked  through  the  village  some  hours  later  I  met 
them  in  the  street,  and  found  that  they 
were  not  prisoners  or  park  specimens,  but 
came  down  from  the  mountains.  In  other 
words,  they  were  wild  deer  that  had  never 
been  treated  unkindly. 

The  famous  Shinto  temple  has  its  long 
corridors,  decorated  with  pictures  by  vari- 
ous artists;  some  of  the  pictures  very  old 
and  their  details  partially  effaced  by  time, 
but  we  spent  two  hours  in  examining  them. 
There  were  also  curiosities  in  the  shape  of  " 
old  bamboo  roots;  an  interesting  painting 
of  a  bamboo  made  by  a  boy  six  years  old,  some  remarkable 
wood-carvings  of  deer,  and  appended  to  one  carving  was  the 
chisel  used  by  the  carver.  The  temple  is  about  seven  hun- 
dred years  old,  and  a  stone  lantern  which  stood  near  one  of 
the  corridors  is  also  seven  hundred  years  old.  Figure  666 
represents  the  lantern,  or  ishidoro.  In  the  street  near  the 
ravine  are  curiously  constructed  aqueducts  which  supply 

Fig.  666 


the  houses  with  water,  one  near  our  inn  was  very  primitive 
in  its  construction.  On  a  huge  square  pile  of  stones  was  a 
large  wooden  trough,  the  sides  of  which  were  perforated  with 
holes,  and  out  of  these  poured  streams  of  water  into  water- 
conductors  of  bamboo,  as  shown  in  figure  667.  These  con- 
nected with  bamboo  pipes  underground  which  led  to  various 
houses  in  the  village.   In  another  ravine  bamboo  gutters  con- 

Fig.  667 

veyed  the  water  long  distances.  In  one  place  a  strainer  of 
bamboo  in  a  box  was  used  as  shown  in  figure  668.  By  these 
various  devices  the  village  of  Miyajima  was  supplied  with  the 
purest  water  from  mountain  brooks. 

A  simple  method  of  automatically  closing  a  gate  is  shown  in 
figure  669.  A  weight  hangs  from  a  cross-bar  above.  By  its 
weight  the  gate  is  kept  closed,  and  when  one  enters,  the  weight 
bangs  against  the  gate  a  few  times,  thus  answering  the  pur- 
poses of  a  door-bell.  The  deer  that  roam  freely  through  the 
main  street  of  the  village  are  inclined  to  wander  into  the  gar- 
dens, and  this  device  is  made  to  keep  the  gate  closed  against 
their  intrusions. 

Fig.  668 


Miyajima  is  regarded  as  a  very  sacred  place,  and  the  abso- 
lute repose  and  tranquillity  are  beyond  description.  No  ani- 
mal was  allowed  to  be 
killed  on  the  island. 
We  were  told  that  only 
within  a  few  years  was 
any  one  allowed  to  die 
on  the  island.  Former- 
ly, when  one  was  near 
death,  the  poor  creature 
was  put  into  a  boat 
and  rowed  across  to 
the  mainland  where  the 
cemetery  is  located.   If 

any  one  climbing  the  mountain  accidentally  injured  himself 
so  as  to  bleed,  the  earth  upon  which  the  blood  fell  had  to  be 
scraped  up  and  thrown  into  the  sea.    Here  is  a  village  of 

servants,  wood-carvers,  shopkeepers, 
and  the  usual  make-up  of  a  village 
community.  By  what  mystery  do  they 
elect  to  behave  themselves?  Why  are 
the  children  always  so  good?  Are 
they  effeminate?  They  make  the  best 
soldiers  in  the  world. 

I  left  the  island  in  a  small  boat  for 

the  mainland  on  my  way  back  to 

Hiroshima,  the  Doctor  wishing  to  stay 

another  night  in  Miyajima.    In  sailing  along  the  coast  one 

notices  enormous  walls  built  of  stone  running  along  for  miles, 

Fig.  669 


and  seen  from  the  water  they  appear  like  breakwaters.  I 
was  not  prepared  to  see  the  extensive  character  or  meaning 
of  these  structures  till  I  rode  along  their  crests  on  my  way  to 
Hiroshima.  The  walls,  built  nearly  one  hundred  years  ago, 
were  made  to  reclaim  the  bottom  of  the  sea  for  agricultural 
purposes,  and  the  enormous  tracts  of  land  thus  recovered  are 
amazing.  The  coast  is  abrupt  and  mountainous,  and  the 
mountain  ridges  jut  out  of  the  ocean  like  promontories,  leav- 
ing great  bays  between;  the  walls  are  built  from  the  ends  of 
these  promontories  and  the  enclosed  areas  are  filled  in  and 
are  under  rich  cultivation.  On  the  crest  of  the  wall  is  a  broad 
road,  and  the  ride  was  delightful.  I  reached  Hiroshima  at 
eight  o'clock  and  naturally  went  to  my  room  at  once  for 
my  watch  and  money,  which,  as  I  have  mentioned,  I  found 

Sick  with  a  cold  and  a  bilious  attack,  I  lay  on  the  floor  all 
the  next  day  while  dealers  in  bric-a-brac  brought  old  pottery 
to  me  to  examine,  and  I  made  large  additions  to  my  collec- 
tions. With  no  interpreter  I  got  along  very  well,  and  should 
not  hesitate  to  go  through  Japan  alone.  The  Doctor  arrived 
the  next  day,  and  he  spent  the  entire  time  with  the  dealers, 
who  came  in  swarms.  When  we  were  ready  to  go,  we  were  told 
that  the  dealers  had  provided  a  large  barge  and  wished  to  con- 
vey us  to  the  steamer,  five  miles  away.  Imagine  our  astonish- 
ment when  we  got  aboard  to  find  that  they  had  hired  a  fine 
pleasure  barge  with  singing-girls,  a  fine  lunch,  and  everything 
to  make  the  sail  pleasant.  In  this  way  these  people  wished  to 
show  their  gratitude  to  us.  A  number  of  Japanese  friends 
accompanied  us  in  another  boat,  among  them  Mr.  Amakusa, 


whom  I  had  met  a  few  years  before  when  examining  dolmens 
near  Osaka.  Just  before  we  started,  an  acquaintance  of  Mr. 
Tahara  made  a  call,  and  I  invited  him  to  take  a  little  brandy, 
the  only  thing  I  had  to  offer.  He  poured  out  much  more  than 
an  ordinary  drink,  and  I  warned  him  that  it  was  very  strong 
and  he  could  not  carry  it.  He  said,  "Dai  jo  bu,  yoroshii"  (Able 
to  resist,  all  right).  It  was  interesting  and  amusing  to  see  how 
rapidly  he  succumbed  to  the  influence  of  the  liquor.  By  the 
time  we  got  aboard  he  was  in  a  grotesque  state  of  intoxication, 
and  finally  became  so  drunk  that  we  had  to  land  him  on  the 
banks  of  the  river,  where  he  laughed,  sang,  and  declaimed  till 
we  were  out  of  sight ! 

We  soon  reached  the  steamer,  and  bidding  good-bye  to  our 
pleasant  hosts,  got  aboard  a  little  low  thing  evidently  built  for 
the  most  diminutive  Japanese.  The  result  was  that  we  could 
hardly  move  about  without  breaking  our  backs  or  bumping 
our  heads,  and  the  Doctor  repeatedly  broke  the  third  com- 
mandment during  his  back-breaking  experiences. 

We  sailed  at  eleven  o'clock  at  night,  and  all  the  next  day 
and  night,  stopping  now  and  then,  and  finally  reached  Kobe 
in  the  morning.  I  never  endured  more  misery.  It  rained  most 
of  the  time,  and  we  were  confined  in  a  little  room  with  a 
Japanese  family,  with  another  room  connecting  in  which  were 
eighteen  more  Japanese.  They  were  all  courteous  and  quiet. 
Had  they  been  natives  of  any  other  country  we  should  have 
suffered  much  more,  if  that  were  possible.  We  slept  on  the 
floor,  for  there  were  no  beds  or  berths;  the  Japanese  food  was 
execrable,  and  I  had  not  recovered  from  my  illness  at  Hiro- 


Arriving  at  Kobe  we  rushed  to  the  English  hotel  for  some- 
thing to  eat.  For  over  two  weeks  we  had  lived  on  Japanese 
food,  much  of  it  most  excellent,  but  no  matter  how  good  the 
food,  it  is  the  breakfast  that  makes  us  homesick,  so  we  reveled 
in  the  English  food  with  almost  delirious  joy. 

I  have  done  little  but  eat  and  write  for  a  week 



Our  Inland  Sea  experiences  have  been  remarkable  and, 
with  the  exception  of  steamboating,  perfect.  We  are  now  to 
start  for  a  town  in  the  Province  of  Kii,  and  then  on  to  Nara 
and  Kyoto,  so  my  journal  notes  and  sketches  accumulate 
without  a  chance  for  writing  up  in  orderly  sequence.  I  have 
added  a  great  stock  of  notes  for  my  pottery  journal  which  is 
sadly  behindhand. 

Within  a  month  a  violent  outbreak  has  occurred  in  Korea 
and  a  number  of  Japanese  have  been  massacred.  I  was  in 
Kyoto  when  the  news  was  received  by  the  Japanese  papers, 
and  the  excitement  over  the  affair  reminded  me  of  the  days 
following  the  outbreak  of  our  Civil  War.  Osaka  would  raise 
three  regiments  of  soldiers  and  contribute  a  million  of  dollars; 
Niigata,  away  up  on  the  northwest  coast,  would  raise  half  a 
regiment  and  give  a  hundred  thousand  dollars.  I  mention 
these  details  in  order  that  the  following  incident  may  be  fully 
appreciated.  With  the  country  aroused  at  the  Korean  coup 
d'etat  and  Japanese  troops  forced  to  retreat  to  Chemulpo,  I,  on 
my  way  to  Kyoto,  sat  in  the  train  with  two  Koreans.  I  had 
rarely  seen  a  Korean  before,  and  the  Japanese  in  the  car 
had  apparently  never  seen  these  people,  from  the  way  they 
watched  them.  They  got  out  at  Osaka,  and  I  sacrificed  my 
ticket  and  followed  them.  They  had  no  guard,  not  even  a  po- 
liceman, nor  was  a  guard  necessary.  Crowds  flocked  around 


them,  for  their  conspicuous  white  clothing/ curious  horsehair 
hats,  shoes,  everything,  were  as  strange  to  the  Japanese  as  to 
me.  I  followed  them  until  I  got  tired,  simply  to  discover,  if 
possible,  a  hostile  gesture  or  a  jeering  word.  The  Japanese  were 
sensible  enough  to  realize  that  these  two  men  were  innocent  of 
the  atrocities  going  on  in  their  native  country  and  they  were 
treated  with  the  usual  courtesy.  Naturally  I  recalled  the  way 

the  Northerners  were  treated 
in  the  South  during  the  war  in 
our  country,  and  again  asked 
myself  which  people  are  the 
most  civilized. 

While  at  Rokubei's  pottery 
the  old  man,  in  showing  me  a 
water-jar  he  had  thrown  some 
years  before,  made  a  gesture 
new  to  me:  he  held  his  two 
fists  against  his  nose,  one  in 
front  of  the  other.  I  wondered 
what  he  meant  by  it,  and  was 
told  that  it  indicated  pride. 
A  wise  old  character  known  as 
Tengu  is  represented  in  masks  and  pictures  as  a  man  with  an 
inordinate  length  of  nose,  and  to  show  wisdom  or  commend- 
able pride  the  two  fists  are  held  as  above  described  to  indicate 
a  long  nose. 

At  Kobe  I  watched  from  my  window  a  number  of  workmen 
driving  piles.  I  have  already  described  the  process  in  the 
earlier  pages  of  the  journal.  We  have  now  learned  the  meaning 

Fig.  670 

A  CHANTY  283 

of  their  song.  Figure  670  shows  the  men  on  the  staging  who  lift 
the  heavy  log  hammer.  Two  men  below  steady  and  direct  the 
pile  to  be  driven,  and  one  of  these  sings  a  short  chanty,  while 
those  on  the  staging  above  keep  up  a  swinging  sort  of  time  by 
slightly  swaying  their  bodies  and  partially  lifting  their  ham- 
mer; then  they  join  in  the  chorus,  and  when  that  is  finished, 
three  or  four  blows  are  given,  when  the  man  below  starts  the 
chanty  again.  The  chanty  consists  in  queries  or  encouraging 
words,  as,  "Why  is  this  so  hard?"  "A  few  more  blows  will 
drive  it  down";  "It  is  almost  down,"  etc.  At  this,  several 
rapid  blows  may  be  given.  The  workmen  above  often  laugh 
heartily  at  the  funny  words  of  the  soloist,  and  all  work  in  a 
happy,  smiling  sort  of  way.  The  men  seem  to  accomplish  a 
good  deal  of  work  during  the  day,  but  it  is  laughable  to  see 
them  work  so  slowly  and  deliberately. 

After  a  three  days'  stop  at  Kobe  we  went  to  Osaka,  and 
from  there  started  for  Wakanoura,  Province  of  Kii.  I  went 
ahead  with  Mr.  Tahara  and  at  every  town  ransacked  the 
curio-shops  for  pottery.  Our  ride  across  the  plains  of  Osaka 
to  the  mountains  beyond,  though  monotonous,  had  many 
points  of  interest.  The  entire  region  was  covered  with  big 
stacks  of  straw  gathered  about  high  poles  in  picturesque 
groups  of  four  or  five,  of  various  heights,  and  each  with  its 
little  spire,  which  was  the  end  of  the  pole  which  forms  the  axis. 
Many  of  these  stacks  had  gourd  or  squash  vines  trained  upon 
them,  and  some  of  them  had  little  huts  built  against  them  as 
shelters  for  the  farmers.  Figure  671  is  a  sketch  of  their  appear- 
ance. At  close  intervals  were  single  or  double  well-sweeps  for 
the  irrigation  of  the  land.    The  weighted  end  consists  of  a 


rough-hewn  stone,  disk-like  in  shape,  with  a  hole  in  the  centre, 
into  which  the  end  of  the  pole  is  wedged.  There  were  thousands 
of  these  wells  scattered  over  the  vast  plain  and  many  of  them 
were  being  worked.  The  extent  to  which  irrigation  is  carried 
on  probably  has  no  parallel  except  in  China,  which  I  hope  soon 
to  see.  There  the  well-sweep  is  two  thousand  years  old. 

A  very  ingenious  water-wheel  (fig.  672)  is  met  with,  which  is 
worked  by  the  current  of  a  river.  It  is  a  Chinese  device,  and  is 

Fig.  671 

rare  about  Tokyo  and  farther  north,  but  not  uncommon  in  the 
southern  provinces.  The  wheel  is  eight  or  more  feet  in  diam- 
eter, and  attached  to  it  are  large  bamboo  tubes  which  are  fas- 
tened obliquely  to  the  side  of  the  wheel  at  the  periphery.  As 
the  wheel  is  turned  by  the  current,  the  bamboo  tubes  are  filled 
with  water,  and  as  these  tubes  are  turned  to  the  top  of  the 
wheel,  the  water  pours  out  in  a  stream  and  is  caught  by  a  deep 
box  trough  running  parallel  to  the  diameter  of  the  wheel. 
From  this  trough  it  runs  into  another  trough,  and  from  thence 
to  the  irrigating  ditch.  It  is  interesting  to  watch  the  methodi- 
cal manner  in  which  each  bamboo  in  turn  becomes  filled  with 
water,  finally  to  spill  it  into  the  trough  as  it  comes  to  the  top 


of  the  wheel.  At  times  may  be  seen  two  or  three  wheels  close 
together  along  the  banks  of  the  river,  and  large  quantities  of 
water  are  raised  during  the  day  to  irrigate  the  rice-fields. 

Fig.  672 

At  one  place  in  Kii  I  saw  a  curious  implement  used  for  weed- 
ing in  rice-fields.  It  consisted  of  a  long  box  without  a  bottom; 
inside  the  box  were  two  shafts  running  from  side  to  side,  these 
shafts  being  studded  with  wooden  pins;  long  arms  or  handles 
ran  up  from  the  box;  and  the  machine  was  pushed  through 
the  rows  of  the  rice-fields.   Figure  673  gives  a  fair  idea  of  its 


appearance.  It  was  invented  by  a  man  in  the  village  where 
we  saw  it  used. 

The  pass  through  the  mountain  chain  which  separates 
Izumi  from  Kii  was  very  delightful;  such  perfect  roads  and 
such  fine  stone  bridges! 

The  scrupulous  efforts  made  to  protect  the  roads  from  moun- 
tain floods  one  observes  at  all  times.  Even  the  beds  of  brooks 
are  paved  like  a  street  so  that  the  torrents  shall  do  no  damage. 

Fig.  673 

Figure  674  gives  a  faint  idea  of  the  manner  of  protecting  the 
abutments  of  a  bridge  and  the  brook-bed.  A  big  dam  was  made 
below  the  bridge  so  as  to  check  the  too  rapid  flow  of  water. 
The  bridge  shown  is  one  in  the  mountain  pass  as  we  left  Isumi 
and  entered  the  Province  of  Kii. 

I  noticed  a  curious  way  of  treating  the  roof  in  Izumi.  After 
the  thin  layer  of  shingles  is  put  on,  a  layer  of  mud  is  added, 
and  a  thin  layer  of  cotton-seed  is  hammered  into  the  mud  with 
large  wooden  mallets.  The  seed  is  the  refuse  after  the  oil  has 
been  pressed  out,  and  being  oily,  it  forms  a  waterproof  coat- 
ing until  the  mud  has  become  hard  and  baked  by  the  sun. 

At  one  place  on  the  road  where  we  stopped,  I  saw  the  process 


of  manufacture  of  a  curious  kind  of  food  one  often  sees  in 
certain  soups.  It  has  a  bright-yellowish  color,  is  thin  as  paper, 
and  has  no  definite  flavor.  The  substance  is  made  from  soya 
beans  by  a  curious  and  simple  process.  The  beans  are  boiled  in 
a  large  boiler  till  they  are  very  soft;  they  are  then  ground  in  a 
mill  to  a  fine  paste,  and  mixed  with  water  and  colored  by  some 
stuff  that  is  imported  from  abroad  (fig.  675).  This  material  is 
then  put  into  a  shallow  trough  divided  by  square  partitions, 

beneath  which  is  a  charcoal  fire  which  keeps  the  stuff  gently 
boiling.  The  surface  coagulates  as  it  does  on  boiled  milk,  or  on 
a  cup  of  cocoa,  and  the  film  that  forms  is  taken  off  very  skill- 
fully with  slender  bamboo  sticks  and  hung  up  to  dry  (fig.  676). 
Other  films  form  and  are  promptly  removed  by  a  girl  who  is 
kept  busily  at  work. 

As  we  entered  the  plains  of  Kii  in  the  vicinity  of  Wakayama, 
the  view  was  charming :  long  reaches  of  rice-fields,  from  which, 
at  intervals,  arose  little  clusters  of  farmhouses  with  black- 
tiled  roofs,  intermingled  with  brown  thatch  and  white  walls, 
and  towering  above  them  quaint-looking  trees  with  deep, 


dark  foliage,  all  rising  out  of  a  perfectly  level  carpet  of  the 
brightest  green  which  extends  for  miles.  At  a  long  distance  the 
position  of  Wakayama  could  be  detected  by  the  castle  which 
looms  up  on  the  horizon  and  forms  a  conspicuous  feature  in 
the  landscape. 

Fig.  675 

As  one  goes  from  province  to  province  one  observes  a 
change  in  many  things.  The  variety  of  tiled  roof  has  already 
been  alluded  to  in  this  journal.  It  is  interesting  to  notice  the 
difference  in  ploughs.  Figure  677  shows  the  type  of  plough 
used  in  Kii.  It  is  similar  to  the  plough  used  in  Yamashiro,  but 
is  not  so  solidly  made  or  so  graceful. 

We  got  to  Wakayama  at  six  o'clock  in  the  evening.  The 
city  stands  on  a  slight  elevation,  enfolded  in  the  midst  of 
great  trees.  It  is  a  place  of  fifty  thousand  or  sixty  thousand 
inhabitants,  yet  simple  and  quiet.  The  people  stared  at  us  in 


eager  fashion  as  we  rode  through  the  town.  The  number  of 
foreigners  who  visit  a  place  may  be  estimated  by  the  quantity 
and  quality  of  the  staring  one  is  subjected  to;  so  we  judged 
that  foreigners  rarely  visit  Wakayama.  We  found  a  clean  inn, 
and  good  it  was  to  get  something  to  eat  and  to  go  to  bed.  The 
next  morning  we  started  out  in  the  usual  quest  for  pottery 
and  added  many  pieces;  the  next  day  was  a  repetition  of  the 

Fig.  676 

In  the  afternoon  Mr.  Tahara  and  I  rode  to  the  little  fishing 
village  of  Wakanoura,  the  village  being  placed  just  back  from 
the  beach  with  beautiful  mountains  towering  up  at  a  distance. 
On  the  slopes  of  one  mountain  was  a  large  temple  illuminated 
by  the  rays  of  the  setting  sun.  We  crossed  a  little  bridge  on 
which  was  a  crowd  of  men  and  boys  who  were  catching  dragon 
flies  in  sport.  They  had  regular  insect  nets,  and  one  man,  in 
order  to  leave  his  hands  free,  had  four  dragon  flies  in  his 
mouth,  his  lips  holding  the  insects  by  the  wings  turned  back. 
A  boy  had  a  number  held  between  his  fingers  in  the  same  way. 


The  boys  tie  strings  between  the  thorax  and  the  abdomen  and 
play  with  them,  the  creatures  flying  and  supporting  several 
feet  of  light  string.  This  is  a  boys'  sport  that  one  sees  all  over 

There  were  many  signs  of  past  grandeur  in  the  temples  and 
roads.   A  decayed  tori-i  rises  up  in  a  tangle  of  bushes  and 

grass,  the  sea  water  coming 
to  its  base  (fig.  678) ;  a  quaint 
old  stone  bridge  spans  a  wide 
creek  with  no  trace  of  a  road 
leading  to  it.  An  evident  sub- 
sidence of  the  land  has  taken 
pIG  g77  place  in  comparatively  recent 

times  and  traces  of  man's 
work  have  been  swallowed  up  by  the  waves.  When  we  re- 
turned to  Wakayama  the  moon  had  risen,  the  air  was  refresh- 
ingly cool,  and  the  views  were  altogether  delightful.  The  next 
day  the  Doctor  went  with  us  to  the  beach,  where  we  had  a 
grand  swim. 

I  noticed  the  remarkably  good  looks  of  the  older  women, 
very  sweet,  motherly,  and  intelligent  faces;  indeed,  I  may  say 
that  in  the  many  places  I  have  visited  in  Japan  I  never  saw 
so  many  fine  and  intelligent  old  ladies  as  here.  The  children 
were  also  very  pretty,  and  there  is  an  air  of  culture  and  refine- 
ment that  impresses  the  visitor  at  once.  It  being  a  three  days' 
festivity  in  honor  of  their  ancestors,  every  child  was  prettily 
dressed,  and  at  night  they  all  carried  bright-colored  lanterns. 
The  streets  were  filled  with  booths,  and  such  an  activity  of 
shouting  and  merriment  would  have  been  almost  distracting 


if  there  had  not  been  the  utmost  courtesy  and  politeness  in  all 
these  demonstrations.  We  went  to  the  fireworks  one  evening. 
These  were  given  in  a  large  enclosure  made  by  straw  mattings 
nearly  twenty  feet  high.  The  pieces,  though  simple,  were  very 
beautiful,  and  the  crowd  emitted  precisely  the  same  sounds 
expressing  surprise  and  wonder  that  one  hears  among  our  own 
people  under  similar  circumstances. 

Fig.  678 

At  Wakanoura  I  observed  fishermen  boiling  pine  bark  in 
order  to  tan  their  fish  nets.  I  asked  them  why  they  did  not 
tan  their  boat  sails,  and  they  said  that  the  sails  did  not  wear 
so  well  if  tanned.  Figure  679  represents  the  appearance  of 
this  simple  tannery.  The  fishing  boats  pulled  up  on  the  beach 
were  somewhat  different  from  those  of  other  parts  of  Japan. 
There  is  a  marked  difference  in  the  boats  of  different  provinces, 
though  they  are  all  remarkably  dry  boats  and  float  like  an 
egg-shell  in  heavy  seas. 


Wherever  I  go  there  is  perceptible  in  the  hum  of  the  city 
streets  certain  noises  that  are  rhythmical.  You  find  that  the 
Japanese  workmen  hum  or  sing  at  their  work,  and  if  the  work  is 
pounding,  stirring  with  a  stick  or  spoon,  or  any  uniform  move- 
ment, it  is  done  with  an  accent  and  in  rhythm.  These  noises 
may  be  a  series  of  grunts,  or  an  actual  song.  The  gold-beaters 
and  fish-choppers  always  beat  and  chop  with  a  peculiar  tempo. 
A  curious  preparation  of  raw  fish  has  to  be  rubbed  into  a  paste 
in  a  stone  mortar.  The  mortar  is  on  the  ground,  the  pestle 
is  a  long  pole,  the  man  stands  at  his  work,  and  he  works 

with  great  vigor.  The 
movements  of  stir- 
ring are  accompanied 
with  a  peculiar  whis- 
tling sound  in  perfect 
time  to  the  stirring, 
which  is  interrupted  by  long  and  short  stirs.  The  black- 
smiths have  the  hammers  of  the  helpers  tuned  differently,  so 
that  an  agreeable  series  of  sounds  is  made,  and  when  four  are 
pounding  in  rhythm  it  sounds  like  a  chime  of  bells.  It  is  a 
curious  trait  in  their  character  to  lighten  the  burden  of  their 
labors  by  some  pleasant  sound  or  rhythm. 

In  the  country  villages  it  is  interesting  to  observe  how  unob- 
trusively the  people  call  one  another's  attention  to  the  ap- 
proach of  a  foreigner.  They  seem  to  know  of  his  approach  a 
long  time  before  he  passes  their  door.  Often  children  go  ahead 
to  tell  their  parents;  mothers  call  their  children's  attention  to 
the  strange  sight,  but  in  doing  this  they  never  call  out  loud 
or  point  their  fingers.  In  Tokyo,  in  Kyoto,  and  in  other  large 

Fig.  679 

GOJIO  293 

cities  the  sight  of  a  foreigner  is  too  common  to  attract  at- 
tention, though  even  in  remote  parts  of  the  great  city  of 
Tokyo,  one  attracts  some  notice,  and  countrymen  in  the  city 
may  be  recognized  by  their  interest  in  you. 

Our  visit  to  Wakayama  was  full  of  interest.  We  left  the 
city  August  31  forNara,  a  two  days'  jinrikisha  ride  up  a  most 
beautiful  valley.  In  all 
our   travels  in   Japan 

we  have  never  passed 
in  and  out  of  so  many 
charming  and  pictur- 
esque places.  Toward 
evening  we  reached 
Gojio,  a  town  in  the 
Province  of  Yamato. 
On  the  way  up  the 
river  I  saw  a  regular  terrace  formation,  in  appearance  pre- 
cisely like  the  terrace  formation  in  the  upper  Connecticut 
River,  but  due  to  an  entirely  different  cause. 

In  Gojio  I  saw  a  house  in  that  stage  of  construction  that 
shows  how  the  ceiling  of  a  room  is  supported.  One  sees  that 
the  thin  rafters  upon  which  the  cedar  boards  rest  are  alto- 
gether too  weak  to  support  the  boards,  no  matter  how  thin 
they  may  be;  a  long  cleat  is  nailed  on  the  upper  side  of  these 
boards  and  a  piece  is  nailed  to  that  and  to  the  rafters  of  the 
roof  above.  The  space  above  the  ceiling  and  under  the  roof, 
which  forms  our  attic  or  garret,  is  never  utilized  in  the  Jap- 
anese house;  it  is  a  playground  for  rats  only.  In  Gojio  I  made 
a  sketch  of  an  engine  house  (fig.  680),  not  unlike  the  sketch  of 

Fig.  680 


a  similar  house  I  made  in  Mororan,  Yezo,  four  years  ago.  The 
engine  hangs  up  under  the  roof  and  becomes  dry  and  cracked, 
and  when  used  at  a  fire  it  is  amazing  to  see  how  the  water 
squirts  out  of  it  in  every  direction  till  the  wood  becomes 

In  the  town  of  Yagi,  Yamato,  I  saw  a  number  of  thatched 
roofs  (fig.  681),  showing  a  series  of  laps  of  thatch  resembling 

in  that  feature  the 
thatched  roofs  of  Ainu 
huts  in  Yezo,  but  the 
successive  edges  were 
not  so  prominent  as  in 
the  Ainu  roof. 

We  left  Gojio  in  the 
morning,  and  after  a 
delightful  all-day  ride 
reached  Nara  at  six  o'clock.  After  getting  into  the  Province 
of  Yamato  I  noticed  at  times  in  the  road  fragments  of  the 
blue,  unglazed,  lathe-turned  pottery,  dating  back  a  thousand 
years  and  more.  This  pottery  is  regarded  as  Korean  by  anti- 
quarians, but  the  abundance  of  it  scattered  over  the  ground 
leads  me  to  regard  it  as  Japanese,  though  the  art  of  making 
it  was  originally  introduced  by  Korean  potters.  It  is  asso- 
ciated with  tombs  and  caves  and  is  mortuary.  As  we  ap- 
proached Nara  we  passed  the  tomb  of  the  first  Emperor, 
Jimmu  Tenno.  It  is  a  large,  square,  flat-topped  mound  of 
slight  elevation,  surrounded  by  a  plain,  substantial  stone 
fence.  It  was  intensely  hot  as  we  turned  off  the  main  road  to 
examine  it,  and  I  was  too  tired  to  make  any  sketches.  I  man- 

Fig.  681 

Fig.  682 


aged  to  get  a  hasty  sketch  of  the  padlock  which  fastens  the 

gate  of  the  inner  sanctuary,  a  big,  heavy,  brass  device  that 

can  be  unlocked  only  on  an  order  from  the 

Emperor  (fig.  682). 
At  several  places  along  the  coast  at  the 

entrance  to  a  path  leading  back  to  some 

farmhouse  was  seen  a  curious  device  in  the 

shape  of  a  tall  slender  stick,  on  the  top  of 

which,  inverted,  was  a  large  mushroom  (fig. 

683).   The  stem  was  wrapped  in  paper  and 

the  stick  below  had  a  roll  of  paper  about  it.  We 
were  told  that  it  indicated  a  death  in  the  family. 
It  wras  evidently  peculiar  to  Yamato,  as  I  never  saw 
it  elsewhere.  Nothing  was  learned  as  to  the  signi- 
ficance of  it. 

The  various  temples  were  very  interesting.  At 
one  place  we  saw  a  remarkable  religious  dance  by 
four  girls,  peculiarly  dressed,  with  three  priests 
I]         who  sang  an  accompaniment. 
-J  In  Nara  the  deer  come  down  from  the  woods 

and  roam  through  the  streets,  and  I  tried  to  feed 
them  out  of  my  hand.  They  were  not  so  tame  as 
the  deer  of  Miyajima;  at  least,  I  was  not  able  to 
get  within  ten  feet  of  them,  much  to  the  disgust  of 
an  old  woman  from  whom  I  had  bought  a  few 
rice-balls.  She  coaxed  in  vain  for  the  deer  to  ap- 
proach me.   The  Japanese  have  no  difficulty  in 

feeding  them,  but  the  deer  recognize  a  foreigner  at  once. 
I  had  the  same  two  jinrikisha  men  with  whom  I  had  left 

Fig.  683 


Wakayama  and  they  were  great  runners.  They  made  the  dis- 
tance of  twenty-nine  miles  with  only  two  stops  of  short  dura- 
tion, running  all  the  time.  At  one  place  where  we  stopped  a 
tall  wooden  screen  which  was  leaning  against  the  building  blew 
over,  and  the  man  in  the  shafts  tried  to  save  it  from  falling  on 
the  jinrikisha,  and  in  doing  so  lost  his  balance,  and  over  the 
jinrikisha  went  backward,  tumbling  me  out  with  my  valise  and 
a  box  of  pottery.  As  I  never  hurt  myself  in  such  tumbles,  I 
picked  myself  up  all  right,  but  it  was  amusing  to  hear  the  two 
men  scolding  each  other  till  they  found  I  was  really  laughing  at 
the  mishap,  when  they  began  the  most  hearty  and  satisfac- 
tory laugh  I  had  heard  for  a  long  time,  and  for  miles  on  the 
road  I  would  give  a  chuckle  just  to  hear  them  laugh  again. 

I  came  up  from  Kobe  on  the  steamer  which  conveyed  a 
number  of  Korean  ambassadors  to  Tokyo.  They  were  very 
pleasant,  genial  men,  and  I  quickly  got  acquainted  with  them. 
I  made  a  few  sketches  of  them  on  the  sly.  As  a  few  of  them 
spoke  Japanese,  I  managed  to  ask  them  a  great  many  ques- 
tions and  to  understand  their  answers.  Two  of  them  wore  large 
goggles  with  colored  glasses,  as  I  supposed.  They  allowed  me 
to  examine  them,  and  to  my  amazement  I  found  that  they 
were  made  of  clear  smoky-quartz  crystals  mounted  in  tor- 
toise-shell frames.  I  inquired  about  their  method  of  releasing 
the  arrow  in  archery  and  found  it  to  be  like  the  Japanese 
method,  only  an  arm-guard  is  worn,  and  they  do  not  allow  the 
bow  and  string  to  revolve.  The  Korean  pipe  has  a  much  larger 
bowl  than  the  Japanese  pipe.  The  Government  officials  wear  a 
coat  slit  up  the  sides,  and  up  the  back  to  the  shoulders,  and  like 
all  Koreans  they  dress  in  white.  Figure  684  is  a  sketch  of  one 


of  the  Koreans  with  his  coat  removed.  The  breeches  are  very 
baggy,  and  separate  at  the  knee.  Below,  their  legs  are  stuffed 
into  the  stockings,  which  are  heavily  wadded  with  cotton  so 
that  they  bulge  over  the  edge  of  the  shoe.  In  summer  this 
wadded  stuff  must  be  intolerable.  The  jacket  is  short  with 
two  pockets  in  front,  and  is  made  of  a  light  yellow  q 

nankeen-like  cloth.  There  is  no  shirt.  On  the 
arms  are  sleeves  reaching  from  the  wrist  to  the 
elbow.  These  are  woven  in  white  horse-hair,  and 
are  intended  to  keep  the  cloth  sleeves  away  from 
the  skin.  Around  the  head  in  its  longest  diameter 
is  worn  a  band  of  black  horsehair,  finely  woven, 
which  is  drawn  so  tightly  that  when  taken  off  a 
deep  line  is  seen  on  the  forehead.  When  not  wear- 
ing this  band,  they  roll  it  up  very  carefully.  It  is 
perhaps  two  feet  long,  two  and  a  half  inches  wide, 
with  strings  at  the  ends,  and  little  black  rings 
through  which  the  strings  pass  in  fastening  it  on 
the  head.  One  form  of  official  hat  is  in  two  parts:  the  first 
part  a  simple,  bag-like  form  made  of  horse-hair,  which  has 
dangling  inside,  from  the  top,  a  tortoise-shell  pin  which  is 
stuck  into  the  stubby  queue  on  top  of  the  head  to  keep  the 
hat  on.  Outside  of  this  goes  an  affair  in  the  form  of  two 
square  boxes,  one  above  the  other,  both  flaring  as  in  figure 
685;  this  is  also  made  of  horsehair.  Another  form  of  hat,  and 
one  most  commonly  seen,  judging  from  pictures  of  Koreans,  is 
a  tall  hat,  the  crown  somewhat  tapering  and  the  rim  very  wide 
and  slightly  arching;  this  is  made  of  the  finest  fibres  of  bam- 
boo and  is  wonderfully  woven.  The  hat  is  an  expensive  one, 

Fig.  684 

Fig.  685 


costing  fifteen  or  twenty  dollars.   Figure  686  shows  it  on  the 
head  of  an  elderly  man. 

In  Kyoto  with  Mr.  Tahara  for  a  few  days  we  devoted  our 
entire  time  to  visiting  the  famous  potters,  from  whom  I  got  a 
mass  of  notes  regarding  the  present  and  past 
generations  of  the  families,  impressions  of  their 
various  stamps,  and  other  information.  Ro- 
kubei  seemed  pleased  to  see  me  again,  and  im- 
mediately brought  the  cups  I  had  made  on  a 
former  visit,  which  he  had  baked  and  glazed. 
On  the  bottom  of  the  pieces  I  had  marked 
"M,"  and  had  drawn  a  shell  inside,  and  Ro- 
kubei  had  marked  in  Chinese  character  on  the 
side,  "Rokubei  assisted."  I  gave  him  one  of  them,  and  he 
was  polite  enough  to  seem  pleased.  I  secured  from  him  a 
complete  set  of  tools  used  in  pottery-making. 
Figure  687  shows  Rokubei's  pottery  from  the  yard. 
From  Rokubei's  we  went  to  the  Raku  pottery 
Kichizayemon.  I  found  a  modest-appearing  house. 
The  old  potter  representing  the  twelfth  genera- 
tion of  the  family,  who  have  made  for  three  hun- 
dred years  a  peculiar  kind  of  pottery  known  as 
Raku,  invited  us  in,  and  we  introduced  ourselves 
as  coming  from  Rokubei.  He  kindly  answered  all 
my  questions,  and  showed  me  a  complete  set  of 
Raku  bowls  representing  the  work  of  all  the  gen- 
erations. I  made  outlines  and  rubbings  of  the  marks.  He 
then  showed  us  the  working  place.  It  seems  that  only  the 
immediate  members  of  the  family  are  engaged  in  the  work, 


no  outsider  having  anything  to  do  with  it.  The  oven  is  very 
small,  and  the  one  in  which  the  famous  bowls  are  baked  is 
only  large  enough  to  hold  one  bowl.  The  bowls  are  not 
made  on  a  lathe,  but  are  shaped  by  the  hand  and  shaved  on 
the  sides.  He  gave  us  powdered  tea  and  cake,  and  while  we 
were  drinking,  a  cunning  little  child  came  to  me  to  be  hugged. 

In  his  room  he  had  a  letter  mounted  as  a  kakemono.  This 
letter  was  from  Kato  Kiyomasa,  a  famous  general  in  the 
time  of  Taiko,  who  had  the  reputation  of  having  killed  a  tiger 
with  a  blow  of  his  fist.  The  letter  was  addressed  to  the  first 
generation  of  the  Raku  asking  him  to  make  some  tea-bowls. 
The  letter  had  been  sacredly  preserved  through  all  the  gener- 
ations of  the  family.  He  also  showed  me  a  piece  of  pottery 
made  by  the  first  Raku.  It  represented  a  mythological  lion, 
and  had  also  come  down  as  a  precious  heirloom  of  the  founder 
of  the  family.  It  seems  that  when  Nobunaga  was  defeated  and 



his  palace  burned  to  the  ground,  the  first  Raku  saved  this 
piece  from  the  ruins.  I  made  a  hasty  sketch  of  the  old  man 
and  the  Nobunaga  no  Shishi  as  he  was  reverently  telling  me 
the  story  (fig.  688). 

The  next  day  we  visited  Yeiraku,  one  of  the  famous  potters 
of  Japan.  Here  we  were  as  cordially  welcomed  as  at  the  other 

potteries.  Powdered  tea  and 
cake  were  offered  us,  and  Yei- 
raku listened  with  great  at- 
tention to  my  inquiries,  and 
then  gave  me  a  complete  his- 
tory of  the  family,  of  which  he 
represents  the  thirteenth  gen- 
eration. While  Mr.  Tahara  was 
recording  his  conversation, 
which  will  appear  in  my  pot- 
tery journal,  I  made  a  sketch 
of  the  room  in  which  we  were. 
The  marvelous  square  oak 
panels  in  the  ceiling  were  the 
most  beautiful  I  had  ever  seen. 
At  Yeiraku's  I  noticed  an  in- 
teresting treatment  of  wall  plaster.  Directly  after  its  appli- 
cation to  the  wall  iron  filings  are  blown  upon  it,  and  these 
particles  oxidizing,  give  a  warm,  brown  tinge. 

From  Yeiraku's  we  went  to  another  Kiyomizu  potter,  Zo- 
roku,  and  there  for  the  first  time  I  discovered  where  all  the 
counterfeit  Ninsei,  Asahi,  and  other  famous  potteries  had 
been  made.   The  curious  feature  about  the  matter  was  that 

Fig.  688 


the  potter  and  his  brother  did  not  seem  at  all  ashamed  at  the 
counterfeiting  they  were  doing.  They  showed  me  specimens 
of  their  father's  work,  among  which  were  bowls  with  the 
Ninsei  mark! 

After  Zoroku  we  visited  Kitei,  who  represents  the  fourth 
generation  of  his  family,  and  here  we  were  very  kindly  re- 
ceived and  every  facility  was  given  us  to  examine  his  work.1 
His  furnace  had  the  same  general  aspect  of  all  the  others;  a 
series  of  lateral  ovens  built  on  the  side  of  a  hill.  Potters  often 
bake  in  one  another's  ovens.  Zoroku  bakes  all  his  pottery  in 
Kitei's  oven  and  Yeiraku  bakes  in  an  oven  some  distance  from 
his  house. 

I  again  visited  Bairei's  drawing-school  and  house,  and  for 
two  hours  enjoyed  watching  the  deft  way  in  which  the  pu- 
pils work.  It  seemed  an  awkward  position  to  be  down  on  the 
floor  with  knees  bent  under  the  body,  yet  Bairei  told  me  that 
the  pupils  would  hold  this  position  for  hours  apparently  with- 
out fatigue.  The  work  consists  in  copying  from  other  draw- 
ings. Much  of  the  preliminary  work  is  done  by  tracing  and  in 
every  case  a  brush  is  used.  The  paper  is  not  thin  enough  to 
see  the  drawing  distinctly,  and  so  it  is  lifted  up  at  almost  every 
touch  of  the  brush.  The  paper  is  held  down  by  a  paper-weight 
at  the  head  of  the  sheet.  In  beginning,  the  brush  is  filled  with 
the  paint,  a  proper  point  is  made  by  trying  the  brush  on  an- 
other sheet,  and  if  there  is  too  much  paint  it  is  sucked  out 
of  the  brush  at  the  base,  so  as  not  to  spoil  the  point. 

At  the  temple  of  Nanzenji,  at  Kyoto,  the  priests  showed  me 
a  small  collection  of  pottery,  none  of  which  appeared  remark- 

Kitei's  garden  is  figured  in  Japanese  Homes,  p.  255. 


able.  A  tea-room,  built  by  a  famous  chajin,  Kobori  Enshiu, 
two  hundred  and  fifty  years  ago,  was  a  good  illustration  of  the 
simplicity  of  design  in  accordance  with  the  plainness  and  aus- 
terity of  the  tea-ceremony  cult. 

At  Osaka  the  Doctor  had  discovered  an  interesting  temple 
pond  in  which  were  hundreds  of  turtles  of  different  sizes. 
Near  a  little  stone  bridge  which  spans  the  pond  is  a  booth 
where  one  can  buy  hollow  balls,  in  the  form  of  lanterns,  made 
of  rice-flour  of  which  the  turtles  are  very  fond.  When  these 
balls  are  thrown  into  the  water,  it  is  curious  to  see  the  turtles 

race  for  one,  snapping  at  it 
again  and  again,  only  to  throw 
it  farther  away,  and  so  they 
chase  it  till  it  gets  water- 
soaked,  or  until  it  is  driven 
against  the  stone  wall  bordering  the  pond,  where  it  is  quickly 
broken  and  devoured  (fig.  689).  The  lanterns  are  colored  red 
or  white,  and  as  the  turtles  stream  across  the  pond  in  pursuit 
they  form  a  sort  of  procession  with  the  lanterns  at  the  head 
of  it.  These  objects  are  sold  at  the  rate  of  five  for  a  cent,  and 
one  may  spend  some  time  feeding  the  turtles.  The  way  they 
snap  reminds  one  of  the  game  of  biting  at  an  apple  suspended 
by  a  cord  from  the  ceiling. 

While  in  Osaka  a  Japanese  invited  me  to  go  with  him  to  the 
rice  exchange,  as  I  would  see  a  very  curious  sight.  As  I  ap- 
proached the  building  I  heard  a  curious  babel  of  shouts  which 
reminded  me  of  the  corn  exchange  in  Chicago.  As  we  entered 
the  building  there  was  the  same  turbulent  crowd  of  brokers 
and  speculators  gesticulating,  flinging  up  their  hands,  and 

Fig.  689 


shouting  at  the  top  of  their  voices.  In  amazement  I  asked  of 
my  Japanese  when  the  custom  was  imported,  and  he  in  turn 
was  amazed  when  I  told  him  that  just  such  gatherings  might 

Fig.  690 

be  seen  in  Chicago,  New  York,  and  Boston,  and  other  large 
cities.  These  men  were  rice  brokers,  and  identical  conditions 
and  demands  had  resulted  in  identical  behavior. 

The  dirt  carts  of  Kobe  are  odd-looking,  three-wheeled  vehi- 
cles, with  a  little  centre  wheel,  far  in  front,  consisting  of  a 
solid  block  of  wood,  and  the  two  main  wheels  of  wood  solid 


throughout.  The  axle  is  fixed,  the  wheels  turning  on  it.  The 
tire  consists  of  hard  wooden  pegs  partially  driven  in,  and  be- 
tween these  projecting  portions  a  straw  rope  is  wound  about 
the  pegs,  for  what  purpose  I  did  not  learn,  unless  to  prevent 
the  pegs  from  sinking  far  into  the  roadway.  Figure  690  repre- 
sents a  side  view  and  plan.  The  cart  is  drawn  by  a  bull. 



Miyaoka  tells  me  that  in  writing  a  letter  no  punctuation  is 
used.  As  the  letter  is  written  in  Chinese  characters,  it  is  con- 
sidered impolite  to  punctuate,  for  that  would  assume  that 
your  friend  could  not  read  Chinese  properly.  In  print,  the 
sentences  are  always  marked  by  a  circle,  or  a  figure  like  a  capi- 
tal L  to  show  the  end  of  a  paragraph.  The  circle  is  used  in 
Chinese  classics,  while  the  L  is  used  in  other  text. 

In  addressing  a  letter  in  former  times  the  name  of  the  sender 
was  written  directly  under  the  name  of  the  receiver;  at  the 
present  time  the  name  of  the  sender  is  written  on  the  other 
side  of  the  letter.  Some  old-fashioned  people  will  not  receive  a 
letter  if  the  sender's  name  is  not  given.  In  past  times  letters 
written  to  women  were  directed  simply  to  the  master  of  the 
house.  Furthermore,  a  letter  directed  to  the  master  of  the 
house  may  be  opened  and  read  by  his  wife,  his  son,  or  his  inti- 
mate friend,  unless  it  is  marked  on  the  outside,  "Please  open 
it  yourself,"  the  equivalent  of  "Personal."  Before  envelopes 
were  adopted  a  sheet  of  paper  as  a  wrapper  was  folded  in 
a  peculiar  way.  The  outlines  from  1  to  15,  in  figure  691, 
show  the  various  stages  of  this  folding.  The  sheet  is  first 
folded  as  in  1,  2,  3,  and  then  unfolded  as  in  7  and  8;  the  letter 
is  then  put  in  and  the  envelope  sheet  is  again  folded,  but  in  a 
different  way,  the  creases  already  made  being  a  guide. 

In  the  province  of  Yamato  I  observed  very  effective  meth- 


ods  of  arranging  ornamental  tiles  to  form  borders  on  the  roofs 
of  porches  and  gateways,  methods  from  which  our  architects 
might  get  suggestions.  In  Yamato  greater  use  is  made  of  tiles 
for  ornamental  purposes  than  in  other  provinces  I  have  visited. 




\1    A 



Fig.  691 

The  ornamental  flat  tile  does  not  seem  to  be  used  to  any  ex- 
tent. A  few  are  seen  only  in  garden  walks;  at  Rokubei's  I 
noticed  them  in  the  garden. 

In  our  country  we  have  bad  spellers  among  those  who  are 
otherwise  scholarly.  In  Japan  the  same  condition  is  found, 
and  there  are  scholars  who  cannot  write  the  Chinese  charac- 


ters  correctly.  It  is  enough  to  paralyze  the  brain  of  an  ordi- 
nary man  to  think  of  the  monumental  load  a  Japanese  has  to 
carry,  to  remember  the  thousands  of  characters  as  well  as  the 
Chinese  name  of  the  character  and  the  equivalent  in  Japanese. 
Not  only  this,  but  each  character  has  its  written  script,  its 
seal  form,  as  well  as  the  square  form,  as  in  our  alphabet 
where  we  have  the  capital  B,  for  example,  the  written  script, 
the  old  English  script,  and  any  fanciful  monogram.  The 
foreign  student  of  Japanese  history  is  perplexed  at  the  differ- 
ent names  that  one  historical  character  may  have.  This  fea- 
ture has  often  perplexed  me  in  the  names  of  famous  potters 
and  artists.  All  samurai  have  first  a  clan  name,  which  is  the 
name  of  the  ancient  family  from  which  they  have  descended, 
or  to  which  they  belonged  in  feudal  times.  This  name  is  called 
the  sei.  They  have  also  the  family  name,  which  is  called  the 
uji,  and  a  name  which  is  analogous  to  our  Christian  name, 
called  the  tsusho.  A  scholastic  name  is  also  given  them,  which 
is  called  the  go,  and  even  another  scholastic  name  known  as 
azana.  Still  another  name  is  used  for  drafts,  petitions,  deeds, 
contracts,  etc.,  called  the  imina.1  And  finally,  not  to  leave 
them  in  peace  even  then,  they  have  a  name  given  by  the 
priest  after  death,  and  this  name  is  known  as  the  kaimio.  As 
an  illustration,  the  famous  historian,  Rai  Sanyo,2  who  died 
fifty  years  ago  had  the  following  names :  — 

Sei,  clan  name,  Minamoto. 

Uji,  family  name,  Rai. 

1  Hepburn's  Dictionary  says  this  name  is  used  after  the  age  of  fifteen. 

2  This  name  is  included  with  the  names  of  other  distinguished  scholars  on  the 
Boston  Public  Library  Building. 

308  JAPAN   DAY  BY  DAY 

Tsusho,  equivalent  to  Christian  name,  Kyutaro. 

Go,  scholastic  name,  Sanyo. 

Azana,  additional  scholastic  name,  Shisei. 

Imina,  legal  name  for  contracts,  etc.,  Jio. 

Kaimio,  name  after  death,  not  known  by  my  informant.1 

At  Miss  Nagai's  house  this  afternoon,  and  made  a  sketch 
of  the  end  of  the  thatched  roof.2  Her  brother,  Mr.  Masuda, 
told  me  that  the  material  for  the  thatch  was  a  peculiar  kind  of 
reed  which  costs  more  and  lasts  much  longer  than  the  ordinary 
straw  used  for  thatching.  Such  roofs  are  very  heavy  and  abso- 
lutely water-tight.  The  Japanese  roof,  thatched  or  tiled,  is  so 
unlike  anything  we  have  in  our  domestic  architecture  that  one 
is  tempted  to  sketch  it  all  the  time.  The  roofs  vary  greatly 
and  each  province  has  its  peculiar  types.  It  seems  a  pity  that 
our  architects  do  not  break  away  from  the  stiff,  straight 
lines  of  our  ridge-pole  and  eaves.  Along  the  St.  Lawrence 
River  the  French-Canadian  houses  are  built  with  the  eaves 
slightly  curved  upward  which  gives  a  certain  grace  to  their 

My  friend  Takenaka,  at  my  request,  collected  during  his 
summer  vacation  records  of  a  number  of  superstitions  and  cus- 
toms among  the  lower  classes;  these  he  gives  me  from  a  note- 
book from  time  to  time  when  I  am  not  too  tired  to  write.  The 
Japanese  have  no  general  name  for  superstition,  but  a  su- 
perstitious person  is  called  a  gohei-katsugi;  a  curiously  cut 
paper  which  the  Shinto  priests  carry  is  called  a  gohei,  and 

1  I  have  material  of  this  nature  to  fill  a  thousand  pages,  and  find  but  little  time 
for  recording.  My  pottery  journal  exceeds  this  journal  already,  and  I  shall  have 
enough  material  to  make  an  interesting  book  on  Japanese  pottery. 

2  See  Japanese  Homes,  fig.  83. 


katsugi  means  to  carry.  One  who  carries  such  a  thing  is  re- 
garded as  superstitious. 

When  a  person  dies  it  is  customary  for  the  friends  of  the 
deceased  to  bring  presents  to  the  family,  generally  of  money 
in  an  envelope,  and  the  strings  of  this  envelope  must  be 
black  and  white,  and  not  red  and  white,  as  red  is  an  emblem 
of  happiness,  the  red  string,  or  cord,  always  being  seen  on 
infants'  clothing.  The  knot  must  be  tied  in  a  square  knot 
and  not  in  a  bow  or  other  form  of  knot.  The  envelope  is 
usually  marked  "for  flowers,"  or  "for  senko"  which  is  an  in- 
cense stick.  The  money  may,  however,  be  used  for  anything. 
Food  and  candy  may  be  brought  in  a  lacquer  box,  the  recipi- 
ent taking  them  out  and  putting  them  on  a  plate  and  then 
depositing  in  the  lacquer  box  a  single  sheet  of  paper  folded 
once  or  twice,  or  in  lieu  of  paper  two  thin  sheets  of  wood. 
These  offerings  are  made  while  the  corpse  is  still  in  the  house, 
or  directly  after  the  funeral.  If  there  is  great  grief  in  the 
house,  or  the  person  has  just  died,  no  paper  is  put  into  the  box, 
which  is  carefully  cleaned  by  the  recipient;  on  other  occasions 
it  is  not  cleaned. 

The  Buddhist  priest  comes  to  pray  every  seventh  day  for 
forty-nine  days.  After  the  funeral  the  master  or  mistress 
gives  each  visitor  five  cakes  made  of  wheat,  and  after  thirty- 
five  days  nine  cakes  are  sent  to  the  house  of  each  visitor. 
Mention  has  been  made  of  the  color  red  as  a  sign  of  happi- 
ness; rice  colored  red  is  served  on  festival  days.  The  god  of 
poverty  does  not  like  red  rice,  or  black  tofu,  and  this  food  is 
therefore  put  on  the  god  shelf,  or  in  the  tokonoma,  to  drive 
away  this  evil  spirit. 


Each  year  has  a  special  name.  This  (1882)  is  the  year  of  the 
horse.  Any  one  born  in  the  year  of  the  ox  must  not  eat  eel 
after  he  is  fifteen  years  old.  A  child  born  when  the  father  is 
forty-one  years  old  is  not  considered  a  good  child ;  that  is,  the 
child  will  be  disobedient.  In  such  an  event  the  parent  goes  to 
a  friend  with  the  child  and  tells  him  he  is  going  to  put  the  child 
away  and  will  the  friend  kindly  take  it;  in  the  mean  time  the 
child  is  left  in  the  street.  The  friend  takes  it  and  carries  it 
home.  The  next  day  the  parent  brings  a  present  and  says, 
" I  have  no  child;  will  you  give  me  your  child?"  This  is  done, 
the  same  child,  however,  being  given  back  again;  and  this 
ridiculous  performance  is  supposed  to  free  the  child  from  the 
evil  destiny  in  store.  The  present  made  on  the  occasion  usu- 
ally consists  of  katsubushi  (fish  dried  as  hard  as  wood),  and 
this  present  has  not  attached  to  it  the  usual  noshi.  All  pres- 
ents of  fish  are  made  without  the  noshi  (a  paper  folded  in  a 
peculiar  way  with  a  dried  bit  of  Haliotis  meat  enclosed).  In 
regard  to  eating  eel,  it  is  supposed  that  the  child  over  fifteen 
who  eats  it  will  not  be  intelligent  or  rise  in  life. 

On  the  15th  of  August  (old  calendar)  a  man  must  remain 
where  he  is  until  the  13th  of  September.  If  urgent  business 
requires,  he  may  go  away,  but  must  return  to  the  place  on  the 
13th  of  September.  On  these  days  cake  must  be  offered  to  the 
moon.  On  the  15th  of  every  month  a  man  must  contemplate 
the  moon  and  make  offerings  of  flowers  and  cake.  On  days  in 
which  the  figure  1  occurs,  as  on  the  1st,  11th,  21st,  trees  must 
not  be  cut  down;  on  days  in  which  the  figure  2  occurs,  as  2d, 
12th,  22d,  the  power  of  fire  is  very  strong,  so  for  a  counter- 
irritant  in  rheumatism  mogusa  is  used,  as  its  heat  is  more 


powerful ;  on  days  in  which  the  figure  3  occurs,  the  ground 
of  a  garden  must  not  be  dug;  on  days  in  which  the  number 
4  appears,  bamboo  must  not  be  cut  down;  on  days  with  num- 
ber 5,  food  —  such  as  rice,  peas,  or  any  kind  of  seed  —  must 
not  be  carried  home,  nor  must  rice  be  bought  on  these  days ; 
on  days  containing  the  figure  6,  wells  must  not  be  cleaned  out; 
on  days  with  7,  strangers  must  not  be  invited  to  the  house; 
on  days  with  8,  marriage  must  not  be  talked  about,  else  the 
parties  will  afterwards  separate;  on  days  with  9  it  is  consid- 
ered good  luck  to  eat  eggplant.  The  9th  of  September  is 
deemed  especially  good,  as  September  is  also  the  ninth  month, 
and  wine  bottles  in  the  shape  of  an  eggplant  are  used  on  this 
day.  On  days  with  the  10,  as  10th,  20th,  30th,  the  latrine 
must  not  be  cleaned.  The  penalty  for  all  these  offenses  is  un- 
happiness  or  bad  luck. 

In  serving  daikon,  a  kind  of  radish,  two  pieces  are  always 
put  upon  the  plate,  one  piece  is  called  hitokiri,  meaning  one 
piece;  it  also  means  "man  cut";  three  pieces  is  called  mikire, 
and  also  means  "body  cut."  Eggplants  and  other  vegetables, 
except  daikon,  must  be  cut  longitudinally  and  not  trans- 
versely, because  cutting  transversely  seems  cruel. 

In  presenting  cake  the  cake  must  rest  on  a  folded  sheet  of 
paper,  as  numbers  divided  by  two  are  considered  lucky;  when 
mochi  cakes  are  given  they  must  be  presented  in  numbers  of 
2,  4,  6,  8,  etc. 

Sprinkling  salt  is  considered  purifying,  and  the  accidental 
spilling  of  salt  is  regarded  as  good  luck.  Returning  from  a 
funeral,  salt  is  sprinkled  on  the  person  by  a  servant. 

In  sleeping  the  head  is  turned  to  the  south  as  the  proper 


thing;  when  a  person  is  dangerously  sick,  or  dead,  the  head 
must  point  to  the  north.  Wherr  buried  in  a  sitting  position  the 
body  may  face  in  any  direction. 

When  the  lobe  of  the  ear  is  large,  it  is  a  sign  of  a  happy  dis- 

If  the  second  toe  is  longer  than  the  first  toe,  it  is  a  sign  that 
you  are  to  occupy  a  higher  position  than  your  father;  a  long 
tongue  or  arm  is  the  sign  of  a  thief. 

Left-handed  persons  aire  caused  by  the  mother,  when  first 
dressing  the  baby,  putting  the  left  hand  and  arm  through  the 
kimono  first. 

If  you  sneeze  once,  it  is  a  sign  that  some  one  is  praising 
you;  if  twice,  that  you  are  loved  by  a  woman;  if  three  times, 
that  people  are  talking  about  you,  in  praise,  or  otherwise;  if 
four  times,  that  you  have  taken  cold.  In  the  Province  of 
Bizen  one  sneeze  is  a  sign  that  you  are  disliked;  two  sneezes, 
that  you  are  loved;  three  and  four,  that  you  have  taken 

If  the  left  ear  itches,  a  man  will  hear  good  news;  if  the  right 
ear,  the  news  will  be  bad;  with  women  the  signs  are  reversed. 

If  an  incrustation  gathers  on  the  lamp-wick,  it  is  a  sign  that 
somebody  is  coming.  The  shallow  plate  holding -the  oil  and 
wick  is  held  by  another  plate,  and  if  the  incrustation  can  be 
got  into  the  lower  plate,  it  is  a  sign  that  the  person  coming  is 
going  to  bring  a  present.1 

If  a  crow  caws  on  a  house-top,  it  is  a  sign  that  somebody  is 
dead  within  the  house. 

1  A  similar  superstition  is  found  in  America  and  Great  Britain,  and  probably 
on  the  Continent. 


The  finger  nails  must  not  be  cut  at  night,  as  it  is  a  sign  that 
one  is  going  crazy. 

If  children  spill  rice  on  the  dress,  or  mats,  they  must  eat  it; 
otherwise  they  may  become  blind. 

A  man  about  to  commit  hara-kiri  is  helped  to  rice,  using  the 
cover  of  the  box  as  a  tray  and  not  in  the  usual  way. 

If  one's  head  itches,  it  is  a  sign  of  being  happy;  if  dandruff 
falls,  it  is  a  sign  of  intelligence. 

If  it  thunders  a  little  in  summer,  it  is  a  sign  of  many  danger- 
ous insects  in  the  rice-field. 

When  a  person  is  getting  poor  and  unfortunate,  the  expres- 
sion is  used,  "Anoshito  no  uchi  wa  hidari  mai  ni  nam";  that 
is,  "The  man  of  the  house  folds  his  kimono  to  the  left,"  which 
is  considered  unlucky.  A  corpse  is  dressed  with  the  kimono 
folded  to  the  left. 

In  order  to  keep  sickness  away  from  the  house,  particularly 
smallpox,  the  character  for  horse,  painted  three  times  on  paper 
and  stuck  over  the  door,  is  considered  very  efficacious.  An 
ink  impression  of  the  hand  made  on  paper  and  displayed  over 
the  door  will  also  answer  the  purpose. 

At  Chusenji  I  noticed  hanging  over  the  fireplace  four  foetal 
deer:  these  were  dried  and  discolored  by  smoke,  and  were  sup- 
posed to  be  efficacious  for  women  in  sickness  following  child- 

If  you  find  a  comb  in  the  street,  before  picking  it  up  you 
must  step  toward  it  with  your  left  foot;  otherwise  you  will  go 
through  the  world  whining  and  crying. 

A  man  must  not  marry  a  girl  four  years  older  or  four  years 
younger  than  himself;  otherwise  domestic  trouble  will  arise. 


Any  other  number  of  years  older  or  younger  makes  no  differ- 

In  mixing  mustard  you  must  stir  it  with  an  angry  face,  and 
this  will  make  the  mustard  strong  and  stinging;  if  you  smile 
during  the  operation  the  mustard  will  be  mild. 

One  who  prays  to  a  certain  god  (Miyoken)  must  refrain 
from  eating  eight  kinds  of  food;  otherwise  the  god  will  not  an- 
swer his  prayers.  These  foods  are  eel,  turtle,  catfish,  carp,  wild 
duck,  goose,  onions,  and  another  vegetable  of  a  similar  nature. 

The  ages  of  3,  7,  19,  25,  42,  52,  and  53  are  especially  bad 
years  for  a  man;  and  for  women  the  ages  of  16, 25, 33,  56,  and 
57  are  bad;  as  a  general  rule,  too,  years  ending  in  the  num- 
bers 7  and  9  are  considered  bad. 

One  year  after  the  death  of  a  person  the  family  meet  for  a 
solemn  ceremony;  also  in  the  3d  year,  the  7th,  13th,  17th,  25th, 
33d,  100th,  and  after  this  every  fifty  years. 

The  crow  sings  in  the  early  morning  ka!  ka!  which  means 
"wife";  hence  the  wife  must  get  up  before  the  husband 

At  a  funeral  visitors  have  their  names  recorded  on  a  sheet  of 
paper.  The  brush  used  for  this  purpose  must  be  pushed 
through  the  sheath  the  wrong  way;  hence,  doing  this  act  at  any 
other  time  is  bad  luck.  When  the  body  is  carried  out  of  the 
house,  the  men  performing  this  function  do  not  remove  their 
clogs  as  they  enter  or  leave;  hence,  if  one  is  seen  trying  on  his 
new  clogs  on  the  mat,  his  friend  will  say,  "Please  do  not  do  it; 
it  is  a  bad  sign." 

If  tea-leaves  float  vertically  in  a  cup,  it  is  a  sign  that  good 
fortune  will  come  or  that  good  news  will  be  received.  It  is  cus- 
tomary for  dancing-girls  to  take  these  leaves  and  put  them  in 


the  left  sleeve,  accompanying  the  act  with  a  sipping  sound 
like  the  chirp  of  a  mouse  to  insure  the  good  omen. 

A  string  tied  round  the  wrist  and  ankle  is  supposed  to  pre- 
vent one  from  taking  cold. 

If  a  weasel  crosses  the  road  in  front  of  a  superstitious  man, 
he  immediately  turns  back  and  gives  up  the  object  of  his  jour- 
ney; or  if  it  is  of  great  importance  he  must  take  another  road. 

If  two  funerals  meet,  it  is  a  sign  of  good  luck  for  both;  if 
one  overtakes  another,  it  is  a  sign  of  bad  luck. 

If  the  cord  by  which  the  clog  is  held  to  the  foot  breaks  be- 
hind, it  is  considered  lucky;  if  it  breaks  in  front,  it  is  bad  luck. 

There  is  a  belief  that  the  crane  in  its  flight  across  the  seas 
from  Korea  carries  in  its  feet  a  certain  plant,  so  that  when  the 
bird  alights  on  the  water  it  uses  the  plant  as  a  float. 

The  dragon  is  supposed  to  go  heavenward  in  a  water  spout, 
and  it  was  believed  that  if  one  got  even  a  glimpse  of  its  leg  or 
foot  he  would  become  a  great  man. 

The  Japanese  have  many  curious  superstitions  about  the 
fox.  People  who  are  insane  are  believed  to  be  possessed  by 
the  fox,  the  spirit  of  which  gets  into  the  body  by  way  of  the 
finger  nail;  that  is,  the  spirit  is  supposed  to  pass  in  under  the 
finger  nail  and  this  makes  them  act  as  they  do.  The  Govern- 
ment in  past  times  made  provision  for  the  maintenance  of  the 
insane,  the  family  having  to  look  after  them;  when  violent 
they  were  kept  in  cages.  Among  the  lower  classes  the  belief 
in  the  fox  has  full  sway,  and  stories  are  told  of  men  who  have 
fed  foxes  becoming  rich  through  good  luck.  It  is  believed  that 
if  one  keeps  young  foxes  in  a  cage  and  feeds  them  properly,  he 
will  become  prosperous. 


Since  foreigners  have  brought  science  among  the  people 
these  superstitions  are  rapidly  passing  away. 

I  asked  Takenaka  what  men  did  after  retirement.  He  said 
that,  generally  speaking,  a  man  in  comfortable  circumstances 
will  retire  from  business  when  he  is  sixty  years  old.  He  en- 
trusts all  his  business  duties  to  his  son,  lives  in  retirement, 
and  usually  has  some  hobby  of  collecting,  such  as  rare  plants 
and  ferns,  pottery,  or  stone  implements,  etc.  He  gets  up  at 
five  o'clock  in  the  summer,  six  o'clock  in  the  winter;  fire  is 
built  in  the  hibachi  to  heat  water  in  an  iron  kettle  ready  for 
tea,  which  is  made  strong;  he  has  yokan,  a  kind  of  jelly,  and 
miso  soup  made  of  fermented  bean;  he  composes  a  Japanese 
poem;  he  calls  on  an  old  friend  or  is  called  upon  at  nine 
o'clock;  he  plays  the  game  of  go  all  day.  If  he  is  a  sake  drinker, 
he  will  begin  to  drink  at  nine  o'clock  and  keep  it  up  until  he 
goes  to  bed.  During  the  day  he  may  take  a  long  walk  to  some 
park  or  other  beautiful  feature  in  the  country. 

Takenaka  has  been  informed  by  the  Chief  of  the  Sanitary 
Bureau  that  during  the  Tokugawa  Shogunate  the  drinking  of 
sake  was  much  more  common  than  at  present.  At  that  time 
sake  was  always  offered  to  a  friend  when  calling,  and  it  was 
considered  an  offense  to  refuse  it.  Now  tea  is  offered  instead, 
and  if  sake  is  offered,  one  may  drink  it  or  not,  as  he  pleases, 
without  offense.  At  that  time  one  cup  was  used  in  a  convivial 
company  and  the  cup  had  to  be  emptied  when  passing.  Now 
each  has  his  own  sake  cup  and  can  regulate  his  desires  without 
restraint.  Sake  drinkers  are  not  fond  of  sweet  things  such  as 
cake  and  candy. 

The  word  for  interesting  or  curious  is  omoshiroi,  which  lit- 

ENGLISH   BOOKS    IN   JAPANESE         317 

erally  means  "white  face,"  coming  down  from  olden  times 
when  a  white  face  was  a  curious  sight.  Nowadays  the  comic 
papers  use  the  word  omokuroi  for  "interesting,"  the  word 
meaning  "black  face." 

Japanese  society  is  now  officially  divided  into  upper,  middle, 
and  lower  classes.  Japanese  now  address  jinrikisha  men  and 
other  laborers  in  more  gentle  fashion  than  formerly. 

Professor  Toyama  informed  me  the  other  day  that  he  and 
Professor  Yatabe  and  another  friend  had  been  for  some  time 
engaged  in  translating  the  works  of  Shakespeare  and  other 
authors.  These  are  published  and  eagerly  read  by  the  Japa- 
nese. Thus  far  they  have  already  translated  the  following: 
Hamlet's  soliloquy;  Cardinal  Wolsey's  soliloquy;  Henry 
the  Fourth's  soliloquy;  Gray's  "Elegy";  Longfellow's 
"Psalm  of  Life";  Tennyson's  "Charge  of  the  Light  Brigade"; 
and  they  are  at  work  on  others.  The  Japanese  have  in  the 
past  translated  many  books  from  the  English,  French,  and 
German ;  indeed,  when  the  Dutch  first  went  to  Nagasaki,  in 
the  last  years  of  the  sixteenth  century,  the  Japanese  schol- 
ars, with  the  most  painful  efforts,  learned  Dutch  in  order  to 
translate  Dutch  books  on  history,  medicine,  anatomy,  and 
other  subjects.  The  character  of  some  of  the  books  already 
translated  is  interesting.  Professor  Toyama  gave  me  a  list 
from  memory  of  some  of  these  translations  from  the  English: 
Darwin's  "Descent  of  Man,"  and  "Origin  of  Species";  Hux- 
ley's "Man's  Place  in  Nature";  Spencer's  "Education"  (of 
which  thousands  were  sold);  Montesquieu's  "Spirit  of  Law"; 
Rousseau's  "Social  Contract";  Mill's  "On  Liberty,"  "Three 
Essays    on    Religion,"    and    "Utilitarianism";   Bentham's 


"Legislation";  Lieber's  "Civil  Liberty  and  Self -Govern- 
ment"; Spencer's  "Social  Statics,"  "Principles  of  Sociology," 
"Representative  Government,"  and  "Legislation";  Paine's 
"Age  of  Reason,"  and  Burke's  "Old  Whig  and  the  New"; 
of  this  last  book  over  ten  thousand  copies  have  already  been 

In  translating  I  have  often  observed  that  the  Japanese  in- 
stantly recognize  a  Chinese  character  upside  down,  but  in 
reading  an  obscure  mark  on  pottery  they  turn  the  character 
right  side  up  in  preference. 



August  6.  In  the  afternoon  Dr.  Bigelow  and  I,  accompan- 
ied by  Mr.  Takenaka  as  interpreter,  started  from  Tokyo  for 
Kabutoyama,  some  forty  or  fifty  miles,  to  visit  Mr.  Negishi 
and  to  inspect  certain  caves  near  where  he  lived.  We  spent 
the  night  at  the  little  village  of  Shirako.  Our  rooms  looked  out 
on  a  quaint  little  garden  with  a  veritable  waterfall,  whose 
music  lulled  us  to  sleep.  In  the  evening  the  two  girls  who  had 
waited  upon  us  at  supper  came  in  and  played  games  with  us. 
Such  a  good-natured,  jolly,  laughing  set  of  servants  cannot  be 
found  elsewhere  in  the  world.  They  are  ready  to  entertain 
guests  with  their  wit  and  fun,  and  yet  never  for  a  moment  pre- 
sume upon  your  familiarity. .  The  next  morning  we  were  off  at 
nine,  and  had  one  of  the  most  delightful  rides  we  have  had  in 
Japan.  The  day  was  cool,  the  sun  shaded  by  clouds,  which  did 
not  threaten  rain,  however.  We  reached  Kawagoe  at  noon, 
and  had  dinner  at  the  house  of  an  uncle  of  Takenaka,  who  had 
a  hardware  shop  on  the  main  business  street,  and  we  passed 
through  the  little  shop  to  pleasant  rooms  behind  with  the  cus- 
tomary garden.  The  family  were  very  attentive  to  us,  and 
were  for  the  first  time  entertaining  foreigners.  After  hearty 
good-byes  we  were  off  for  Kabutoyama. 

We  had  had  from  Tokyo  two  men  to  a  jinrikisha  and  that 
makes  a  great  difference  in  the  speed  of  traveling  and  in  the 
delight  of  it  too.  Some  portions  of  the  road  were  still  muddy 


from  the  recent  rains,  and  in  one  place  we  crossed  a  broad 
river  where  evidences  of  the  recent  flood  were  seen  fifteen 
to  twenty  feet  above  its  present  level.  Houses  in  the  vicin- 
ity of  the  ferry  had  been  submerged  to  their  ridge-poles. 
When  we  got  within  half  a  mile  of  Mr.  Negishi's  estate,  we 
were  met  by  a  gentleman  who  politely  informed  us  that  Mr. 
Negishi  was  expecting  us.  As  we  got  nearer  the  house,  three 
other  gentlemen  and  Mr.  Negishi's  only  boy  were  in  the  road 
awaiting  us.  We  immediately  alighted  from  our  jinrikishas  and 
exchanged  the  most  formal  bows  with  them,  and  they  hur- 
ried after  us  as  we  rode  rapidly  along.  Approaching  the  gate- 
way of  the  house,  Mr.  Negishi,  with  his  family  and  a  number 
of  servants,  stood  bowing  and  giving  us  a  delightful  and  hos- 
pitable welcome.  We  were  conducted  at  once  across  a  spacious 
courtyard  to  a  suite  of  rooms  in  a  house  by  itself.  Such  perfect 
cleanliness,  everything  sweet;  the  courtyard  so  immaculate 
that  the  indentations  of  our  heels  in  the  smooth,  hard  earth 
disturbed  us.  Dinner  was  soon  served,  and  the  Doctor  and  I 
agreed  that  it  was  the  best  dinner  we  had  had  in  Japan;  most 
delicious  soups,  and  refreshing  raw  fish,  of  which  the  Doc- 
tor has  become  very  fond.  We  learned  afterwards  that  Mr. 
Negishi  had  sent  fifteen  miles  for  a  famous  cook.  It  was  late  be- 
fore we  arose  from  the  floor,  and  our  beds  were  already  made 
up  with  silk  futons  in  great,  high-studded  rooms  with  rare 
carvings  over  the  screens,  and  all  in  perfect  taste.  The  guest- 
house we  occupied  formed  a  part  of  an  irregular  group  of  build- 
ings which  enclosed  the  large  courtyard.  It  was  a  separate 
building,  and  like  the  others  was  nearly  three  hundred  years 
old.  The  thatch  on  the  roof  is  made  of  a  special  kind  of  rush, 


quite  expensive  and  said  to  last  fifty  years  or  more.  The  ridge- 
pole of  wood  and  other  portions  were  painted  black,  and  the 
whole  structure  was  very  neatly  and  elaborately  made.1 

The.  next  morning  I  was  up  before  the  others  and  made 
many  sketches  about  the  premises.  The  great  courtyard  sur- 
rounded by  various  buildings  is  typical  of  the  residences  of  the 
wealthy  farmer  class,  who,  though  not  samurai,  stand  above 
the  ordinary  farmer  class.  After  breakfast  we  examined  the 
large  collection  of  pottery  Mr.  Negishi  had  collected  in  the 
neighborhood,  dating  back  twelve  hundred  years  or  more. 
There  were  two  types,  a  light-reddish,  soft  pottery  and  the 
hard,  bluish-gray  pottery  so  commonly  found  in  ancient 
graves.  I  never  before  dreamed  of  the  existence  of  such  tran- 
quil, charming  people.  Refinement  and  culture  were  shown 
in  their  every  word  and  act;  no  affectation,  no  unnatural 
restraint,  attentions  bestowed  with  ease  and  sympathy.  Mr. 
Negishi's  mother,  an  old  lady  of  eighty,  was  interested  in  hav- 
ing me  sit  beside  her,  and  through  an  interpreter  asked  me 
many  questions,  all  very  intelligent.  Her  interesting  que- 
ries were  such  as  a  refined  and  cultivated  lady  at  home  might 
ask  a  Japanese.  A  foreigner  had  never  been  in  the  house  be- 
fore, and  the  sight  of  one  was  a  rare  event  in  this  out-of-the- 
way  village.  It  was  a  hot  day,  and  whenever  I  sat  down  the 
two  daughters  would  fan  me,  and  their  shy  and  half-fright- 
ened manner  was  curious  to  witness.  It  is  a  delightful  custom, 

Just  before  we  bade  good-bye  to  our  charming  hosts,  and 
while  the  jinrikisha  men  were  waiting,  Mr.  Negishi  crossed 

1  The  main  house,  kitchen,  and  interior  are  carefully  drawn  in  Japanese  Homes. 


the  courtyard  to  a  little  room  opposite,  and  I  could  see  him 
busily  engaged  in  writing.  I  supposed  he  was  writing  a  mes- 
sage he  wanted  us  to  carry  to  Tokyo.  To  my  surprise  it 
was  a  letter  to  me  and  it  was  presented  to  me  on  my  saying 
good-bye.  The  act  represented  an  old  custom  of  Japan  and 
one  that  we  might  adopt.  Here  is  a  translation  of  the  letter :  — 


Kabutoyama,  Musashi,  Japan, 

August  8,  12th  year  of  Meiji. 
Dear  Sir: — 

It  was  a  long  time  ago  that  I  began  to  hear  your  name  on 

the  island  of  Nippon  in  the  eastern  ocean,  but  I  did  not  expect 

to  have  you  come  and  examine  the  caves  which  are  situated 

between  Osato-gori  and  Yokomi-gori,  in  the  Province  of 

Musashi,  and  that  I  should  have  the  honor  to  receive  you  at 

my  cottage,  which  was  built  three  hundred  years  ago,  and  in 

which  I  had  the  pleasure  of  showing  you  my  collection  of  old 

pottery  and  stone  implements.   Now,  if  we  should  turn  our 

eyes  to  the  condition  of  our  country  thirty  years  ago,  what 

would  we  see?  We  would  see  that  the  people  both  in  our  island 

and  across  the  seas  could  not  avoid  doubting  and  suspecting 

each  other,  but  at  present  we  have  reached  such  a  degree  of 

friendship  that  I  have  had  the  privilege  of  spending  these  days 

with  you.  For  this  reason  I  have  permitted  my  brush  to  creep 

on,  and  in  view  of  the  deep  friendship  existing  between  our 

two  countries  I  wish  you  long  and  continued  prosperity, 

With  respect,  your  friend, 

T.  Negishi. 


We  started  for  the  caves  —  a  long,  hot  walk  in  the  sun.  I 
had  for  a  close  companion  Mr.  Negishi's  dear  little  boy,  who 
entertained  me  by  describing  many  objects  along  the  road, 
and  some  of  the  conversation  I  understood.  He  was  a  perfect 
little  gentleman  and  seemed  to  feel  the  responsibility  of  his 
position  as  successor  to  his  father's  great  estates.  A  bridge 
on  the  road  which  had  been  damaged  by  the  storm  had  been 
repaired,  and  the  most  minute  attention  had  been  given  to 
our  wants  and  comforts.  The  day  before  Mr.  Negishi  had 
workmen  cut  out  all  the  paths  leading  to  the  caves,  greatly 
facilitating  our  examination  of  them,  and  full  notes  were  made. 
The  caves  were  on  the  face  of  a  precipice;  they  were  originally 
burial  caves,  but  had  been  repeatedly  occupied  by  refugees. 
Whatever  relics  they  had  contained  had  long  since  disap- 

In  the  afternoon  we  started  for  Kawagoe,  where  we  were  to 
pass  the  night  with  Takenaka's  relatives.  Mr.  Negishi  and 
his  friends  went  some  way  with  us  in  their  jinrikishas,  and 
formal  good-byes  were  made  when  we  parted. 

Again  on  the  road,  and  another  absolutely  perfect  day,  and 
such  varied  scenery!  Of  all  the  roads  in  Japan  the  road  from 
Tokyo  to  Kabutoyama,  by  way  of  Kawagoe,  seemed  about 
the  most  diversified  and  beautiful.  It  was  like  a  garden,  rich 
in  luxurious  farms,  long  stretches  of  rice-fields  over  which  we 
got  wonderful  views  of  Fuji,  beautiful  old  farmhouses,  courte- 
ous people.  We  passed  a  group  of  children  just  out  of  school, 
and  they  stood  by  the  side  of  the  road  and  bowed  politely  to 
us  as  we  passed  them.  I  have  noticed  the  same  behavior  of 
children  in  Satsuma  and  in  the  pottery  districts  in  Kyoto. 


When  we  got  back  to  Kawagoe,  where  we  were  to  spend  the 
night,  Mr.  Takenaka  had  arranged  to  have  me  give  a  lecture 
on  the  ancient  people  of  Japan.  With  the  aid  of  a  blackboard 
I  explained  the  shell  heaps  and  other  evidences  of  an  ancient 
race.  Figure  692  is  a  reproduction  of  the  lecture  announce- 
ment, which  I  took  down  from  the  tea-house 
as  I  came  away.  We  sat  up  with  the  family 
till  midnight  playing  games,  and  the  hearty 
way  in  which  the  two  girls,  cousins  of  Ta- 
kenaka, and  the  other  members  of  the  family, 
entered  into  the  fun  was  delightful.  The  sit- 
ting on  a  mortar  with  one  foot  balanced  on 
the  other  and  lighting  one  candle  from  an- 
other created  the  greatest  merriment.  We 
were  the  first  foreigners  that  had  ever  been 
^\    "fTOT    *n  ^e  t°wn>  anc*  one  woman  came  to  the 

^     „™         house  just  to  look  at  us.  After  a  profound 
Fig.  692  J  ^ 

bow  she  said  that  ten  years  before  she  had 

gone  to  Yokohama  expressly  to  see  a  foreigner,  but  had  never 

seen  one  since  that  time. 

The  next  morning  Takenaka's  uncle  cooked  the  choicest 

portions  of  our  breakfast,  as  indeed  he  had  our  supper  the 

night  before.   Takenaka  had  given  to  him  by  his  aunt  a  jar 

full  of  cooked  grasshoppers  to  eat  as  a  relish  on  his  rice.  The 

Doctor  and  I  ate  a  number  of  them  and  found  them  very  good; 

the  taste  resembled  that  of  shrimps.   It  is  a  common  custom 

in  this  part  of  the  country  to  eat  grasshoppers  as  a  relish,  and 

there  is  no  reason  why  we  should  not  utilize  our  grasshoppers 

in  this  way  at  home;  the  insect  was  apparently  precisely  like 


our  common  grasshopper.  The  Japanese  prepare  them  by 
boiling  them  in  shoyu,  sugar,  and  a  little  water,  till  the  water 
has  nearly  all  boiled  away.  After  breakfast  we  visited  a  little 
temple,  which  corresponded  to  our  country  meeting-house 
at  home.  The  interior  was  like  a  precious  cabinet  with  the 
most  beautiful  and  elaborate  carvings,  every  last  fragment 
of  which  would  in  our  country  be  exhibited  in  our  art  museums 
behind  plate  glass.  The  thought  was  startling  when  I  tried 

Fig.  693 

to  realize  what  bit  could  be  secured  as  an  art  object  from 
our  country  meeting-houses !  We  also  visited  a  large  building 
where  fifty  or  more  girls  were  engaged  in  reeling  silk  from 
cocoons.  As  we  passed  through  the  factory  we  were  greeted 
with  modest  bows  and  an  atmosphere  of  good-breeding. 

After  a  hurried  lunch  our  host  and  his  brother  and  the  two 
nieces  in  jinrikishas  accompanied  us  to  the  boundary  of  the 
town,  and  then  in  a  little  tea-house  we  drank  a  parting  cup  of 
tea  and  bade  good-bye.  On  our  way  out  of  town  we  visited  a 
temple  where  stands  a  huge  coil  of  rope  over  six  feet  in  height 
and  three  feet  in  diameter,  and  this  rope  was  made  of  human 


hair!  Hanging  from  the  ceiling  were  a  large  number  of  tresses 
and  queues  representing  sacrifices  in  pledging  certain  vows, 
or  expiatory  offerings. 

Figure  693  shows  a  peculiar  shovel  made  of  wood  tipped 
with  iron.  The  shovel  part  was  over  three  feet  in  length  and 
the  handle  seven  feet  long.  It  is  used  through  the  western 
part  of  this  province  (Musashi)  and  seems  to  take  the  place  of 
the  plough.  It  was  interesting  to  observe  that  in  the  old 
houses  here,  as  at  home,  the  timbers  were  large  and  ponder- 
ous, for  wood  was  cheaper  in  early  times,  and  there  was  the 
lack  of  knowledge,  perhaps,  to  make  an  equally  strong  frame 
with  less  material.  The  traveler  often  notices  the  very  high 
polish  of  the  wood  floor  in  country  houses  and  inns,  and  par- 
ticularly in  the  flight  of  steps  leading  to  the  second  story.  I 
learned  that  the  polish  was  obtained  by  using  water  from  the 
bathtub  to  wash  the  floors;  the  oily  substance  in  the  bath- 
water after  using  giving  the  high  polish. 



October  18.  There  came  to  my  room  two  Koreans,  father 
and  son.  The  father  was  a  prominent  Government  officer  in 
Korea,  and  in  the  late  revolt  had  to  flee  for  his  life;  the  son  has 
been  studying  Japanese  in  a  Tokyo  school,  and  is  a  friend  of 
Miyaoka.  Miyaoka  had  arranged  with  the  young  man  to 
bring  his  father,  from  whom  I  was  to  get,  if  possible,  informa- 
tion in  regard  to  certain  subjects,  such 
as  antiquities,  pottery  ovens,  arrow 
release,  etc.  They  presented  their 
visiting  cards  (fig.  694).  The  father 
was  very  quiet  and  dignified,  but 
thoroughly  interested  in  my  questions 
in  a  sober  kind  of  way;  the  son  was 
very  handsome,  and  had  that  pecu- 
liar sweetness  that  so  many  Japanese  m  "^"^  *  ¥  *  * 
faces  present.    Both  had   beautiful 

brown  eyes;  both  were  subdued  and  sad,  as  if  they  realized 
the  dreadful  degradation  and  decay  of  their  country  from 
its  past  intellectual  eminence,  when  it  had  taught  Japan  many 
of  its  arts.  It  was  somewhat  difficult  to  interrogate  the  father, 
from  whom  I  was  to  obtain  the  information  desired.  I  would 
first  speak  to  Miyaoka,  who  would  translate  into  Japanese 
to  the  son,  who  would  in  turn  translate  into  Korean  to  his 
father,  who  did  not  understand  a  word  of  Japanese,  and  the 

f    f 

L  £ 


answers  would  come  back  through  the  same  interrupted 
channel.  The  contrasts  in  the  sounds  of  the  Korean  and  Jap- 
anese languages,  were  marked  and  interesting.  At  times  they 
seemed  to  sound  like  French;  a  mixture  of  French,  Chinese, 
and  Japanese  would  well  illustrate  the  sounds.  The  respect- 
ful and  dignified  way  in  which  the  son  always  addressed  his 
father  was  marked.  Question  after  question  was  asked,  and 
it  was  slow  and  tedious  work,  as  it  ran  through  the  gamut  of 
English,  Japanese,  and  Korean  and  back  through  Korean, 
Japanese,  and  English.  Pottery  is  still  made  in  Korea,  both 
the  white  stone  and  blue  decorated  kinds,  and  soft  pottery, 
all  of  the  poorest  quality.  The  pottery  oven  is  built  on  the 
side  of  a  hill,  and,  judging  from  a  poor  sketch  the  father 
made,  is  not  unlike  the  Japanese  oven.  If  there  is  no  hill,  an 
incline  is  built  for  it.  Much  pottery  is  lost  in  the  baking, 
as  in  the  lower  portion  it  is  over-baked  and  at  the  upper  end 
the  heat  is  insufficient.  The  lathe  is  the  kick  wheel,  such  as 
is  used  in  Hizen,  Higo,  and  Satsuma,  where  the  device  was 
introduced  by  Koreans  in  past  times.  Large  jars  are  made 
up  of  rings  of  clay  superimposed  one  upon  another  and  then 
welded  together  by  hand.  Inside,  a  stamp  is  used,  cut  in 
squares  or  circles,  and  impressions  on  the  inside  of  large  ob- 
jects may  often  be  seen.  I  showed  the  father  a  number  of 
pieces  which  Mr.  Kohitsu  had  pronounced  Korean  and  he 
recognized  them  as  such.  He  had  seen  only  one  in  Korea 
like  some  of  the  forms  from  ancient  graves  which  I  had  in 
my  collection,  and  this  one  had  been  taken  from  an  ancient 
burial-place.  He  had  never  heard  of  dolmens  or  shell  heaps, 
and  he  added  that  the  study  of  archaeology  was  not  known  in 


Korea  and  very  few  old  things  had  been  preserved;  he  had 
heard  of  caves,  some  of  large  size,  with  evidences  of  previ- 
ous occupation.  The  comma-shaped  ornament  known  as 
magatama,  found  in  ancient  burial-places  in  Japan,  he  had 
never  seen  in  Korea. 

In  archery  the  Korean  uses  the  left  as  well  as  the  right  hand 
in  drawing  the  arrow,  and  the  left  hand  is  considered  the  bet- 
ter; in  illustrating  the  method  the  father  used  the  left  hand. 
The  bow  is  grasped  firmly  and  an  arm-guard  is  worn.  A 
thumb-ring  of  either  bone  or  metal  is  worn.  The  Korean  often 
practices  at  a  hundred  and  sixty  paces,  which  is  probably 
greater  than  the  York  round  of  a  hundred  yards.  The  father 
made  a  model  of  the  thumb-ring  by  cutting  it  out  of  paper. 
He  seemed  to  have  no  facility  with  a  pencil,  but  invariably  got 
a  piece  of  paper  and  folded  it  up,  or  bent  it,  or  cut  it  with  the 
scissors,  to  illustrate  what  he  wanted  to  explain.  Dr.  Oliver 
Wendell  Holmes  once  told  me  that  he  could  not  do  anything 
with  a  pencil,  but  could  always  cut  out  of  paper  with  scissors 
any  model  he  wislied  to  make.  Some  of  the  Korean  bows  are 
of  immense  strength,  and  Korean  archers  particularly  train 
their  muscles  by  various  exercises  to  draw  their  powerful  bows. 
It  was  pathetic  to  listen  to  the  Korean's  frank  avowal  of  the 
absence  of  all  archaeological  interest  in  Korea;  he  said  the  only 
relics  they  had  to  show  were  themselves,  and  laughed  rather 
sadly  when  he  said  it.  They  look  upon  the  Japanese  as  the 
advance  guards  of  Western  civilization,  and  if  the  hatred  that 
the  ordinary  Korean  has  for  the  Japanese  can  be  modified,  it 
will  be  a  great  day  for  Korea.  The  Japanese  can  teach  them 
the  many  features  acquired  from  the  Eastern  barbarian. 


Figure  695  represents  the  appearance  of  the  Japanese  floor 
as  it  is  seen  raised  from  the  ground.  The  upright  portion  has 
panels  which  are  often  ornamented  by  simple  designs  of  bam- 
boo, pine,  or  conventional  fig- 
ures cut  in  stencil.  These  panels 

===^^it§S>    are  often  removable,  and  space 

FlG  695  is  secured  below  the  floor  for 

f    sandals,  umbrellas,  and  the  like. 

The  Japanese  house  has  no  cellar,  and  these  stenciled  panels 

and  open  lattice-work  secure  ventilation  beneath  the  floor. 

The  foreigner  visiting  Japan  is  impressed  at  the  very  out- 
set by  the  Japanese  love  of 
flowers,  for  everywhere,  in  gar- 
dens, or  in  little  tanks,  flower- 
pots and  hanging  or  standing 
flower-holders  are  seen,  and 
he  begins  to  realize  that  the 
simplicity  and  beauty  of  their 
arrangement  is  everywhere 
manifest.  Further  inquiries 
reveal  the  fact  that  there  are 
teachers  whose  sole  duty  it  is 
to  instruct  one  in  the  grace- 
ful and  artistic  arrangement 
of  flowers.  There  are  differ- 
ent schools,  and  diplomas  are  given  to  those  who  graduate.1 

1  Miss  Mary  Averill,  of  New  York,  studied  flower  arrangement  in  Japan,  receiving 
a  diploma.  She  has  written  a  book  on  Japanese  flower  arrangement  which  will  greatly 
aid  those  interested  in  the  subject.  Conder's  work,  entitled  The  Flowers  of  Japan  and 
the  Art  of  Floral  Arrangement,  is  an  important  work  on  the  subject. 


It  is  by  no  means  a  feminine  accomplishment  only;  students 
of  the  University  take  lessons  in  flower  arrangement  as  nat- 
urally as  our  students  take  lessons  in  the  art  of  spreading 
a  man's  nose  over  his  face  without  dislocating  the  wrist.  Fig- 
ure 696  is  a  sketch  of  a  hanging  flower-holder  with  a  grace- 
ful arrangement  of  a  few  flowers.  The  basket  was  very  old 
and  was  signed;  indeed,  the  makers  of  baskets  signed  their 
names  just  as  potters,  netsuki  and  inro  artists,  metal-workers, 

Fig.  697 

and  other  art  handwork  producers  signed  their  names  to 
their  work.  One  appreciates  the  art  of  the  Japanese  in  these 
matters  when  he  recalls  the  cult  at  home.  At  a  lunch  I  at- 
tended in  the  old  Chinese  college  the  tokonoma  had  three 
large  masses  of  flowers,  bouquets  four  or  five  feet  in  height. 
They  were  in  simple  cylindrical  vases  mounted  on  draped 
stands,  the  material  consisting  of  large  branches  and  twigs 
of  pine  with  flowers  intermixed  (fig.  697). 

The  varieties  of  ploughs  in  Japan  are  very  interesting.  The 
type  is  after  the  Chinese  style,  but  the  forms  in  different  prov- 
inces are  quite  marked.  Figure  698  shows  the  most  primitive 


plough  in  Japan.  I  saw  it  used  in  the  Province  of  Suo.  Its 
form  sustains  the  contention  of  E.  B.  Tylor  that  the  plough 
was  evolved  from  the  hoe.  Nevertheless,  in  a  painting,  nearly 

three  hundred  years  old,  of 
a  Chinese  subject  I  found  a 
curious  device  in  the  form  of 
a  shovel  dragged  by  a  bull. 
Here  is  an  idea  that  it  might 
have  been  derived  from  a  shovel.  A  shovel  of  this  form  is 
used  in  Japan  to-day  (fig.  699).  Figure  700  is  a  Kishiu  plough 
not  unlike  the  one  used  in  Yamashiro  and  Yamato;  figure 
701  is  from  a  drawing  made  by  a  student  of  a  Chikuzen 
plough.  There  are  many  types  of  ploughs  in  Japan  of  which 
I  have  sketches.  In  mountain  regions  bulls  are  used  to  drag 
ploughs,  and  cows  are  used  in  softer  ground  so  that  boys 
can  do  the  work. 

At  a  lunch  the  other  day  there  were  dishes  of  candy  made  in 
exact  imitation  of  mushrooms.  The  dead-white  stipe  and  gills 
and  a  translucent,  yel- 
lowish gray  pileus  were 
actually  specific  in  their 

In  Kyoto  there  is  a 
building  over  three  hun- 

A     A  ^A         U«   I.  FlG'  6" 

dred   years   old   which 

rests  on  the  site  of  a  structure  built  in  1132.  It  is  known  as 
San-ju-san-g  en-do,  and  derives  its  name  from  two  enormous 
roof-beams  thirty-three  ken  in  length,  a  ken  being  nearly  six 
feet.  The  building  is  nearly  four  hundred  feet  long,  and  fifty- 


Fig.  700 


three  feet  wide,  and  shelters  thousands  and  thousands  of  fig- 
ures of  the  goddess  Kwannon,  arranged  in  phalanxes,  one 
behind  the  other.  They  are  said  to  number  33,333. 1  Sur- 
rounding it  is  a  veran- 
da, six  feet  wide,  and 
as  you  walk  along,  pass- 
ing successive  doors, 
which  are  open  on  one 
side  and  protected  by 
heavy  bars,  you  see  this 
forest  of  saints  standing 
in  close  rows  like  a  regi- 
ment on  parade.    The 

roof  overhangs  the  veranda,  about  eighteen  feet  above  it, 
and  is  supported  by  a  complicated  set  of  beams  and  bars. 
In  feudal  times  the  custom  was  to  place  a  target  at  one  end 
of  this  long  veranda  and  shoot  at  it  with  bow  and  arrow. 
The  bow  had  to  be  of  enormous  strength,  and  the  archer 
as  well,  to  throw  an  arrow  nearly  four  hundred  feet  with  a 

limited  trajectory  of  eigh- 
teen feet.  Evidence  that 
the  archers  missed  thousands 
of  times  is  seen  in  the  dense 
mass  of  broken  arrows  which 
still  stick  to  the  intricate 
structure  above.  One's  first 
impression  is  that  big  birds  had  attempted  to  build  nests. 
Figure  702  is  a  rough  sketch  of  the  appearance  of  these 

1  All  these  facts  I  derive  from  a  guidebook. 

Fig.  701 



Fig.  702 
broken  arrows  which  could  find  lodgment  in  sheets  of  copper 
which  covered  the  beams.  In  the  field  beside  the  building 
and  at  one  side  is  a  little  booth  where  one  can  hire  a  bow 
and  ten  arrows  for  a  cent.  The  target  is  only  halfway  down 
the  field.   I  hired  thirty  arrows,  and  though  it  was  an  in- 


tensely  hot  day  I  managed  to  hit  the  target  several  times,  to 
the  amazement  of  the  old  man  who  had  rented  the  bow.  Hav- 
ing no  arm-guard  and  not  being  able  to  twist  the  bow  in 
Japanese  method  as  the  arrow  is  released,  my  wrist  has  been 
raw  for  two  weeks.  I  may  add  that  shooting  only  half  the 
distance  my  trajectory  was  nearly  as  high  as  the  ridge-pole 
of  the  building! 

The  agreeable  way  the  people  enjoy  the  summer  evenings 
is  everywhere  marked.  Riding  along  the  banks  of  any  river, 

Fig.  703 

as  in  Mikawa  and  Ise,  stagings  are  seen  built  along  the  shore, 
or  even  over  the  river,  and  here  the  families  collect  to  eat 
supper.  On  many  of  the  long  bridges  at  evening  it  seemed  as  if 
the  entire  population  had  gathered  to  enjoy  the  fresher  air 
blowing  in  the  river  valley. 

October  26.  Dr.  Bigelow  and  I  had  an  opportunity  of  visit- 
ing the  crematory  at  Senju  in  Tokyo.  Getting  permission  from 
the  Chief  of  the  Sanitary  Bureau,  with  Mr.  Takenaka  we 
started  for  the  crematory  at  nine  o'clock  at  night.  It  was  an 
hour's  ride  to  the  place.  I  expected  to  see  a  barren-looking 
region  with  rather  dismal  sheds  and  buildings.  Instead  I  saw 


those  features  associated  with  all  public  works  of  the  city: 
neatly  swept  grounds,  trim  fences,  and  the  usual  number  of 
pretty  trees.  On  one  side  of  the  street  is  the  crematory  (fig. 
703).  It  consists  of  two  one-storied,  brick  buildings,  seventy- 
two  feet  long  and  twenty-four  feet  wide.  These  buildings  are 
in  line,  but  are  separated  from  each  other  by  a  space  of  fifty 
feet.  In  this  space  stands  a  tall,  square  chimney,  and  to  the 
chimney  run  large  iron  flues  from  the  ridges  of  the  buildings. 
Each  building  is  divided  into  three  compartments,  having  a 

Fig.  704 

doorway  with  sliding  doors.  A  flight  of  steps,  as  shown  in 
the  sketch,  leads  to  a  staging  at  the  junction  of  the  flues  with 
the  chimney,  and  here  is  an  arrangement  for  burning  coal  to 
accelerate  the  upward  draft  in  case  many  bodies  are  being 
cremated  at  the  same  time.  Figure  704  shows  how  each  com- 
partment opens  into  the  flue  above. 

The  simplicity  and  cleanliness  of  the  appliances  used  in  re- 
ducing the  body  to  ashes  interested  us  greatly.  The  furnaces, 
or  better,  the  fireplaces,  are  on  the  ground,  and  the  body,  in  a 
bent-up  position,  is  placed  on  the  pile,  which  consists  of  two 
sticks  of  wood  and  a  little  kindling.  After  the  fire  has  been 
going  for  some  time  the  mass  is  covered  with  straw  rice-bags. 


The  fireplace  consists  of  a  bottom  stone,  two  side  stones,  and  a 
head  stone,  as  in  the  sketch  (fig.  705).  The  bodies  are  consumed 
in  three  hours;  those  we  saw  had  been  burning  two  hours.  I 
pushed  the  straw  away  with  a  stick,  and  noticed  only  a  few  of 
the  larger  bones  and  these  were  calcined.   The  room  was  full 

Fig.  705 

of  smoke,  but  more  from  the  burning  straw  than  from  the 
bodies;  indeed,  there  was  hardly  any  odor,  though  the  walls 
of  the  room  were  black  with  soot.  In  one  corner  were  two 
little  fireplaces  for  children,  in  one  of  which  cremation  was 
going  on. 

The  highest  price  paid  for  cremating  a  body  is  seven  yen. 
This  is  done  in  a  separate  building  (fig.  706)  which  contains 
but  a  single  fireplace  in  the  centre.  The  next  grade  is  two  yen 
and  seventy-five  sen,  about  $1.37  in  our  money.  This  is  done 
in  the  large  building,  and  the  body  is  burned  in  the  large 
wooden  tub  in  which  it  is  brought.   The  third  and  cheapest 

Fig.  706 

338  JAPAN   DAY  BY  DAY 

grade  costs  only  one  yen  and  thirty  sen;  in  this  case  the  body 
only  is  burned,  the  tub  being  saved.  The  man  who  superin- 
tends the  work  lives  close  by  and  has  in  his  keeping  the  jars 
containing  the  ashes.  These  jars  cost  from 
six  to  eight  cents  apiece  according  to  size. 
He  gave  me  one  (fig.  707).  In  the  jar  was 
a  little  wooden  box  in  which  are  preserved 
the  teeth,  which  are  carefully  picked  out 
of  the  ashes.  A  curious  superstition  seems 
to  prevail  about  the  teeth,  and  in  ancient 
times  the  people  made  prayers  and  offerings 
on  certain  days  that  their  teeth  might  not 
loosen.  The  bodies  that  were  being  cremated  were  of  victims 
of  cholera  which  was  very  prevalent  in  the  city.  The  super- 
intendent and  all  engaged  in  the  work  did  not  have  that  grim 
look  often  associated  with  sextons,  but  were  cheerful,  polite, 
and  pleasant  fellows.  We  were  most  favorably  impressed 
with  our  experience  and  wondered  how  long  prejudice  would 
stand  in  the  way  of  this  sanitary  process  in  our  country. 

On  our  ride  to  the  crematory  and  back  we  went  through  the 
poorest  quarters  of  the  city  at  an  hour  when 
similar  regions  at  home  would  be  crowded 
with  open  bar-rooms  and  charged  with  vo- 
ciferous talk.  The  most  decorous  New  Eng- 
land village  could  not  have  exceeded  the  quiet 
and  order  prevailing  everywhere.  It  is  cer- 
tainly a  wonderful  fact  that  these  people  are 
all  so  orderly  in  their  obedience  to  law.  The  Police  Commis- 
sioner of  Boston  has  said  that  hoodlumism  is  the  greatest 

Fig.  707 


menace  to  our  country.  There  is  certainly  no  such  menace 
in  Japan;  indeed,  everybody  is  well  behaved. 

My  room  at  Tenmon  Dai  was  in  a  little  house  built  in  for- 
eign style  for  the  attendant  of  the  astronomical  observatory. 
My  only  stove  is  shown  in  figure  708,  a  square  wooden  box  in 
which  is  a  round  earthen  vessel  filled  with  ashes;  the  tongs,  in 
the  shape  of  iron  chopsticks,  are  seen  in  one  corner  in  a  bam- 
boo tube.  Ice  has  already  formed  outside 
and  my  room  would  be  very  cold  without  the 
little  charcoal  fire.  I  have  become  accus- 
tomed to  the  carbonic  acid  gas,  though  most 

Fig.  708 
of  it  settles  through  the  cracks  of  the  floor; 

when  it  gets  too  strong  I  open  the  door.  On  inquiry  I  found 
that  the  Japanese  never  suffer  any  inconvenience  from  burn- 
ing charcoal,  their  sole  means  of  heating.  The  old  woman 
who  builds  my  fire,  or  rather  brings  in  a  few  hot  coals  from 
her  own  hibachi,  had  never  heard  of  the  gas  being  injurious, 
nor  had  she  an  idea  that  it  could  kill  one.  My  room  is  in  a 
continual  tangle  of  confusion  —  the  accumulation  of  pot- 
tery, ethnological  objects  for  the  Museum  at  Salem,  note- 
books, pictures  are  all  crowded  into  a  little  room  hardly 
big  enough  for  my  bed  and  writing-table.  Figure  709  is  a 
rough  sketch  of  the  room  from  where  I  sit  at  the  writing- 

The  other  day  I  had  the  opportunity  of  sketching  a  woman 
—  the  wife  of  the  man  who  looks  after  my  little  house  —  in 
the  act  of  blackening  her  teeth.  She  told  me  that  she  had  to 
do  it  every  three  or  four  days.  A  special  copper  vessel  is  used 
in  which  to  discharge  the  rinsings  of  her  mouth ;  a  metal  shelf 


rests  across  it,  upon  which  are  two  brass  vessels,  one  a  box  in 
which  are  nut  galls  pulverized  and  resembling  ashes;  in  the 
other  a  fluid  containing  iron  in  solution.  This  solution  she 
makes  herself  by  soaking  a  piece  of  iron  in  vinegar,  using  an 
old  jar  for  the  purpose.  The  brush  used  is  a  small  piece  of 
wood  frayed  at  one  end,  the  ordinary  Japanese  toothbrush. 

Fig.  709 

This  she  dips  into  the  iron  water,  then  into  the  nut  gall, 
and  rubs  the  teeth  as  if  she  were  cleaning  them,  rinsing  her 
mouth  now  and  then  from  a  bowl  of  water  at  her  side,  and 
at  times  taking  up  a  mirror  to  see  if  her  teeth  are  sufficiently 
blackened.  It  is  said  that  the  operation  is  good  for  the  teeth 
(fig.  710). 

The  common  name  for  violets  is  sumo-tori-gusa,  sumo-tori 
meaning  "wrestler,"  as  the  children  play  with  the  flowers  by 
hooking  them  together  and  pulling  them  apart  to  see  which 
one  yields. 


The  word  for  "ceiling"  in  Japanese  is  tenjo;  literally,  "hea- 
ven's well,"  coming  from  the  same  root  as  our  word. 

The  word  for  "fool"  in  Japanese  is  baka,  which  literally 
means  "horse  deer."  Sea-sickness  is  called  funayoi  —  "boat 

Fig.  710 

For  the  first  time  the  Emperor's  garden  has  been  open  for 
inspection,  by  special  invitation.  A  few  days  ago  cards  were 
sent  to  all  native  and  foreign  professors  and,  presumably,  to 
all  the  Japanese  officers  of  the  same  rank,  for  the  chrysanthe- 
mum display.  To-day  and  to-morrow  are  the  days  appointed, 
and  being  considered  an  officer  of  the  University,  though  I  have 
no  official  connection  with  it  now,  I  was  invited.  Heretofore 
only  members  of  the  diplomatic  corps  among  foreigners  could 
get  access  to  the  gardens.  Each  ticket  permitted  the  pos- 
sessor to  take  five  members  of  his  family,  and  it  would  seem 


that  every  ticket  was  used  to  its  fullest  capacity.  There  were 
many  ladies  and  children  and  they  were  beautifully  dressed. 
It  was  delightful  to  see  the  perfect  behavior  of  the  children  — 
no  shouting,  or  screaming,  no  tearing  around  by  the  boys.  It 
was  a  perfect  paradise  in  itself.  I  have  neither  the  language  nor 
the  ability  to  describe  the  wonderful  beauty  of  the  grounds. 
The  place  was  of  large  extent  and  had  originally  been  built  on 
a  level  plain.  There  had  been  constructed  undulating  hills; 
rock  ravines,  down  which  poured  mountain  brooks;  valleys; 
bridges;  rustic  summer  houses,  —  everything  to  admire. 

In  our  party  was  a  tall  foreign  teacher  (American)  re- 
cently appointed  to  the  University.  He  was  like  a  bull  in  a 
china  shop.  He  stalked  through  the  grounds  and  saw  nothing 
to  admire ;  indeed,  his  comments  were  so  rude  and  ridiculous 
that  we  finally  got  rid  of  him.  Before  he  left  us,  however,  we 
came  across  a  beautiful  little  summer  house  shockingly  dis- 
figured within  by  a  cheap,  glaring  red  carpet  from  abroad,  and 
this  man,  for  the  first  time,  saw  something  to  praise,  and  he 
commented  on  its  beauty  utterly  oblivious  to  this  shocking 
incongruity  in  a  room  with  the  most  delicate  and  delicious 
cabinet-work  in  natural  woods. 

The  flowers  were  beautiful  in  their  variety  and  daintiness. 
They  were  arranged  under  tastefully  constructed  shelters  of 
bamboo  and  reed  matting,  though  in  some  instances  more 
permanent  shelters  were  provided.  There  were  many  wonder- 
ful trees  and  some  of  dwarfed  varieties,  —  one  with  a  disk  of 
dense  foliage,  twenty  feet  in  diameter,  and  not  over  two  and 
a  half  feet  high,  with  a  trunk  a  foot  in  diameter;  rustic  fences 
and  bridges,  and  beautiful  little  lakes.  The  Japanese  excel 


the  world  in  the  art  of  landscape  gardening,  and  they  seemed 
to  enjoy  the  beauties  of  every  feature,  and  the  foreigners 
were  equally  appreciative,  all  except  our  tall  professor,  who 
appeared  bewildered  and  positively  unhappy. 

On  the  3d  of  November,  Count  Enouye,  Minister  of  For- 
eign Affairs,  gave  a  great  party  in  honor  of  the  Emperor's 
birthday.  To  this  party  were  invited  all  the  foreign  diplo- 
mats and  all  the  teachers  with  the  rank  of  professor,  besides 
a  great  many  other  high  officers.  A  thousand  invitations 
were  issued.  Count  Enouye's  house  is  very  large  and  spa- 
cious, built  entirely  in  foreign  style.  The  grounds  were  bril- 
liantly lighted  with  gas  jets  and  lanterns.  Such  a  variety  of 
costumes  as  were  seen!  The  Japanese  ladies  were  beautifully 
dressed,  and  the  various  nationalities  —  French,  Russian, 
Swiss,  German,  Italian,  English,  and  American  attaches  of 
the  embassies  and  the  legations  —  were  in  their  respective 
uniforms,  many  with  brilliant  decorations.  Seven  Chinese  and 
eight  Koreans  were  in  their  national  costumes. 

To  me  the  most  interesting  features  were  the  two  Japanese 
brass  bands,  the  Army  and  the  Navy,  side  by  side,  and  play- 
ing alternately.  They  were  very  full  bands  with  Japanese 
leaders  and  with  all  the  modern  instruments,  playing,  with 
great  precision,  music  from  classical  composers.  I  was  amazed 
at  the  crispness  and  accuracy  with  which  they  played  and  at 
the  progress  they  had  made  in  four  years;  for  I  had  heard  the 
Army  band  play  four  years  ago  and  remembered  distinctly 
how  crude  the  performance  was,  and  that  I  came  to  the  con- 
clusion then  that  however  perfectly  the  Japanese  could  acquire 
foreign  methods,  in  our  music  they  would  certainly  fail  to 


grasp  its  meaning  and  its  proper  rendering.  I  argued  this  way 
because  the  two  musics  were  so  entirely  unlike.  Now  I  must 
alter  that  conclusion  and  admit  that,  so  far  as  our  music  is 
concerned,  practice  only  was  required.  It  would  have  been 
impossible  for  any  one  but  an  expert  to  have  told  whether 
Japanese  were  playing  or  good  foreign  musicians.  It  was  also 
curious  to  see  the  number  of  Japanese  ladies  and  gentlemen 
who  were  joining  in  the  dancing,  and  who  were  dancing  very 
well  too.  On  both  floors  of  the  house  a  delicious  lunch  was 
served,  with  wine,  champagne,  and  beer  in  abundance.  On  the 
grounds  outside  brilliant  fireworks  were  being  discharged,  and 
the  whole  affair  was  a  great  treat. 

I  have  begun  the  study  of  the  intricacies  of  the  tea  ceremony 
and  have  joined  a  class  of  Japanese.  My  teacher,  Mr.  Kohitsu, 
tells  me  I  am  the  first  foreigner  to  take  lessons  in  the  art.  The 
fact  that  I  was  taking  lessons  got  into  the  newspapers,  and 
also  the  statement  that  I  had  astonished  the  old  fellows  at  the 
school  by  rapidly  identifying  the  pottery  brought  out  on  the 
occasion.  It  seems  curious  that  the  newspapers  here,  as  at 
home,  get  hold  of  all  trifling  events,  social  gossip,  and  the  like; 
it  shows  that  human  nature  is  the  same  the  world  over. 

The  Japanese  are  said  to  have  no  inventive  faculties,  but  in 
my  rambles  around  Tokyo  I  have  noticed  many  mechanical 
appliances  of  a  simple  nature  which  our  artisans  might  adopt. 
To-day  I  noticed  a  man  who  works  in  pearl-shell  cutting.  The 
piece  of  pearl  to  be  sawed  was  held  down  by  an  elastic  strip  of 
bamboo  bent  under  a  transverse  bar  above,  as  shown  in  figure 
711.  The  saw  rested  vertically  upon  the  piece  to  be  sawed  and 
the  sand  used  in  the  operation  remained  in  place.   It  was  a 

Fig.  711 


simple  form  of  vise  that  could  be  instantly  adjusted,  and  the 
varying  degrees  of  firmness  could  be  got  by  selecting  stiffer  or 
lighter  strips  of  bamboo. 
The  tub  was  full  of  water 
so  that  the  pieces  could 
be  immediately  washed. 

Figure  712  represents 
a  blacksmith  at  work. 
He  sits  on  the  ground, 
or  floor,  as  do  all  opera- 
tives. The  bellows  con- 
sist of  a  long,  square 
box  in  which  a  square 

piston  is  moved  back  and  forth  by  means  of  a  rod  and  handle ; 
with  his  left  leg  the  blacksmith  blows  his  bellows  by  grasping 
the  handle  with  his  foot  and  moving  his  leg  back  and  forth, 
leaving  his  two  hands  free  for  hammering.  In  this  case  the 
helper  stands  up.  The  tools  were  not  unlike  those  used  by 
our  blacksmiths  at  home,  though  I  noticed  in  some  of  the 
larger  hammers,  perhaps  in  all,  that  the  handle  was  not  in- 
serted in  the  middle  of  the  iron  part,  but  nearer  to  one  end. 
The  floor  was  littered  with  bits  of  iron  bolts  and  the  usual 
bits  and  fragments  one  sees  in  a  blacksmith's  shop  at  home. 
Sometimes  a  boy  is  employed  to  blow  the  bellows,  and  this 
he  does  with  his  hands. 

In  many  parts  of  the  city  ditches  or  deep  gutters  run  along 
the  streets,  especially  along  the  walls  of  yashikis.  These 
places  are  the  breeding-grounds  of  the  mosquitoes  which  in- 
fest the  city  and  are  a  source  of  livelihood  to  the  men  and 


boys  who  with  nets  drag  for  mosquito  larvae  and  sell  them  for 
goldfish  food. 

For  the  last  few  days  professional  packers  have  been  at 
work  packing  the  pottery,  and  the  floor  is  covered  with  boxes 
and  straw.  It  is  interesting  to  see  their  method  of  wrapping 
each  piece  in  straw.  The  man  takes  a  handful  of  straw, 
combs  it  out  straight  with  his  fingers,  gives  the  mass  a  twist 

Fig.  712 

in  the  middle  which  spreads  the  straw  at  each  end  like  a  fan; 
the  bowl  is  then  put  in  the  centre,  and  the  straw  folded  over  the 
rim  of  the  bowl  around  the  edge.  Tea-jars  are  done  up  in  the 
same  way,  the  straw  being  twisted  above.  With  large  cylin- 
drical pieces  of  irregular  contour  a  long  straw  rope  is  made  and 
wound  around  the  piece.  The  cook's  little  girl  and  a  playmate 
came  to  the  door  and  peeked  in,  the  sight  of  so  many  speci- 
mens of  pottery  amazing  them.  I  invited  them  in  and  gave 
them  some  paper  and  scissors,  and  the  skillful  way  in  which 
they  cut  out  dolls  and  made  chickens,  herons,  and  other  ob- 


jects  was  surprising.  I  saved  them  all  and  they  will  go  to  the 
Museum  in  Salem.  I  gave  them  a  pot  of  tea  and  two  cups, 
and  it  was  interesting  to  see  and  to  hear  them:  one  poured  tea 
for  the  other,  and  when  the  cup  was  passed  the  child  thanked 
her  as  courteously  as  if  they  were  playing  ladies,  and  yet  they 
were  not  playing,  they  had  simply  been  brought  up  to  be  polite. 
They  were  not  more  than  nine  or  ten  years  old,  dressed  poorly, 
and  were  the  children  of  the  servants  in  the  yashiki. 

The  other  day  I  made  another  visit  to  the  insane  asylum 
just  back  of  my  house.  The  superintendent  was  very  kind, 
spoke  a  little  English,  and  with  my  little  Japanese  we  got 
along  very  well.  I  got  a  good  deal  of  information  about  the 
percentages  of  troubles,  causes  of  insanity,  etc. 

Mr.  Machida,  the  sword  merchant,  came  in  to  spend  the 
evening,  and  I  kept  him  till  midnight  asking  him  questions. 
In  his  time  he  has  acted  as  executioner,  having  beheaded  a 
great  many  criminals,  and  he  told  me  some  very  grim  stories. 
It  is  curious  how  different  nations  regard  the  same  act.  An 
executioner  is  loathed  and  an  outcast  in  some  countries  and 
the  professional  executioner  in  Japan  is  from  the  Eta  class. 
In  Japan  a  gentleman  considers  it  a  fine  chance  to  try  the 
temper  of  his  blade  by  beheading  a  criminal.  For  another 
reason  also:  if  any  of  his  friends  had  to  commit  hara-kiri  he 
might  be  called  upon  to  do  the  act  of  beheading,  as  the  act  of 
disemboweling  is  followed  immediately  by  beheading  by  a 
friend,  who  with  a  quick  stroke  cuts  off  the  head.  One  sees  a 
striking  representation  of  this  act  in  the  theatre  when  the  play 
of  the  "Forty-seven  Ronins"  is  presented.  The  beheading  of 
a  criminal  gives  a  man  practice.  Mr.  Machida  told  me  that  it 


did  not  require  such  a  very  hard  blow  to  separate  the  head 
from  the  body.  He  said  the  first  time  he  performed  the  act  he 
struck  so  hard  that  he  broke  his  sword  by  striking  a  rock  on 
the  ground.  A  bandage  is  tied  about  the  criminal's  eyes;  he 
kneels  upon  a  mat,  in  front  of  which  a  hole  is  dug  big  enough 
to  admit  the  body;  attendants  hold  the  arms  back,  and  im- 
mediately after  the  head  drops  into  the  hole  the  body  is 
pushed  after  it  and  the  mat  thrown  over  it.  Mr.  Machida  says 
the  muscles  about  the  cheeks  and  lips  quiver  for  some  time, 
and  the  same  quivering  motion  is  seen  in  the  hands  and  even 
in  the  whole  body.  He  gave  me  some  interesting  details  about 
the  battle  of  Uyeno  at  the  time  of  the  Restoration. 

During  the  month  of  November  an  interesting  market  is 
held  back  of  Asakusa  Temple,  where  a  large  number  of  booths 
are  erected  in  the  streets  for  the  sale  of  curious  charms  to  in- 
sure happiness  and  wealth.  These  charms  are  miniature  bags 
of  rice,  twisted  straw,  and  other  symbols  of  plenty  and  happi- 
ness made  of  bamboo  covered  with  bright-colored  and  gilt 
papers.  In  some  the  ship  of  fortune  is  represented  holding  the 
seven  treasures;  others  are  in  the  shape  of  a  fan  or  rake  with 
the  mask  of  Otafuku,  goddess  of  Happiness,  in  the  centre,  with 
various  devices  about  the  sides.  It  was  curious  to  see  the  nar- 
row streets  and  lanes  closely  crowded  with  people  and  lined 
with  rudely  constructed  booths,  on  both  sides,  packed  with 
these  strange-looking  charms  and  emblems,  some  of  them  of 
large  size,  five  feet  or  more  in  diameter.  Throughout  the  day 
of  the  festival  the  people  are  seen  returning  home  bearing 
these  things  in  their  hands,  or  riding  in  jinrikishas,  and  if  the 
objects  are  large  holding  them  up  like  banners.   The  objects 


were  always  mounted  on  a  rod  of  bamboo.  Figure  713  illus- 
trates two  of  these  charms,  the  smaller  one  showing  a  dry 
measure  in  the  centre  with  sprigs  of  rice.  These  objects 
were  all  roughly  made, 
and  yet,  flimsy  as  they 
appeared,  they  never 
seemed  to  break  apart. 
They  had  a  decorative 
character,  too.  Near 
by  was  a  Shinto  tem- 
ple, before  which  crowds 
of  people  were  praying, 
standing  seven  or  eight 
deep.  A  large  contribu- 
tion box  stood  in  front 
of  this  temple,  at  least 
eight  feet  long  and  three 
or  four  feet  wide  and 
deep,  and  into  this 
dropped  a  continuous 
shower  of  rins,  tempos, 
sens,  and  larger  pieces 
of  money  done  up   in 

paper.  Near  by  was  a  rude  stage  where  some  play  was  going 
on  accompanied  by  a  drum  and  flute  which  kept  up  an  in- 
cessant noise  without  a  moment's  pause.  Little  children 
with  shrill  voices  aided  their  parents  in  calling  out  the  char- 
acter of  wares  that  were  being  sold  in  the  crowd.  Two  beg- 
gars kneeling  on  the  ground  in  an  (5pen  space  were  the  only 

Fig.  713 


evidence  of  poverty  in  the  mass.  A  peculiar  potato  was  being 
sold  to  be  eaten  raw  or  cooked;  mochi  was  for  sale  in  large 
slices;  hairpins  of  the  cheapest  character  —  mere  tinsel  — 
were  sold  as  souvenirs  of  the  fair;  and  everybody  was  smiling 
and  happy.  The  celebration  was  a  new  one  to  me  and  well 
worth  seeing. 

A  fat  and  good-natured  friend  by  the  name  of  Sakurai,  whom 
I  first  met  at  Nagoya  under  the  name  of  Gonza,  and  who 
helped  me  greatly  in  that  city  in  hunting  up  pottery  and  di- 
recting me  to  the  proper  shops,  has  come  to  Tokyo.  He  has 
brought  not  only  documents  relating  to  early  potters  of  Seto, 
but  also  a  number  of  objects  of  interest,  and  is  stopping  in 
Tokyo,  at  some  considerable  expense  to  himself,  in  order  to 
help  me  pack.  His  wife  and  daughter  at  Nagoya  sent  me  by 
express  a  rare  old  Owari  bowl  that  may  prove  to  be  a  Gempin. 
The  present  was  accompanied  by  a  letter  in  katakana  which 
Takenaka  has  translated.   It  runs  as  follows:  — 

"We  write  to  you.  How  you  are?  Getting  very  well?  We 
congratulate  you  are  well  this  time.  Gonza  went  to  you  and 
you  bought  many  from  him.  He  sent  me  very  much  money. 
I  thank  you  very  much.  We  present  this  bowl  to  you  and  glad 
to  express  my  thanks.  We  wish  you  to  carry  it  to  your  native 
country.  I  got  this  bowl  from  a  yashiki.  It  is  very  old.  Please 
use  it.  We  hope  very  much  that  you  will  get  home  in  safety. 
We  send  only  a  few  words.  We  happy.  We  congratulate. 

"Goes  to  Morse  Esq.  Nov.  10. 

"Tsuru,  Mother. 
"Haku,    Daughter." 


In  regard  to  Japanese  gestures,  a  few  are  like  ours  and 
others  are  quite  different.  Takenaka  told  me  that  a  com- 
mon gesture  was,  when  one  asked  of  a  friend  some  good  thing 
like  candy,  for  the  friend  to  pull  down  the  eye  giving  a  sort  of 
leer,  as  much  as  to  say,  "Don't  you  wish  you  could  get  it?"  In 
beckoning  with  the  hand,  the  back  of  the  hand  is  uppermost, 
though  the  fingers  move  in  the  same  way  that  ours  do.  In  say- 
ing "no"  the  hand  is  moved  back  and  forth  in  front  of  the 
face.  In  talking  with  a  friend  about  the  similarity  between  the 
gestures  of  the  two  peoples,  I  called  attention  to  the  resem- 
blance in  expressions  of  amazement,  perplexity  as  shown  in 
rubbing  the  nose,  etc.,  but  the  expressions  in  displeasure  differ. 
With  us  we  usually  frown  and  compress  the  eyes,  but  the  Jap- 
anese when  "mad"  open  their  eyes  wide;  and  a  boy  who  has 
done  something  wrong  will  get  a  scolding,  or  Omedama 
chodai;  literally,  a  "gift  of  eyeballs."  A  curious  movement 
is  made  if  the  finger  is  slightly  burned :  the  lobe  of  the  ear  is 
instantly  grasped;  the  ear  is  always  cool,  which  alleviates  the 

In  the  college  dormitories  students  are  not  permitted  to 
have  any  kind  of  musical  instruments,  nor  are  they  allowed  to 
play  chess  and  go,  as  it  would  interfere  with  their  studies. 
Their  work,  beginning  early  in  the  morning,  is  one  hard  grind ; 
subjects  precisely  like  those  taught  in  our  colleges  at  home  are 
studied,  but  all  in  English,  or,  in  the  Medical  College,  in  Ger- 
man. A  samurai  boy  rises  at  six  o'clock,  washes  his  face  beside 
the  well,  then  reads  some  book  in  a  loud  tone  of  voice.1  The 

1  Reading  aloud  is  customary,  as  otherwise  they  say  they  cannot  understand 
what  they  are  reading.  In  college  as  they  progress  in  their  studies  they  lose  this 


grade  of  different  dormitories  is  recognized  by  the  noise  the 
students  make  in  their  reading.  After  an  early  breakfast  the 
boy  goes  to  school,  and  must  write  through  six  or  seven 
books,  forty  pages  to  a  book,  and  four  large  characters  to 
each  page.  The  pages  are  written  on  again  and  again,  the 
wet  ink  showing  clearly  on  the  dried  ink.  A  lazy  boy  will 
sometimes  make  splashes  on  the  page,  but  the  teacher  can 
generally  detect  the  trick  and  the  boy  is  kept  after  school  as 
a  punishment.  The  boy  always  takes  his  lunch  box  with 
him  and  comes  home  "hungry  as  a  bear."  His  mother  gives 
him  cake  which  he  eats  greedily;  he  then  plays  until  supper, 
and  after  studying  his  lesson  for  the  next  day  goes  to  bed. 

A  class  of  girls  are  found  in  Japan  of  which  we  have  no 
parallel  in  our  country:  they  are  known  as  geisha,  and  it  is  the 
duty  of  these  geisha  to  entertain  company,  the  wife  and  daugh- 
ters not  appearing.  For  instance,  you  give  a  dinner  to  some 
friends,  and  you  may  employ  two  or  more  of  these  girls,  who 
not  only  help  in  the  pouring  of  wine,  but  by  their  bright  and 
witty  conversation  put  everybody  in  good  humor.  Many  of 
them  are  quite  pretty  and  all  dress  beautifully.  I  remember 
meeting  at  one  dinner  a  geisha  who  was  not  only  unusually 
plain-looking,  but  who  was  quite  old.  On  inquiring  about  her 
of  a  Japanese  friend,  —  for  I  had  supposed  before  that  the 
geisha  were  employed  for  their  beauty,  and  possibly  youth,  — 
I  found  that  she  was  one  of  the  most  famous  geisha  in  Tokyo. 
To  a  dinner  party  of  a  dozen  men,  officers  of  the  Government, 
perhaps  of  irreconcilable  political  views,  this  geisha,  by  her 
amiability  and  conversational  £kill  and  wit,  would,  within  a 
short  time,  bring  harmony,  good-nature,  and  a  freedom  of 


action  that  for  the  time  being  would  melt  the  crowd  into  a 
congenial  whole.  In  our  country  it  is  a  common  experience 
for  us  to  invite  some  young  lady  to  a  dinner  solely  for  the  pur- 
pose of  having  things  go  off  pleasantly,  but  we  do  not  pay 
her.  In  Japan  it  is  a  profession,  and  these  good-natured,  witty, 
and  sprightly  girls,  polite  and  gentle,  represent  a  large  class 
who  earn  their  living  by  entertaining  at  dinners  and  gatherings 
of  all  sorts,  and  they  are  certainly,  in  their  manners  and  accom- 
plishments, far  more  entertaining  than  the  usual  run  of  girls 
and  women  one  meets  outside  this  class.  These  girls  often 
marry  from  the  chance  acquaintances  made  on  these  occa- 
sions, and  it  may  be  said  with  truth  that  love  matches  are 
sometimes  made  during  these  festivities. 

In  using  an  arrow  to  pull  something  from  behind  my  bureau 
I  broke  it,  which  led  Mr.  Takenaka  to  inform  me  that  in  past 
times  the  Japanese  made  their  arrows  purposely  very  weak 
that  they  might  not  be  used  again  by  their  enemy. 

Mr.  Machida  came  in  a  jinrikisha  full  of  weapons:  long 
spears  and  various  warlike  implements;  fans  for  military  sig- 
naling; a  beautiful  bow  and  quiver  with  twelve  arrows;  all  the 
implements  used  by  fencers  in  practice,  sword  and  spear;  and 
these  he  gave  to  me  for  the  Peabody  Museum,  Salem.  The 
swords  he  is  going  to  bring  next  week.  I  am  having  many 
things  given  to  me  for  the  Peabody  Museum,  but  this  gift  of 
Machida's  is  by  far  the  most  important  accession. 

Yesterday  two  Koreans,  father  and  son,  whom  I  have  met 
several  times,  came  to  bid  me  good-bye,  as  the  father  is  soon 
to  return  to  Korea.  The  son  speaking  Japanese  we  got  along 
quite  well  until  I  tried  to  ask  the  father  if  he  had  anything 


Korean  of  no  particular  use  to  him  to  give  me  for  our  Museum. 
This  was  more  than  I  could  say  in  Japanese  and  after  floun- 
dering for  a  while  I  sent  out  for  a  Japanese  friend  to  inter- 
pret. He  said  he  would  see  if  there  were  any* articles  in  his 
room.  Last  night  eight  different  articles  were  given  to  me,  all 
Korean  and  all  of  interest. 

Japanese  farmers  eat  five  or  six  times  a  day,  principally 
rice,  radishes,  fish,  etc.  It  has  been  ascertained  by  actual 
measurement  (so  Takenaka,  who  is  a  medical  student,  in- 
forms me)  that  the  Japanese  stomach  is  larger  than  that  of 
foreigners;  this  may  have  been  caused  by  the  large  amount  of 
rice  they  consume.  It  is  amazing  to  see  in  the  country  little 
children  with  abdomens  roundly  distended  by  the  quantity  of 
rice  with  which  they  have  literally  stuffed  themselves. 

Mr.  Takamine,  Director  of  the  Female  Normal  School,  went 
with  me  to  the  Imado  District,  where  there  are  a  number  of 
potteries,  and  endeavored  to  get  some  information  about  the 
potters.  But  the  people  seemed  rather  stupid,  sluggish,  or  in- 
different, and  I  could  not  arouse  in  them  any  interest  in  the 
matter.  I  finally  left  with  the  conviction  that  the  blighting 
effects  of  some  rude  Englishman  must  have  been  responsible 
for  their  stupidity  or  aversion.  The  contrast  with  the  Kyoto 
potters  was  marked. 

Takamine  invited  me  to  dinner  at  his  house.  There  were  a 
number  at  dinner,  and  I  felt  as  much  at  home  on  my  knees  for 
an  hour  or  more  with  chopsticks  and  strange  food,  to  which  I 
have  become  accustomed,  as  I  do  at  home  sitting  in  a  chair 
using  a  knife  and  fork.  After  dinner  Mr.  Takamine  conducted 
us  to  the  tea-rooms,  where  were  all  the  utensils  for  cha-no-yu 


and  invited  me  to  make  ceremonial  tea,  which  I  did,  after  a 

Afterwards  Takamine  guided  me  to  the  Eta  district.  The 
Eta  were  formerly  looked  upon  as  unclean;  they  worked 
in  hides  and  leather,  carried  off  the  bodies  of  animals,  and 
were  in  a  general  way  the  scavengers  of  the  city.  No  one  was 
allowed  to  marry  into  the  class;  they  were  shunned  and  ab- 
horred, though  some  of  them  were  wealthy.  They  were  com- 
pelled to  live  apart  from  the  people  in  a  certain  district  and  no 
one  ever  went  through  their  region.  Now  all  legal  restrictions 
are  removed,  yet  the  Eta  live  by  themselves.  The  main  street 
has  a  peculiarly  deserted  appearance,  —  not  a  jinrikisha  is  to 
be  seen  and  hardly  any  shops ;  a  few  signs,  but  no  paper  signs 
or  lanterns  in  front  of  the  shops.  I  passed  five  places  where 
they  were  making  drums,  as  the  work  of  drum-making  in- 
volves the  handling  of  leather.  It  seemed  as  if  the  children 
looked  a  little  coarser,  but  there  was  no  humble  or  crushed 
appearance  in  the  people  such  as  I  had  expected  to  see.  Per- 
fect quietness  and  soberness  reigned.  The  children  were  spin- 
ning tops  and  running  about  as  in  other  places  but  a  certain 
serious  atmosphere  was  there  without  question. 

I  met  at  the  Normal  School  an  educated  Ainu  from  Sapporo 
in  Yezo.  He  has  a  typical  Ainu  face  and  is  able  to  converse 
fluently  in  Japanese.  I  asked  him  a  number  of  questions  about 
his  people.  He  said  the  Ainus  made  no  pottery,  and,  so  far  as 
he  knew,  they  never  had.  I  got  from  him  all  the  details  re- 
garding the  bow  and  arrow  and  how  the  hand  was  held  in 
drawing  the  bow.  The  Ainus  draw  the  arrow  with  the  thumb 
and  bent  forefinger.  It  will  be  interesting  to  ascertain  whether 

356  JAPAN   DAY  BY  DAY 

the  lowest  savages  have  this  simple  method  of  releasing  the 
arrow  and  if  the  higher  races  have  a  more  complex  method.1 
I  also  learned  that  the  Ainus  shoot  arrows  at  the  feet  of  a 
man  running  away. 

In  the  preparation  of  flax  in  Suo  an  enormous  cylinder  of 
wood,  made  like  a  barrel  and  tapering  above,  open  at  both 

ends,  is  filled  with  flax, 
and  this  is  placed  over  a 
kettle  of  water  fixed  in 
the  ground  and  fired  be- 
low; the  water  is  then 
boiled  for  some  time, 
the  steam  passing  up 
through  the  flax.  A  de- 
vice like  a  well-swreep 
lifts  the  cylinder  when 
the  flax  is  sufficiently 
steamed  (fig.  714). 

Ninagawa's  obsequies 
were  observed  to-day, 
and  I  was  invited  to  at- 
tend. As  he  died  of  cholera  no  public  funeral  was  allowed 
at  the  time,  and  now,  after  three  months,  the  obsequies  are 
held.  I  went  early  with  Takenaka  to  the  cemetery  beyond 
Uyeno,  and  while  waiting  for  the  procession,  sketched  a  few 

1  I  have  since  ascertained  that  the  low  savage  people  have  this  simple  method  as 
described.  See  Memoir  on  Ancient  and  Modern  Methods  of  Arrow  Release.  Essex 
Institute,  Bulletin,  Salem,  Massachusetts,  vol.  xvn  (1885).  The  last  edition  of  the 
Encyclopaedia  Britannica  gives  this  reference  as  follows:  "Archery  Ancient  and 
Modern,  by  E.  S.  Morse,  Worcester,  Mass.,  1792." 

Fig.  714 



gravestones,  and  then  watched  the  main  avenue  to  meet  the 
funeral  when  it  arrived.  Soon  it  came:  first,  twelve  men 
bearing  new,  white  lanterns  on  bamboo  poles;  the  men  were 
dressed  in  white  and  had  curiously  shaped 
ceremonial  black  hats  made  of  silk  (fig.  715); 
following  these  were  two  men  bearing  enor- 
mous bouquets  of  flowers;  then  a  long  affair 
borne  on  the  shoulders  of  six  men,  the  hearse, 
in  fact:  empty,  of  course,  but  representing 
the  remains  of  Ninagawa  (fig.  716).  Follow- 
ing this  came  the  mourners,  a  sister  of  Nina- 
gawa, his  nephew,  and  a  number  of  other  per- 
sons whom  I  did  not  know,  some  on  foot  and 
others  riding  in  jinrikishas.  I  had  often  seen 
these  funerals  on  the  street  and  had  supposed  they  were  genu- 
ine, but  many  of  them  are  simply  honorary  funerals.  The 
hearse  was  carried  into  a  large  building  open  on  all  sides,  but 
protected  by  a  white  curtain  that  fluttered  back  and  forth  in 

the  wind.   It  was  quite  cold, 


s  y  -J 






and  it  was  uncomfortable  to 
sit  there  bareheaded. 

Figure  717  is  a  hasty  sketch 
of  the  appearance  of  the  in- 
terior when  the  service  be- 
gan. The  hearse,  or  bier,  is 
seen  to  the  left  resting  on  two  supports;  masses  of  flowers  are 
in  stands  at  the  ends  of  the  bier;  then  come  two  lacquer 
tables,  one  lower  than  the  other,  and  resting  against  the 
larger  one  is  the  wooden  post  bearing  Ninagawa's  name. 

Fig.  716 


This  is  carried  in  the  procession  and  is  used  as  a  temporary 
gravestone.  The  tables  held  cups  and  objects  of  polished 
brass,  with  food  offerings  on  black  lacquer  stands,  six  can- 
dles burning  in  simple  wooden  candlesticks.  The  priests,  all 
shaven  and  shorn,  wearing  beautiful  brocade  robes,  marched 
in  and  took  positions  as  shown  in  the  sketch.  A  bench  on 
each  side  accommodated  the  chief  mourners.  I  sat  on  the 
right  next  to  a  high  priest  who  for  some  reason  did  not  join 

Fig.  717 

the  other  priests,  but  continued  to  mutter  a  prayer.  The 
kneeling  priests  opened  their  prayer-books,  which  they  placed 
on  the  floor  in  front  of  them,  but  never  looked  at  them.  A 
low,  humming  sound,  begun  by  the  head  priest,  was  taken 
up  gradually  by  the  rest.  The  sound,  though  apparently 
meaningless,  as  I  could  not  detect  a  single  articulate  word, 
was  not  without  interest.  It  sounded  like  a  dirge.  After 
the  humming  had  gone  on  for  a  while  one  of  the  priests  picked 
up  a  large  pair  of  cymbals  and  clanged  them  several  times. 
Then  the  other  priests  uttered  short  prayers,  rolling  their 


heads  in  their  hands,  terminating  with  a  short  whisk  or 
movement  of  the  head,  and  resuming  their  chant,  which 
seemed  interminable  in  the  cold  wind.  Then  the  head  priest 
(whose  head  is  accurately  depicted  in  the  sketch),  after  the 

©    ©    ©oe 







Fig.  718 



cymbals  had  been  clanged  again,  rose,  untied  a  large  fold  of 
paper,  and  in  a  pathetic,  or  funereal,  tone  read  a  brief  account 
of  Ninagawa  —  who  he  was,  what  he  did,  etc. 

At  this  point  Ninagawa's  sister  rose  and  stood  in  front  of 
the  table,  marked  "incense"  in  figure  718,  on  which  was  a 
receptacle  for  coals,  and  at  each  side  of  which  was  a  little  box 


of  incense.  She  first  clasped  her  hands  and  made  a  low  bow; 
then  out  of  the  left-hand  box  she  took  a  piece  of  incense  and 
put  it  on  the  coals,  again  bowed  low,  and  took  her  seat.  The 
nephew  followed  next,  going  through  the  same  movements;  and 
then,  to  my  surprise,  the  Japanese  sitting  next  to  me  nudged 
me  to  go  up,  but  I  whispered  to  him  in  what  Japanese  I  could 
command  to  go  first,  that  I  might  watch  him  intently.   He 

took  the  incense  from  the  right-hand 
box.  I  had  to  go  next  and  must  con- 
fess to  some  embarrassment,  as  in 
the  presence  of  eight  priests  I  had 
to  fold  my  hands,  make  a  low  bow, 
and  take  the  incense  from  the  right- 
hand  box. 

There  were  no  tears  or  other  evi- 
dences of  grief,  but  there  was  cer- 
tainly a  soberness,  even  solemnity, 
in  the  ceremony.  Fifty  or  sixty 
people  stood  near  the  building  and 
probably  wondered  at  the  novel  sight 
of  a  bare-headed  foreigner  in  long  ulster  among  the  mourn- 
ers. After  the  burning  of  the  incense  the  ceremony  ended. 
The  sister,  an  old  lady  of  sixty  or  more,  came  to  thank  me 
for  my  kindness  in  joining  the  mourners;  the  nephew  also 
thanked  me.  The  wife  does  not  go  to  the  cemetery  until  the 
day  following,  and  for  that  reason  Mrs.  Ninagawa  was  not 
present.  Figure  718  is  a  rough  diagram  of  the  affair  showing 
where  the  priests  and  mourners  sat. 
Figure  719  represents  a  Buddhistic  gravestone;  this  one  is 

Fig.  719 

Fig.  720 


an  old  style.  The  holes  in  the  rock  are  to  hold  flowers.  On 
the  Buddhistic  gravestone  the  spiritual  name  is  used,  a  name 
that  one  receives  after  death.  On  the  Shinto,  the  real  name 
of  the  deceased  is  engraved  with 
a  brief  account  of  his  life.  The 
Shinto  stone  shows  the  natural 
cleavage  of  the  rock  as  it  is  quar- 
ried. Figures  720,  721  represent 
Shinto  gravestones. 

The  Japanese  worship  their 
heroes  and  never  forget  to  deco- 
rate their  graves,  even  those  hundreds  of  years  old.    In  1338 
Yoshisada  was  killed  in  battle  while  fighting  to  restore  Go 
Daigo,  the  rightful  Mikado,  to  his  throne.    To  this  day  his 
grave  is  carefully  guarded  and  fresh  flowers  decorate  it.   A 
shrine  and  monument  were  erected  in  1875.    Other  burial- 
places  equally  old  are  cared  for  in  the  same  manner. 
After  the  funeral  I  hurried  to  Takamine's  house,  where  he 
had  invited  a  northern  archer  to  shoot  for 
me  that  I  might  sketch  the  attitude  of  the 
hand  in  drawing  the  arrow.   The  Chinese 
use  a  thumb-ring  to  engage  the  string  in 
pulling  the  bow.  The  Japanese  use  a  long- 
wristed  glove  with  two  or  three  fingers  and 
a   thumb,  the   thumb   greatly  thickened. 
There  is  a  groove  at  the  base  to  catch  the 
string,  and  a  strap  secures  the  glove  firmly 
about  the  wrist.  Figures  722,  723  represent  the  attitude  of 
the  hand  in  pulling  the  bow;  figure  724  shows  the  archer's 

Fig.  721 

Fig.  722 


glove.  The  release  is  somewhat  difficult  to  acquire,  but  it 
is  just  as  strong  as  that  of  our  people,  which  consists  in  pull- 
ing the  string  back  with  the 
tips  of  three  fingers. 

I  hunted  up  an  authority 
on  pottery  who  had  been  a 
high  official,  but  who  had 
lost  his  place  through  in- 
temperate habits  and  was  a 
bankrupt.  He  was  living  in 
an  obscure  house  with  evi- 
dences of  poverty,  and  his  condition  was  pathetic.  He  had  a 
big  boil  on  his  neck  and  a  severe  cough,  his  house  was  in  dis- 
order, and  the  futons  showed  that  he  had  been  lying  down,  but 
he  invited  me  in  without  hesitation  or  apology.  I  inquired 
about  various  pottery  authorities.  He  said  Mr.  Kohitsu  was  a 
good  one,  and  also  gave  me  a  letter  to  Mr.  Kashiwagi. 

Though  it  was  nearly  six  o'clock  and  dark,  I  hunted  the 
latter  up,  or  my  jinrikisha  man  did,  and  finally  found,  on  the 
corner  of  an  open  square,  three 
gloomy-looking  godowns,  or 
kura.  I  went  through  a  low 
opening  in  a  bamboo  fence,  fif- 
teen feet  high,  and  was  shown 
into  one  of  the  godowns  (fig. 
725).  Mr.  Kashiwagi  intro- 
duced me  to  three  men,  all 

antiquarians.    He  was  very  kind  and  showed  me  a  number 
of  interesting  things  which  I  immediately  sketched,  and  ha 

Fig.  723 


also  gave .  me  many  points  of  interest  regarding  a  number  of 
potteries  of  which  he  seemed  to  have  knowledge.  He  said 
the  idea  that  "Satsuma  floral  deco- 
rated" was  over  eighty  years'old  was 
absurd.  His  remarks  on  pottery  are 
recorded  in  my  pottery  notes.  He  has 
the  rarest  collection  of  old  Japanese 
coins,  ancient  pottery  a  thousand  and 
more  years  old,  rare  pictures,  and 
many  other  things.  Every  object  in 
the  room  was  old  and  rare.  The  hiba- 
chi  was  very  old ;  the  lower  half  was  of 
lacquer  inlaid  with  pearl,  the  motive 
of  decoration  being  horses'  bits! 

I  also  learned  some  new  points  regarding  house  matters. 
The  way  the  Japanese  convert  a  large,  cold,  barny  room  of  a 
fireproof  building  into  a  pleasant  place  to  live  in  is  shown  in  fig- 
ure 726.  A  square  framework  of  bamboo  is  erected  conform- 
ing in  shape  to  the  room,  but  smaller,  leaving  a  passageway  of 
three  and  a  half  feet  between  the  frame  and  the  sides  of  the 

Fig.  724 

Fig.  725 


room.  This  framework  is  covered  with  cloth,  slightly  glazed, 
and  as  it  is  smaller  one  can  walk  between  the  cloth  and  the  sides 
of  the  room.  He  showed  me  an  old  book  published  in  1700  in 
which  full  directions  were  given  for  constructing  this  frame 
and  hanging  the  cloth.  It  is  evidently  an  old  idea  and  showed 
that  these  fireproof  buildings  were  utilized  as  living-rooms. 

I  had  never  seen  the  device 
before,  though  I  have  been  in- 
side a  good  many  of  the  build- 
ings. In  summer  the  room 
must  be  very  cool  and  agree- 
able. The  walls  of  the  godown 
were  lined  with  bookcases  and 
cabinets  and  here  Mr.  Kashi- 
wagi's  books  and  treasures 
were  stowed  away.  The  cur- 
tain is  looped  up,  forming  an 
opening  into  which  he  would 
dive  for  some  object,  and  I 
could  follow  him  about  by  the 
light  of  the  candle  which  faintly 
glimmered  through  the  cloth. 
Some  time  ago,  Mr.  Masuda  told  me  of  an  antiquarian  he 
wanted  me  to  meet,  and  I  have  tried  to  make  an  appointment 
to  go  with  Mr.  Masuda  to  the  place.  Last  night  I  called  again 
on  Mr.  Kashiwagi,  but  he  had  not  returned.  After  waiting 
a  little  while  he  came  in,  accompanied  by  Mr.  Masuda,  who 
appeared  surprised  and  delighted  to  see  me  and  wondered  how 
I  had  found  the  place.  Seven  or  eight  antiquarians  were  there, 

Fig.  726 


and  it  was  delightful  to  talk  with  them  and  to  discuss  pottery 
and  other  precious  things  which  Mr.  Kashiwagi  brought  out. 
I  have  acquired  enough  Japanese  to  get  along  easily  in  dis- 
cussing pottery  and  antiquities  and  do  not  require  an  in- 
terpreter. The  appreciation  of  these  old  things  is  shown  by 
everybody,  and  scholars  meet  to  discuss  subjects  of  every  kind ; 
it  is  one  evidence  among  hundreds  of  others  of  their  long  and 
high  civilization. 

To-day  I  was  invited  to  dinner  by  Prince  Fushimi-no-Miya, 
at  the  Seiyoken,  at  Uyeno.  There  were  twenty-one  guests, 
nearly  all  governors  of  provinces.  I  met  there  the  Gover- 
nor of  Nagasaki,  who  was  so 
kind  to  me  when  I  dredged  at 
Nagasaki  some  years  ago.  I 
sat  at  the  right  hand  of  the 
Prince,  and  as  he  is  President 
of  the  Fish  Commission,  I  im- 
agine the  dinner  was  given  to 
me  in  return  for  a  lecture  I 
gave  before  his  commission 
some  months  ago. 

I  visited  Matsura  Takashiro,  an  antiquarian  of  some  note, 
who  received  me  very  kindly.  He  has  recently  published  a 
work  on  antiquities  in  two  folio  volumes  with  excellent  illus- 
trations of  rare  objects  in  his  collection.  I  had  an  introduction 
from  Mr.  Hattori,  Vice-Director  of  the  University.  The  serv- 
ant brought  out  a  number  of  boxes,  and  these  Mr.  Matsura 
unlocked  with  keys  from  a  large  bunch,  each  key  having  an 
ivory  tag.  While  he  was  unlocking  the  boxes  the  girl  brought 

Fig.  727 



three  stands  which  she  placed  in  the  tokonoma.  He  then  took 
out  long  strings  of  beads,  chiefly  magatama,  a  comma-shaped 
stone,  and  other  forms  composed  of  quartz,  jasper,  and  other 
minerals,  and  hung  these  on  the  stands  (fig.  727).  Many  of 
them  were  of  great  rarity,  most  of  them  from  Japan,  and  all 
dating  back  to  a  dim  historic  past.  They  were  all  dug  up 
from  burial  mounds  and  caves,  and  some  are  found  in  earthen 
jars.  The  magatama  extends  from  Loochiu  Islands  on  the 
south  to  northern  Japan.  Mr.  Matsura  had  never  heard  of  a 
^^^  magatama  being  found  in  Yezo,  or 
^3^  ^~\j  China,  but  other  kinds  of  stone  beads 
are  found  in  China.  He  has  the  larg- 
Fig  "28  es^  co^ection  of  these  objects  in  Ja- 

pan and  all  of  the  younger  Siebold's 
material  for  his  work  on  "Japanese  Antiquities"  was  drawn 
from  Matsura  Takashiro's  collection.  He  has  many  other 
heads  in  drawers,  of  which  I  sketched  a  few  (fig.  728). 

I  was  telling  Takenaka  about  our  boys  when  very  young 
playing  with  dolls  and  paper  soldiers.  He  told  me  that  the 
samurai  boys  were  never  allowed  to  play  with  dolls  or  such 
things;  their  bringing-up  was  intended  to  train  them  as  war- 
riors; they  were  to  keep  sober  when  others  laughed.  At  meals 
the  boys  rarely,  if  ever,  talk,  and  it  impresses  them  as  very 
odd  to  hear  foreigners  talk  so  incessantly  at  their  meals.  It 
is  difficult  for  them  to  understand  some  of  our  jokes,  and 
what  we  call  "chaff"  is  incomprehensible  to  them. 

Figure  729 1  is  taken  from  a  humble  house  that  I  passed  every 

1  I  cannot  resist  reproducing  the  original  sketch,  a  drawing  of  which  appeared 
in  Japanese  Homes,  as  most  characteristic  of  Japanese  taste. 


day  on  my  way  to  the  University.  The  occupant  had  some 
pottery  he  wished  to  show  me,  and  while  he  was  taking  the 
pieces  from  the  boxes  I  made  the  sketch.  The  interesting  way 
in  which  a  large  fragment  of  an  old  shipwreck  is  worked  into 
the  general  effect  is  unique.  The  rich,  gray  color  of  the  wood 

Fig.  729 


with  warm,  red  stains  of  iron  rust,  the  little  holes  bored  by 
Teredos,  and  the  appearances  of  age  are  all  features  which  the 
Japanese  admire.  The  door  of  the  latrine  is  just  beyond  and 
this  ship  fragment  takes  the  place  of  the  sode-gaki.  I  have 
often  observed  a  peculiar  fence  which  projects  from  the  ver- 
anda, or  from  the  side  of  a  house,  never  more  than  four  or  five 
feet.  It  hides  some  objectionable  features  from  the  veranda, 
and  we  might  adopt  it  with  advantage.  It  is  called  sode-gaki. 
Kaki  means  "fence"  and  is  changed  to  gaki  for  euphony; 
sode means  "sleeve,"  it  being  shaped  like  the  sleeve  of  a  Japa- 
nese dress.1 

One  often  notices  along  the  streets  women  engaged  in 
smoothing  strips  of  cloth  on  long,  narrow  boards  that  lean 
against  the  house  or  fence.  The  surface  of  the  board  is  very 
smooth.  It  is  first  rubbed  with  a  seaweed  that  is  sold  for 
the  purpose.  Wet  with  water  it  gives  out  a  gelatinous  sub- 
stance. The  wet  cloth  is  smoothed  down  on  this  board  and 
placed  in  the  sun  to  dry.  When  the  cloth  is  pulled  from  the 
board,  it  is  smooth  as  if  it  had  been  ironed  and  stiffened  as  if  it 
had  been  starched.  A  similar  idea  is  resorted  to  in  our  coun- 
try when  a  wet  handkerchief  is  smoothed  down  on  a  window 
pane.  A  device  is  seen  in  the  form  of  a  metal  pan  with  handle 
and  polished  bottom.  This  is  filled  with  burning  charcoal  and 
used  as  we  use  a  flatiron.  In  drying  cloth  after  dyeing,  little 
strips  of  bamboo  sharpened  at  the  ends  with  shoulders  are 
used  to  stretch  the  cloth  apart,  the  cloth  being  suspended  from 
two  poles.  A  great  many  are  used  on  a  single  piece  of  cloth. 

1  I  have  Japanese  books  giving  many  of  these  sleeve-fences,  and  in  Japanese 
Homes  I  have  figured  a  number  of  them  drawn  from  the  gardens  here. 


The  other  night  I  took  two  little  girls,  children  of  the  ser- 
vants about  the  yashiki,  to  walk  along  the  Hongo  where  a 
fair  or  matsuri  was  going  on.  I  gave  them  each  ten  cents  in 
coppers  to  spend,  and  I  was  interested  to  see  how  they  would 
invest  the  money.  It  was  like  giving  a  child  in  similar  cir- 
cumstances in  our  country  a  dollar  in  change.  The  children 
stopped  at  every  booth  where  hairpins  were  displayed,  and 
though  buying  only  one  or  two  at  half  a  cent  apiece,  neverthe- 
less, examined  every  one.  We  passed  a  poor  woman  sitting  on 
the  ground  dolefully  playing  a  samisen,  a  beggar,  in  fact,  and 
each  of  the  children  without  a  hint  from  me  dropped  a  cent 
into  her  basket. 

Miyaoka  spent  the  night  with  me,  and  among  other  things 
told  me  that  in  past  times,  and  even  at  present  among  the 
superstitious,  it  is  believed  that  when  a  person  sleeps  the 
spirit  roams  away.  It  was  therefore  customary  to  give  a  child 
a  drink  of  water  before  going  to  bed,  whether  thirsty  or  not, 
to  prevent  the  child's  spirit  from  being  thirsty  and  drinking 
stagnant  water  while  on  its  wanderings. 

I  inquired  of  Miyaoka  about  his  personal  expenses.  He 
said  his  board,  including  charcoal  and  oil,  amounted  to  five 
dollars  and  fifty  cents  a  month.  It  is  true  he  gets  only  rice, 
vegetables,  and  fish,  but  how  low  compared  to  our  prices!  Mr. 
Takamine  told  me  that  many  of  the  servants  about  the  Normal 
School,  men  who  had  families,  work  on  a  wage  of  fifteen  cents 
a  day. 

Coming  out  of  the  college  yard  the  other  day  with  Pro- 
fessor Mitsukuri,  one  of  the  attendants  bowed  to  us  as  he 
passed,  and  my  friend  remarked  that  the  man,  before  the 


Revolution  of  1868,  ranked  higher  than  a  samurai  and  just 
below  a  daimyo.  The  Restoration  left  him  utterly  incompe- 
tent to  earn  a  living  and  he  was  capable  of  filling  only  a  serv- 
ant's place.  The  Professor  said  it  was  a  good  illustration 
of  the  absurd  conditions  of  some  features  of  feudalism,  at  the 
same  time  showing  the  patient  manner  in  which  these  men 
often  assume  menial  positions  with  resignation  and  humility 
and  are  willing  to  work  rather  than  to  beg  or  borrow.  I  was  told 
that  samurai  had  become  jinrikisha  men;  it  is  true  they  were 
not  high  samurai,  but  the  fact  that  they  work  indicates  an 
absence  of  the  false  pride  so  common  with  our  race.  The 
man  who  looks  after  my  laboratory  has  a  salary  of  twenty-five 
cents  a  day,  and  on  this  he  supports  a  wife  and  a  daughter 
who  is  taking  music  lessons. 

Yesterday  I  went  through  a  street  from  which  ran  little 
alleyways,  not  over  five  feet  wide,  lined  with  dwelling-houses. 
It  looked  squalid  to  me,  and  Mitsukuri  told  me  that  it  was  the 
lowest  and  poorest  quarter  of  the  city.  I  went  slowly  along 
and  examined  each  alley  in  turn.  I  heard  no  loud  cries  or 
shouting,  saw  no  blear-eyed  drunkards  or  particularly  dirty 
children,  and  for  a  hundred  children  picked  at  random  from 
what  might  be  called  slums,  though  slums  they  were  not,  I 
would  venture  that  they  were  more  polite  and  graceful  in 
manner,  less  selfish,  more  considerate  for  the  feeling  of  others 
than  a  hundred  children  picked  at  random  from  upper  Fifth 
Avenue,  New  York. 

During  my  life  in  Japan  I  saw  but  one  street  fight,  and  this 
was  so  remarkable  in  its  performance  and  surroundings  that 
as  usual  I  compared  the  action  with  similar  experiences  at 


home.  To  describe  our  street  fight  would  be  unnecessary, 
as  all  know  that  from  the  smallest  boy  to  the  old  man  a  crowd 
instantly  gathers,  forms  a  ring,  and  watches  the  combat  with 
excited  interest,  admiring  the  punches  and  regretfully  de- 
parting when  the  battle  is  finished  or  the  police  interfere.  In 
the  Japanese  affair  the  men  were  simply  pulling  hair !  I  was 
the  only  one  who  watched.  Every  one  else  showed  disgust  or 
horror  at  such  a  breach  of  good  manners,  and  a  wide  berth  was 
given  the  fighters,  people  actually  turning  aside  in  passing. 

In  cities  the  houses  are  generally  tiled,  though  there  are 
many  shingled  roofs;  in  the  immediate  suburbs  many  thatched 
roofs  are  seen.  Vast  conflagrations  occur  in  Tokyo  on  account 
of  the  inflammable  character  of  the  roofs,  the  shingles  being 
hardly  thicker  than  playing-cards  and  the  thatched  roof  as 
sensitive  to  a  cinder  as  gunpowder. 

I  have  made  many  visits  to  Mr.  Kashiwagi's,  and  to-day 
Dr.  Bigelow  went  with  me.  He  became  greatly  interested  in 
the  old  lacquer  boxes  in  the  collection.  For  the  first  time  I 
went  up  to  the  second  story  of  the  godown;  it  was  literally 
crammed  with  boxes,  cabinets,  and  various  objects,  all  an- 
tique. Mr.  Kashiwagi  is  one  of  the  pleasantest  men  I  have 
met  in  Japan.  He  is  not  afraid  to  say  he  does  n't  know  when 
some  questions  are  asked  of  him,  and  does  not  approve  of 
Ninagawa's  method  of  trying  to  tell  the  exact  age  of  an  ob- 
ject. Mr.  Kashiwagi  is  full  of  antiquarian  lore,  and  he  gave 
me  the  other  day  the  most  rational  explanation  of  the  two 
brocade  bands  that  hang  down  from  the  upper  part  of  a 
kakemono.  In  former  times  the  pictures  were  of  a  religious 
character,  and  when  hung  were  supported  on  frames,  long 


bands  trailing  down  behind,  and  short  ones  in  front;  and  when 
the  picture  was  rolled  up  it  was  tied  by  these  bands.  The 
open  character  of  the  temples,  with  the  wind  blowing 
through,  compelled  the  rolling-up  of  the  pictures 
without  removing  them  from  the  frames.  Nowa- 
days, when  the  kakemono  is  rolled  up,  it  is  taken 
down  and  packed  away  in  a  box.  In  old  books  he 
showed  me  illustrations  in  which  curtains  were 
w*%  looped  up  by  similar  bands.  The  longer  bands  have 
disappeared,  but  the  shorter  ones  in  front  have  sur- 
vived like  the  buttons  on  the  back  of  one's  coat.  As 
a  proof  of  the  correctness  of  this  explanation,  the 
name  of  these  bands  is  futai  or  kazeobi,  the  latter 
meaning  "wind  band." 

I  noticed  the  children  playing  with  great  anima- 
tion a  game  with  their  hands,  in  which,  at  the  end 
of  the  doggerel  they  were  shouting,  they  clapped 
Fig.  730    tneir  hands  three  times  and  then  gave  the  gesture 
for  "judge,"  "fox,"  or  "hunter."   I  asked  them  to 
recite  the  words  slowly  and  took  them  down,  with  sketches  of 
the  various  attitudes  of  the  hand.  The  words  as  near  as  I  could 
get  them  were  as  follows: — 
Ikken  ki  na  sei  (play  once) 
Cho  bisuke  san  (Mr.  Small,  meaning  little  finger) 
Janome  no  karakasa  (eye  of  dragon  umbrella) 
San  gai  e  de  (third  story  of  house) 
Shichi  ku  deppo  go  sai  na  (?) 
Mu  teppo  de  (without  gun) 
Yoi!  ya!  na!  (?) 


Figure  730  is  a  rude  sketch  of  the  attitudes  of  the  hand  in 
the  recital. 

I  give  sketches  of  Yezo  and  Saghalien  tobacco  pipes,  as 
given  to  me  by  Matsura  Takashiro,  who  made  rough  sketches 
of  them  which  I  accurately  copied.  The  Korean  pipe  has  a 
larger  bowl  than  the  Japanese  or  Ainu  pipe,  but  otherwise  is 
much  the  same  in  form.  It  is  interesting  to  look  over  old 

Fig.  731 

Japanese  prints,  three  hundred  years  old,  and  notice  the  ab- 
sence of  pipes,  an  object  so  universally  used  by  the  Japanese, 
and  appearing  repeatedly  in  picture  prints  since  that  time. 
(Fig.  731.  A,  Early  Japanese  pipe  made  of  iron;  B,  C,  Ainu 
pipes  ;  D,  Manchurian  ;  E,  Saghalien.) 

To-day  (Sunday,  December  16)  I  went,  by  invitation  of 
Professor  Yatabe,  to  a  large  one-hundred-mat  hall  beyond  the 
river  to  listen  to  Japanese  music,  story-telling,  etc.  A  club 
having  about  eighty  members  was  formed  last  March,  and  is 
intended  to  bring  together  for  the  first  time  ladies  and  gentle- 
men at  social  meetings.  When  I  went  in  and  took  my  seat 


on  a  mat,  I  received  about  thirty  bows  from  as  many  differ- 
ent people  whom  I  knew.  Many  of  my  Japanese  friends  are 
members  of  the  club,  among  them  Mrs.  Takamine,  young 
Mrs.  Takamine,  Mrs.  Kikuchi,  Professor  Kikuchi's  little  sis- 
ter, Professors  Hattori,  Toyama,  Koizumi,  Matsubara,  and  Mi- 
tsukuri.  Each  member  has  the  privilege  of  inviting  one  guest, 
and  the  result  was  the  bringing  together  of  over  a  hundred 
pleasant  and  delightful  people:  bright,  cultivated  men  and 

women  and  a  few  lovely 
children.  The  hall  was  a 
great  airy  room  with  the 
audience  sitting  on  the 
mats,  drinking  tea  and 
smoking.  At  one  end  of 
the  hall  was  a  slightly 
raised  platform,  or  rather 
a  long,  low  table,  covered  with  a  red  cloth,  on  which  the  per- 
formers were  to  sit.  First  came  music  —  two  kotos,  a  sami- 
sen,  and  a  flute-like  instrument;  after  this  a  story-teller, 
and  though  I  could  catch  only  a  word  here  and  there  it 
was  interesting  to  watch  his  various  gestures  as  he  por- 
trayed the  different  characters  in  his  story;  the  embarrassed 
fellow  twisting  his  fingers  together;  the  expressions  of  a 
countryman  and  the  unceasing  and  rattling  jabber  of  an  old 
woman  were  all  perfectly  rendered  and  made  everybody  laugh. 
So  strongly  and  promptly  marked  were  the  imitations  of  the 
different  voices  that  with  the  eyes  closed  one  would  think  that 
there  were  three  distinct  people  talking.  One  often  passes  in 
some  open  lot  a  big  tent  from  which  issue  the  sounds  appar- 

Fig.  732 


ently  of  a  number  of  people  disputing.  Looking  in,  you  see  a 
story-teller  with  a  rapt  audience  about  him  hanging  onto  every 
word  and  at  times  bursting  into  surprised  laughter.  Women 
and  girls  are  never  seen  in  these  places,  where  it  is  considered 
improper  for  them  to  go;  just  as  in  our  country  one  never,  or 
rarely,  sees  a  woman  in  the  crowd  that  surrounds  an  oratori- 
cal street  peddler.  After  this  came  a  peculiar  kind  of  story,  — 
a  very  common  form  in  Japan,  —  in  which  the  story-teller 
partly  recites  and  partly  sings  his  story,  accompanied  by  an- 
other performer  who  plays  the  samisen,  keeping  up  an  extra- 
ordinary vocal  accom- 
paniment with  curious 
guttural  sounds,  short 
notes,  high  squeaks,  even 
sobbing  sounds  and  as-  >*, . 

tonishing    ejaculations,  p      733 

appropriate  to  the  parts 

depicted  in  the  story.  Strange  as  it  may  seem,  people  are 
affected  to  tears  by  pathetic  recitals  in  this  style.  When  one 
hears  this  form  of  story-telling  it  impresses  one  as  highly 
absurd;  becoming  accustomed  to  it  one  can  somewhat  un- 
derstand the  reason  for  the  vocal  accompaniment  in  express- 
ing emotions  of  pain,  anger,  despair,  etc.,  but  it  is  entirely 
beyond  description.  The  samisen,  too,  is  made  to  form  an 
important  auxiliary,  for  all  kinds  of  sounds  are  evoked  from 
it  —  crescendo,  sobs,  abrupt  notes  and  weird  notes  —  by 
running  the  fingers  up  and  down  the  string  while  vibrating  it 
(fig.  732).  It  was  interesting  and  delightful  to  see  this  cour- 
teous and  cultivated  audience  so  gentle,  quiet,  and  apprecia- 

Fig.  734 


live,  as  they  came  in  one  after  another,  kneeling  on  the  mats 
and  bowing  here  and  there. 

In  an  old  makimono,  nearly  six  hundred  years  old,  with 
a  panoramic  picture  of  the  erection  of  a  temple,  the  dishes 

designed  for  food  are  of  lacquer,  and 
this  explains  why  so  little  progress  was 
made  in  the  fictile  art  in  the  early 
days.  Only  the  very  poorest  people 
used  pottery  in  those  days.  Unglazed 
and  lathe-turned,  as  well  as  hand-manipulated,  pottery  was 
used  for  vessels  of  offering  in  burial-places. 

I  was  in  search  of  samples  of  Ainu  cloth,  or  clothing,  and 
was  directed  to  a  place  beyond  Eitaibashi.  After  a  long  hunt 
and  a  number  of  inquiries,  I  found  a  house  where  the  people 
showed  me  an  Ainu  apron  and  other  objects.  When  I  asked 
the  price,  they  insisted  upon  giving  them  to  me.  When  I  told 
them  the  objects  were  for  the  Peabody  Museum,  it  made  no 
difference.  They  told  me  that  if  I  would  come  down  on  the  19th 
of  December,  they  would  have  other  Ainu  objects  to  show  me. 
So  to-day  I  went  there  again,  and  they  brought  out  an  Ainu 

Fig.  735 

garment,  leggings,  needle-case,  and  another  apron.  Again  I 
attempted  to  buy  the  objects,  offering  them  ten  dollars,  the 
coat  always  being  expensive,  but  again  they  positively  refused 


to  sell,  and  made  me  take  them  as  a  gift  to  the  Peabody  Mu- 
seum. I  gave  them  some  trifling  presents,  and  I  have  invited 
them  on  Sunday  to  go  to  the  University  Museum  and  to  my 
snug  quarters,  where  I  shall  give  them  tea  and  sake.  These 
persons  were  absolute  strangers  to  me,  and  this  illustrates 
again  the  generous  nature  of  the  people.  There  was  a  model 
of  an  Ainu  anchor  (fig.  733) ;  a  genuine  boat-bailer  (fig.  734) ; 
an  Ainu  scoop  net,  with  handle  fifteen  feet  long  (fig.  735)  —a 

Fig.  736 

very  heavy  and  clumsy  affair;  and  a  model  of  an 
Ainu  fishing  boat  (fig.  736)  —  all  for  the  Educa- 
tional Museum,  Uyeno  Park.  The  boat  was 
curious  in  that  the  pieces  were  fastened  together  with  cords 
and  not  with  wooden  pins.  The  boat  differs  greatly  from  the 
boats  I  saw  at  Hakodate  and  Otarunai,  these  being  modeled 
after  Japanese  forms.  Figure  737  represents  the  basket  in 
which  the  Ainu  carries  the  fish  from  the  boat  to  the  packing- 
house. It  is  simply  a  rude  basket  fastened  to  a  board,  which 
in  turn  is  strapped  to  the  back  of  the  fisherman.  A  pair  of 
Ainu  boots  made  from  the  skin  of  a  salmon  (fig.  738)  was 
given  to  me;  the  leg  is  very  large,  making  the  foot  appear  very 
short.  I  was  told  that  the  leg  and  foot  were  stuffed  with 
straw  to  keep  the  feet  warm.  These  boots  are  used  by  the 
Ainu  on  the  Ishikari  River. 

Fig.  737 


The  Female  Normal  School,  of  which  Mr.  Takamine  is 
Director,  was  burned  and  with  it  the  beautiful  hall  near  the 
old  Chinese  college.     The  latter  building  was  fortunately 

saved.  The  conflagration  was  intense 
in  its  heat  and  the  firemen  were  help- 
less in  getting  near  enough  to  do  any 
good.  There  is  no  limit  to  the  courage 
displayed  by  the  firemen,  but  courage 
counts  for  nothing  without  proper 
weapons  to  fight  with.  Figure  739  is 
a  hasty  sketch  made  at  the  fire. 
The  contents  of  a  godown  often  resemble  those  of  a  garret 
or  shed  —  old  chests,  baskets,  corn  drying,  and  the  rejecta- 
menta of  a  house,  saved  by  the  spirit  of  frugality  in  the  hopes 
that  sometime  they  may  be  useful. 
In  case  of  fire  the  contents  of  a 
house,  which  after  all  amount  at 
most  to  but  a  few  objects,  are 
hurried  into  the  godown.  As  there 
are  no  bedsteads,  chairs,  or  lounges 
and  but  few  books,  and  as  the  valu- 
able pictures  and  bric-a-brac  are 
kept  permanently  in  the  godown, 
this  is  soon  accomplished,  the  doors 
are  closed  and  hermetically  sealed 
with  mud,  which  is  always  on  hand 
in  tubs,  and  sometimes,  as  in  busi- 
ness streets,  in  front  of  the  shop  below  the  ground,  access 
being  had  to  it  by  a  little  trap  door. 

Fig.  738 

A  RECEPTION  AT  A  TEA-HOUSE         379 

I  called  on  one  of  my  special  students,  Mr.  Sasaki.  He  has 
been  married  a  few  months,  but  I  never  knew  of  it  till  to-day. 
It  seems  to  be  an  event  that  the  Japanese  never  talk  about, 

Fig.  739 

and  when  one  is  married  it  is  always  a  matter  of  surprise. 
Two  days  ago  I  was  invited  by  Mr.  Mitsukuri  to  meet  his  wife 
with  other  friends  at  a  tea-house.  I  am  now  so  accustomed 
to  Japanese  life  that  it  is  becoming  hard  to  realize  how  differ- 
ent it  is  from  ours.  At  the  tea-house  was  a  large,  spacious 


room,  absolutely  devoid  of  furniture  except  for  a  row  of  square 
boxes  in  a  line  on  each  side  and  at  the  end  of  the  room;  in  the 
boxes  charcoal  was  burning  in  the  ashes,  and  at  each  box  was 
a  soft,  square  cushion  upon  which  one  kneels.  As  I  entered 
the  room,  where  many  had  assembled  with  Mrs.  Mitsukuri 
at  the  left  of  the  entrance,  down  I  went  on  my  knees  with 
hands  in  front  and  head  touching  the  mat;  it  seemed  per- 
fectly natural  for  me  to  do  so,  and  she  did  the  same.  As  each 
one  arrived  his  name  was  announced,  and  each  one  bowed  to 
the  bride.  I  knew  nearly  every  one,  and  I  noticed,  as  in  many 
of  these  gatherings,  that  I  was  the  only  foreigner  present. 
Food  was  brought  in  on  trays;  geisha  and  little  girls  passed  the 
trays,  poured  sake,  danced,  sang,  and  made  everything  joyous. 
When  we  came  away  the  untouched  portions  of  our  food  were 
given  us  in  the  neatest  of  boxes  to  take  home. 



Last  Sunday  (December  24)  Dr.  Bigelow  and  I  were  in- 
vited by  Prince  Kuroda  to  his  place  in  the  suburbs  of  Tokyo 
to  see  the  method  of  falconry.  We  reached  the  house  at  half- 
past  eight,  and  immediately  went  to  the  hunting-lodge,  — 
for  so  it  might  be  called,  —  an  open,  shed-like  affair  sheltered 
from  the  north  wind  and  open  to  the  sun,  with  a  big  square  hole 
in  the  middle  of  the  floor,  filled  with  burning  charcoal,  where 
one  could  warm  the  hands  and  feet.  There  were  tables  and 
chairs,  cigars,  tea,  and  cake.  An  electric  bell  connected  it  with 
the  duck  ranges  in  the  vicinity.  Another  room  was  occupied 
by  the  servants,  the  hawkers  living  outside.  On  a  long  rest 
were  a  number  of  curiously  shaped  nets  on  long  poles,  and  at 
one  side  a  small  building  with  several  compartments  in  which 
were  kept  the  hawks. 

After  we  had  been  waiting  at  the  lodge  a  little  while,  the 
bell  sounded,  and  we  were  told  to  start  for  the  ranges.  A 
hawker  came  after  us  supporting  on  his  left  hand  a  handsome, 
slender-looking  falcon.  The  bird  showed  no  signs  of  fear  and 
stood  very  erect  and  expectant,  with  brilliant  yellow  and  black- 
pupiled  eyes.  The  grounds  upon  which  we  entered  were 
cut  up  into  narrow  passageways  bordered  by  high  embank- 
ments upon  which  grew  dense  masses  of  bamboo.  We  entered 
a  long,  open  place  bordered  on  one  side  by  bamboo  groves, 


and  on  the  other  side  by  a  series  of  openings  between  the  em- 
bankments with  the  similar  crests  of  bamboo.  These  bamboo 
groves  and  fringes  were  intended  to  shield  one  from  the 
wild  ducks  which  might  take  alarm,  though  wild  birds  are  so 
tame  in  Japan  that  there  seemed  hardly  need  of  screens  of 
any  sort. 

First,  however,  it  is  necessary  to  describe  the  main  pond 
and  the  canals  that  lead  from  it,  into  which  the  wild  ducks  are 

AUn*.**-  ?onvcL 


Fig.  740 

decoyed  and  from  which  they  fly  and  are  caught  by  the  oddly 
framed  nets  or  by  the  hawk,  as  the  case  may  be.  A  pond  of 
some  size  is  selected,  or  artificially  made,  into  which  the 
ducks  are  sure  to  alight.  This  is  surrounded  on  all  sides  by 
thick  groves  of  bamboo,  and  no  one  is  allowed  to  approach 
the  place  except  by  a  narrow  path  that  leads  to  a  little  hut 
big  enough  for  two  only.  In  this  hut  are  two  little  openings 


from  which  you  get  a  view  of  the  pond.  It  was  an  interesting 
sight  to  catch  a  glimpse  of  the  placid  water  closely  framed  in 
the  dense  bamboo,  the  sun  shining  brightly  down  on  the  backs 
of  hundreds  of  little  fat  ducks,  some  swimming  about,  others 
resting  on  a  thin  film  of  ice  in  shadow,  and  on  a  little  island 
in  the  middle  of  the  pond  a  large  heron  stood  on  one  leg,  tran- 
quil in  its  security.  Here  and  there  on  the  edges  of  the  pond 
you  could  see  by  the  darker  shadows  where  the  canals  were 

into  which  the  ducks  were  to  be  decoyed.  Figure  740  shows 
the  pond,  the  lookout,  and  the  three  canals  which  run  from  the 
pond,  and  figure  741  shows  a  section  of  the  canals.  These 
canals  are  three  feet  or  more  in  width  and  four  or  five  feet  deep, 
the  edges  of  the  canal  being  raised  in  a  slight  embankment 
a  foot  and  a  half  high,  then  an  open  space  fifteen  feet  wide, 
then  a  high  embankment  as  shown  in  section.  This  high  em- 
bankment has  a  dense  fringe  of  bamboo.  In  the  canals  are  kept 
tame  ducks  which  do  not  fly  or  show  any  fear  of  the  falcon; 
these  ducks  are  frequently  fed,  so  that  they  will  not  go 
out  to  the  main  pond.  The  wild  ducks,  however,  come  into 
the  canals,  and  through  a  minute  hole  in  the  lookout  at  the 
end  of  the  canal  one  can  see  whether  any  wild  ducks  have 
come  in. 

The  fact  that  the  game  is  there  being  announced,  you  pass 
along  on  tiptoe  to  the  open  space  at  the  side  of  the  canal. 
The  hawker  approaches  the  little  embankment  where  the 


wild  duck  is  supposed  to  be,  and  another  man  goes  to  the  end 
of  the  canal  near  the  pond  and  by  waving  the  hand  startles 
the  wild  duck,  which  flies  up.  As  the  duck  appears  above  the 
low  embankment  the  hawker  throws  the  falcon  at  him,  and 
away  they  go.  The  falcon  invariably  overtakes  the  duck,  and 
tackling  it  by  the  head  brings  it  to  the  ground,  where  it  rests 
with  its  wings  outstretched  till  the  hawker  comes  and  takes 
up  the  duck  carefully,  interlocks  the  wings  behind 
its  back,  and  then,  by  a  dexterous  thrust  of  the 
thumb,  actually  takes  out  the  bird's  heart.  Suck- 
ing some  of  the  blood,  he  feeds  the  hawk  with  a 
small  bit  of  the  heart  so  that  it  will  be  hungry  for 
the  next  duck.  If  there  are  a  number  of  wild 
ducks  in  the  canal,  then  other  men  stand  near 
the  edge,  with  nets  ready  to  catch  the  ducks  as 
they  rise. 

It  was  a  stirring  sight  to  see  a  number  of  men  flourish- 
ing the  long-handled  nets  as  the  ducks  rose  in  the  air,  and 
at  the  same  instant  the  two  falcons  were  thrown,  each  pur- 
suing a  duck  that  got  beyond  and  above  the  nets. 

Figure  742  is  the  form  of  net  used,  and  figure  743  represents 
the  attitude  of  the  hawkers.  Skill  is  required  to  throw  the 
falcon  properly  with  a  long  sweep  of  the  arm,  the  speed  in- 
creasing as  the  bird  leaves  the  hand.  If  the  throw  is  too  rapid, 
it  pushes  the  bird  off  his  wing,  so  to  speak,  just  as  if  one  were 
to  push  a  boy  who  was  running  a  race:  if  the  push  were  too 
violent  the  boy  would  be  thrown  off  his  feet. 

The  method  of  catching  and  training  the  falcon  is  inter- 
esting.  The  bird  is  caught  by  means  of  a  sparrow  which  is 

Fig.  742 



imprisoned  in  a  long,  tubular  net,  larger  in  the  centre  and 
kept  distended  by  hoops.  This  is  held  to  the  ground,  tied  to 
pegs  at  the  ends,  as  shown  in  figure  744.  Transverse  to  the 
tubular  net  is  hung  on  poles  a  large  net  of  the  finest  cord  with 
wide  meshes.  This  is  about  six  feet  in  height  and  eight  or  ten 
feet  in  width,  and  is  hung  in  such  a  way  that  it  is  easily 
released  from  the  slender  bamboo  pole  above  and  the  split 

Fig.  743 

bamboo  on  the  ground  (fig.  745).  To  catch  the  sparrow  the 
hawker  watches  for  a  flight  of  sparrows  over  his  head,  then 
with  a  whistle  makes  a  sound  like  a  falcon;  the  sparrows  take 
alarm,  immediately  dive  to  the  ground,  and  with  a  flourish 
of  the  net  the  hawker  is  sure  to  secure  a  number.  One  of  these 
is  imprisoned  in  the  tubular  net  and  used  as  a  bait.  A  wild 
falcon,  as  he  passes  over  the  net,  spies  the  sparrow  in  the 
tubular  net  and  makes  a  dive  for  it;  the  sparrow  flies  to  the 
other  end  of  the  net,  the  falcon  pursues  it,  and  dashing  into 

Fig.  744 


the  vertical  net,  is  immediately  entangled  in  it.  The  hawker 
illustrated  to  me  the  working  of  the  net  by  throwing  a  big  ball 

of  twine  at  the  net, 
which  instantly  became 
released  from  the  four 
corners  and  the  ball  was 
enfolded  in  it.  The  fal- 
con having  been  caught 
is  kept  in  a  dark  room 
without  food  or  drink — 
literally,  almost  starved 
to  death,  and  becomes 
so  weak  and  helpless  that  it  can  be  handled.  The  hawker 
goes  into  the  room  with  his  face  covered  with  a  cloth  and 
holds  the  falcon  on  his 
hand  for  an  hour,  and 
then  feeds  him  on  a  lit- 
tle sparrow  meat.  This 
he  repeats  every  day  for 
some  time.  Finally,  he 
takes  the  cloth  from  his 
face  when  he  goes  in; 
gradually  a  little  light 
is  let  into  the  room,  and 
the  light  is  increased 
from  day  to  day  until 
the  falcon  becomes  per- 
fectly docile,  and,  knowing  his  keeper,  is  able  to  stand  the 
full  light  of  day  and  can  be  safely  held  by  anybody.   He  never 

Fig.  745 



attempts  to  escape,  comes  to  the  keeper,  alights  on  his  hand 
when  he  gives  the  signal,  which  is  given  by  drumming  on  a 
box,  and  is  altogether  a  rational  and  well-behaved  bird.  This 
work  is  accomplished  in  from  thirty  to  forty  days.  One  of 
the  falcons  used  was  a  wild  bird  a  little  over  a  month  ago. 
This  ground,  fitted  for  a  falconry,  had  been  in  use  for  this 
purpose  for  over  two  hundred  years.  Figure  746  shows  the 

Fig.  746 

little  shelter  and  lookout  at  the  head  of  one  of  the  canals. 
The  man  is  pouring  seeds  into  a  little  funnel  and  watching 
through  the  hole  at  the  same  time.  A  few  wooden  decoy 
ducks  were  floating  in  the  water,  with  the  other  ducks,  but 
so  perfect  was  the  imitation  that  it  was  with  the  utmost  diffi- 
culty that  they  could  be  distinguished. 

Foreigners  wonder  why  the  Japanese  object  to  their  going 
about  the  country  banging  away  at  the  birds.  The  banging 
of  the  guns  frightens  the  birds  away  from  the  ponds  over  large 


regions.  With  hawking  and  netting  as  above  described  the 
hunting  may  go  on  indefinitely. 

It  impressed  me  as  a  cruel  sport,  though  the  ducks  are 
secured  for  the  table.  The  quiet,  unexcited  way  in  which 
everything  was  done  showed  how  often  this  diversion  was 

We  were  greatly  entertained  by  this  ancient  sport,  seen  for 

^^SL1  II  n0f 

Fig.  747 

the  first  time,  and  the  Doctor  vowed  that  when  he  got  home 
he  would  establish  it. 

A  kite  shop  in  the  height  of  the  season  is  a  curious  and  novel 
sight  —  a  little  shop  entirely  open  in  front  with  a  quaint  sign 
in  the  shape  of  a  large  cuttlefish  made  of  framework  covered 
with  cloth,  the  arms  of  cloth  swinging  back  and  forth  in  the 
breeze,  the  whole  device  painted  in  bright  colors.  Though 
different  characters  are  used  in  writing  it,  the  word  for  kite 



and  for  cuttlefish  is  the  same;  hence  the  use  of  a  cuttlefish 
for  a  sign. 
Figure  747  is  a  hasty  sketch  of  one  of  these  shops.  Inside,  hun- 

Fig.  748 

dreds  of  kites  were  piled  up  in  stacks,  while  two  or  three  men 
were  painting  designs  in  the  brightest  colors,  devils  and  mytho- 
logical subjects,  hideous  masks,  and  the  like.  Outside  ranged 
a  group  of  boys  of  all  sizes,  crowding  up  to  the  shop  eagerly 
to  examine  the  stock.  While  I  was  making  the  sketch  over  the 


heads  of  the  boys  in  front,  one  old  man  grinned  good-naturedly 
and  another  workman  noticed  me  amiably;  but  none  of  them 
stopped  work  for  a  second,  as  they  were  too  busy  with  their 
small  customers.  Their  living  for  a  whole  year  was  apparently 
concentrated  into  a  few  weeks  of  kite-making.  The  prices 
seemed  remarkably  low,  a  big  kite  gaudily  decorated  in  bright 

colors  being  sold  for  three  and  one  half  cents  and  small  ones, 
capable  of  flying,  for  one  half  cent.  When  a  boy  buys  a  kite 
the  shopkeeper  fits  the  string. 

Figure  748  is  a  sketch  of  a  kite  nearly  three  feet  in  length, 
and  the  dotted  lines  show  where  the  strings  are  attached  in 
front  connecting  with  the  main  string  by  which  it  is  held. 
The  boys  send  up  paper  disks  on  the  strings  as  do  the  boys 
of  the  United  States.  We  used  to  call  them  "messengers"; 
the  Japanese  boys  call  them  "monkeys."  A  lantern  is  often 
sent  up,  sometimes  two,  and  at  night  it  is  lighted.  The 
strings  running  from  the  kite  to  the  main  cord  are  numerous 
and  of  great  length.  They  seem  to  run  from  every  point  where 
the  bamboo  strips  of  the  frame  intersect,  from  top  to  bottom, 
and  as  in  a  large  kite  the  strips  run  up  and  down,  across  and 
diagonally,  there  are  many  points  of  intersection  (fig.  749). 


Our  kite-flying  is  in  the  most  rudimentary  stage  compared  to 
the  Japanese  methods  and  devices.  It  is  a  curious  sight  to  see 
a  group  of  boys  flying 
kites,  nearly  every  one 
having  a  baby  tied  to 
his  back  (fig.  750). 

A  common  form  of  kite 
in  Nagasaki  is  shown  in 
figure  751.  It  is  made 
with  a  straight  strip  of 
bamboo,  having  a  hook  at 
the  upper  end  by  which 
to  hang  it  up,  and  a  few  inches  below  the  top  a  strip  of  bam- 
boo, four  feet  long,  fastened  to  the  upright  piece  and  bent 
like  a  bow;  strings,  holding  down  the  ends  of  the  bow,  are 

fastened  to  the  central 
piece  four  feet  below. 
This  forms  the  frame- 
work upon  which  the 
paper  is  fastened,  mak- 
ing a  segment  of  a  circle 
about  one  fifth.  The 
cord  is  fastened  to  the 
point  where  the  bow  is 
attached  and  also  to  the 
bottom  of  the  kite,  and 
A  very  long  bob  hangs 

Fig.  751 

runs  out  in  front  six  feet  or  more, 
As  a  substitute  for  the  hot-water  bottle  for  cold  beds  the 


Japanese  use  the  fire-bowl  with  a  few  coals,  protected  by  an 
ample  wooden  frame.  This  is  put  under  the  futon,  or  wadded 
comforter,  and  supplies  the  proper  heat. 

Figure  752  is  a  sketch  of  Mr.  Kohitsu,  from  whom  I  am 
taking  lessons  in  the  tea  ceremony.  He  is  quite  an  expert  in 

pottery  and  a  very 
agreeable  man.  Fig- 
ure 753  is  a  sketch  of 
Mr.  Kohitsu's  shoe 
closet.1  Though  Mr. 
Kohitsu  has  a  small 
family,  there  are  a 
number  of  shoes  or 
sandals  for  each  in- 
mate: low  ones,  fine 
ones  for  best  clothes, 
and  high  ones  for 
muddy  weather,  and 
some  of  them,  by  their 
appearance,  evidently 
worn  out.  Indeed,  one  can  judge  from  the  appearance  of  the 
clogs  left  outside  of  a  house  the  social  status  of  the  strangers 
he  is  going  to  meet  within. 

As  with  us  at  home  the  Japanese  have  candy  in  which  is 
enclosed  a  motto  of  some  kind.  Figure  754  shows  one  pinched 
up  in  a  triangular  form.  It  was  made  of  molasses  and  was 
brittle,  and  tasted  like  a  gingersnap  without  the  ginger.  The 

1  Though  this  has  been  given  in  Japanese  Homes,  I  reproduce  it  from  the  original 
sketch,  as  it  is  one  that  the  Japanese  say  makes  them  homesick. 

Fig.  752 


free  translation  of  the  motto  is  as  follows :  "Determination  will 
go  through  rocks,  why  then  can  we  not  be  united?"  Mr.  Dan, 
who  translated  this,  tells  me  that  the  mottoes  usually  refer 
to  love  or  politics;  he  also  informed  me  that  the  idea  was 
old.  As  a  boy  I  remember  similar  devices  at  home  with 
printed  love  mottoes 
folded  inside. 

The  devotion  of  ser- 
vants who  have  been 
faithful  to  the  family 
was  shown  New  Year's 
day  by  Tatsu,  our  old 
jinrikisha  man,  coming 
to  my  house  with  his 
little  child  and  bring- 
ing as  a  gift  a  large 
basket  of  oranges;  and 
the  next  day  Kichi,  our 
old  cook,  brought  me  a 
box  of  yokan  (made  of 
sugar  and  beans)  and 

wished  me  a  happy  New  Year.  Both  of  them  inquired  after 
the  family  and  remembered  the  names  of  Edith  and  John. 
The  cook  told  me  he  had  a  good  place  in  a  Japanese  res- 

Figure  755  is  an  ingenious  device  called  the  hikisawa,  made 
of  brass  or  silver,  used  by  Japanese  draftsmen  to  rule  straight 
lines  with  a  brush,  as  they  have  no  drafting-pen.  The  brush 
is  placed  in  a  groove,  A,  reaching  down  to  the  end,  B,  which 

Fig.  753 



rests  against  the  ruler;  the  upper  part,  C,  is  flattened;  and 
with  this  they  rule  preliminary  lines,  and  most  delicate  lines 
can  be  made. 

Yesterday  (January  11)  I  was  invited  to  lecture  at  the 
opening  of  Mr.  Okuma's  school.   My  subject  was  Evolution, 

or  Darwinism,  and  Mr.  Ishikawa,  one 
of  my  old  special  students,  inter- 
preted for  me.  After  the  lecture  we 
were  invited  to  Mr.  Okuma's  summer 
house  just  back  of  the  school — a  house 
with  beautiful  rooms,  built  twenty 
years  ago  strictly  in  Japanese  style. 
The  rooms  were  very  large  and  high- 
studded,  and  the  tokonoma  was  pro- 
portionately deep.  I  have  noticed  in 
large  halls  that  the  tokonoma  is  of  great  depth,  and  the 
kakemono  and  the  vases  or  ornaments  are  of  proportionate 
size.  It  may  be  interesting  to  mention  that  the  seat  of  honor 
is  in  front  of  the  tokonoma.  Mr.  Okuma  had  engaged  a  fa- 
mous blind  biwa  player  (fig.  756).  The  music  was  entirely  un- 
like that  made  by  other  instruments;  certain  notes  are  quite 
plaintive   and   touching. 

The  bridges  of  the  biwa    ^    v 

are  very  high   and   the 

Fig.  754 


Fig.  755 
strings  are  pressed  down 

between  the  bridges,  and  with  varying  degrees  of  pressure 
curious  wavering  notes  are  produced.  Remarkable  modula- 
tions are  thus  made,  and  Japanese  of  refinement  are  often 
affected  to  tears  by  the  exceedingly  sweet  and  caressing  notes 


the  instrument  emits  in  the  hands  of  a  master.  The  plectrum 
is  certainly  a  foot  wide  across  the  flat  edge.  After  he  had 
played  awhile  a  glass  was  brought  in  containing  a  number  of 
green  leaves.  Taking  one  of  these  leaves  the  player  held  it  with 
two  fingers  against  his  lower  lip  (fig.  757),  and  blowing  over 
it  in  some  way  made  remarkably  clear  notes,  high  and  low, 
by  pressing  more  or  less 
with  the  fingers.  I  tried 
in  vain  to  make  the  sound 
and  managed  after  awhile 
to  evoke  a  squeak. 

After  this  entertain- 
ment we  were  invited  into 
another  room  where  Jap- 
anese food  was  served, 
and  though  I  have  tasted 
many  delicious  foods  in 
Japan  I  never  tasted  such 
excellent  soups  as  we  had. 
One,  containing  slices  of 

wild  boar,  was  particularly  good.  Raw  fish  in  vinegar  was 
fine.  I  had  to  hurry  away  at  six-thirty  to  meet  another 

To-day  (January  12)  I  gave  another  lecture  at  the  Univer- 
sity on  the  reptilian  affinities  of  birds.  It  was  strongly  Dar- 
winian and  the  students  seemed  to  enjoy  it. 

Lately  I  have  found  a  bowl  with  the  mark  of  Fuji,  which 
proves  a  great  puzzle  to  the  Japanese  experts.  Kohitsu  called 
it  Ninsei,  Kiyomizu,  two  hundred  years  old,  but  he  had  never 

Fig.  756 


seen  the  stamp  before;  Kashiwagi  identified  it  as  old  Akahata, 
Yamato;  Ando  said  it  was  Hagi,  Yamato;  Masuda  recognized 
it  as  old  Satsuma;  Maida  thought  it  might  be  Naniwa,  Settsu; 
and  another  expert,  whose  name  I  do  not  recall,  pronounced  it 
Shino,  Owari.  I  give  this  as  an  illustration  of  the  divergence 
of  opinion  among  the  Japanese  connoisseurs,  and  to  show  the 
difficulties  in  the  work  of  identification  of  puzz- 
ling pieces. 

Bigelow,  Fenollosa,  and  I  were  invited  to  dine 
at  the  house  of  Prince  Kuroda,  who  was  form- 
erly Daimyo  of  Chikuzen  and  is  a  brother  of 
a  famous  Satsuma  prince.  He  is  very  fond  of 
animals,  especially  birds.  He  told  me  that  after 
he  had  heard  my  lecture  on  ants  some  years  ago 
he  had  observed  their  habits.     The  Prince  is 
nearly  seventy  years  old  and  slightly  infirm,  but 
is  full  of  interest  in  scientific  subjects.  He  lives 
in  a  foreign-built  house  with  large,  pleasant  rooms  and  open 
fireplaces.   We  spent  three  hours  looking  over  his  collection 
of  Takatori  pottery  and  kakemono. 

January  16  the  Doctor  and  I  were  invited  to  dinner  at  Mr. 
Okuma's  in  his  city  house,  which  is  near  the  University.  The 
house  is  in  foreign  style  and  very  beautiful;  Dr.  Bigelow  pro- 
nounced it  perfect  in  its  appointments.  The  dining-room  had 
a  beautiful  wood  floor,  and  over  the  doors  and  windows  were 
elaborate  wood  carvings.  The  garden  is  in  pure  Japanese 
style,  with  the  exception  of  a  circular  plat  of  grass,  which  is 
certainly  not  Japanese.  Japanese  food  was  served  on  trays 
with  chopsticks  on  a  table  at  which  we  sat  in  chairs. 


The  gateways  of  the  Japanese  are  nearly  always  pictur- 
esque, though  many  of  them  are  frail  in  appearance.  It  is 
rare,  however,  to  see  one  in  ruins  or  in  disrepair.  They  are 
never  painted,  and  are  made  of  light,  thin  strips,  though  the 
upright  posts  are  thick  and  enduring.  Quaint  old  planks  of 
wood,  with  curious  twisted  branches, 
form  a  framework  for  the  most  deli- 
cate panel-work  of  braided  lattice,  or 
beautiful  designs  cut  in  stencil.  Some- 
times a  bamboo  is  cut  longitudinally  to 
form  the  centre  of  some  panel.  It  is 
these  contrasts  between  the  strong  and 
light,  rough  and  delicate,  that  add  a 
charm  to  these  structures.  Rustic  ef- 
fects are  seen  in  the  city  in  fences, 
wells,  and  the  like. 

I  visited  an  old  chajin  and  pottery 
sharp  named  Nishikawa  Rokubei,  who 
thinks  that  "floral decorated  Satsuma" 
is  three  hundred  years  old.  He  repu- 
diates Ninagawa,  Kohitsu,  and  everybody  else,  and  looked 
like  figure  758  when  I  told  him  that  all  the  evidences  were 
against  him. 

I  had  made  an  appointment  with  Mr.  Nishikawa  to  see  his 
pottery,  but  when  I  got  to  the  house  he  said  he  had  only  a  few 
objects  to  show  me,  as  the  godown  had  been  sealed  up  owing 
to  the  high  wind,  and  he  had  not  dared  to  open  it.  From  a 
cupboard,  however,  he  dragged  a  large  basket-like  box  from 
which  he  took  a  few  specimens  of  pottery.  The  box  had  bands 


arranged  upon  it  so  that  a  man  might  carry  it  on  his  back 
(fig.  759). 

For  the  last  few  days  the  wind  has  blown  a  furious  gale, 
and  everywhere  on  the  street  are  seen  preparations  in  an- 
ticipation of  a  large  conflagration.  Few  goods  are  displayed; 
godowns  are  partially  sealed  with  mud,  men  mixing    the 

mud  in  the  hole  in  front  of  the 
shop,  or  in  a  large  jar  on  a  pro- 
jecting shelf  below  the  second- 
story  window  for  ready  seal- 
ing. What  with  the  terrible 
conflagrations  and  chances  of 
destructive  earthquakes,  it  is 
no  wonder  that  dwelling-house 
architecture  has  hardly  de- 
veloped. It  is  useless  to  build 
more  than  temporary  shelters. 
In  an  old  book  which  I  have 
is  given  the  genealogy  of  the  Kohitsu  family.  For  fourteen 
generations  they  have  been  chajins  and  experts  in  pottery, 
and  have  been  recognized  as  authorities  in  the  identification 
of  old  pottery,  writings,  and  kakemono. 

Yesterday  morning,  about  four  o'clock,  I  was  awakened  by 
a  sudden  and  severe  shock  of  earthquake.  My  floor  is  within 
two  feet  of  the  ground,  yet  the  shock  was  so  violent  that  the 
pottery  on  the  shelves  rattled  at  a  great  rate.  It  really  seemed 
as  if  the  house  must  fall,  but  before  I  could  collect  my  wits  it 
was  all  over.  Dr.  Bigelow  is  in  a  hotel,  in  the  second  story,  and 
he  thought  the  house  would  surely  come  down. 

Fig.  759 


January  18.  The  wind  is  still  blowing  a  gale,  yet  boys  and 
men  are  flying  kites.  I  saw  two  men  hanging  on  to  a  kite  rope, 
the  kite  being  over  six  feet  square.  The  kites  are  certainly 
much  stronger  than  ours  or  they  could  not  stand  such  severe 
gales.  The  Japanese  play  with  kites  more  than  we  do,  and 
many  men  are  seen  flying  them. 

The  other  night  I  was  invited  to  an  interesting  gathering. 
Mr.  Tanimura,  a  teacher  of  cha-no-yu,  has  a  meeting  every 
month  of  men  who  are  interested  in  old  Japanese  pottery. 
It  is  a  guessing  party,  and  each  one  brings  a  specimen  of  pot- 
tery difficult  to  identify.  These  are  numbered  and  recorded 
in  a  list  by  one  who  does  not  take  part  in  the  guessing  contest. 
The  method  is  rather  curious.  The  party  sit  around  in  a  circle 
with  candles  in  the  middle,  and  each  one  has  a  lacquer  cup 
with  his  name  written  on  the  bottom.  A  specimen  of  pottery, 
such  as  a  tea-jar,  bowl,  or  incense-box,  is  passed  around,  each 
in  turn  examines  it,  and  then  with  a  brush  and  India  ink 
records  his  guess  on  the  inside  of  the  lacquer  cup  and  places  it 
face  downward  on  the  mat.  When  every  one  of  the  party  has 
marked  his  guess,  or  opinion,  the  host  records  each  name  and 
opinion  in  a  book.  In  this  way  we  examined  a  number  of  old 
tea-jars,  tea-bowls,  and  the  like.  It  may  be  interesting  to 
record  that  I  got  the  highest  number  of  correct  attributions, 
and  it  was  also  gratifying  to  know  that  I  was  not  alone  when 
in  error.  A  tea-jar  that  I  called  Takatori  was  said  to  be  Zeze 
by  the  judge,  for  that  was  the  name  written  on  the  box  from 
which  it  was  taken :  an  unsafe  evidence,  for  the  original  piece 
in  the  box  may  have  been  broken  or  lost  and  another  jar  sub- 
stituted that  would  fit  the  box — a  very  common  practice.  The 


two  potteries  closely  resemble  one  another,  however.  Another 
piece  said  to  be  Koda,  I  am  sure  was  not,  as  I  am  pretty  sound 
on  that  pottery.  It  was  interesting  to  meet  such  a  pleasant 
party.  One  was  a  student,  another  a  doctor,  a  third  was  an 
editor  of  a  daily  paper,  another  was  a  gentleman  of  leisure,  and 
the  host  was  a  pottery  expert.  They  all  expressed  their  amaze- 
ment at  the  quickness  of  my  decisions,  as  I  always  put  my 
lacquer  cup  down  first.  The  others  would  look  at  the  piece  in 

Fig.  760 

turn,  expressing  their  emotions  in  curious  sounds,  saying  it 
was  odd  or  troublesome,  and  grunt  over  it,  and  at  the  very  last 
moment  write  their  decisions.  Figure  760  is  a  hasty  sketch 
of  the  party. 

Takamine  told  me  a  good  story  of  a  famous  judge,  Itakura, 
of  the  time  of  the  first  shogun,  who  used  to  sit  behind  a  screen 
when  he  heard  evidence  and  grind  tea  at  the  same  time.  The 
stone  mill  is  quite  heavy,  and  to  grind  the  tea  properly  the 
mill  must  rotate  slowly.  He  sat  behind  the  screen  so  as  not  to 
see  the  witness's  face;  otherwise  he  might  be  prejudiced;  and 


he  had  to  repress  his  emotions,  otherwise  he  would  grind  the 
tea  rapidly  and  thus  ruin  the  powdered  tea. 

I  took  my  first  lesson  in  Japanese  singing  this  afternoon. 
With  a  letter  of  introduction,  I,  or  rather  my  jinrikisha  man, 
found  the  way  to  Mr.  Umewaka,  who  lived  at  Asakusa  Minami 
moto  machi  Kubanchi.  He  is  a  famous  teacher  of  no  singing 
and  acting,  and  has  adjoining  his  house  a  stage  for  no  play. 
Takenaka  accompanied  me  as  interpreter.  We  were  presented, 
and  Mr.  Umewaka  was  very  hospitable  and  seemed  pleased 
that  a  foreigner  should  wish  to  take  lessons  in  singing.  Take- 
naka explained  that  I  had  many  things  to  do  and  must  begin 
at  once.  Mr.  Umewaka  brought  me  a  singing-book  and  read 
slowly  the  words  I  was  to  learn,  and  I  wrote  them  down  as 
well  as  I  could.  I  had  to  sit  down  with  legs  bent  directly  under 
me  in  Japanese  fashion.  This  method  of  sitting  is  intolerable 
to  a  foreigner  at  the  outset,  but  I  am  now  able  to  sit  an  hour 
and  a  half  without  discomfort.  He  placed  in  front  of  me  a 
little  music-stand  and  gave  me  a  fan  which  I  held  resting  on 
my  leg.  He  sang  a  line  and  I  sang  it  after  him;  then  he  sang 
another;  and  so  on  through  the  eleven  lines  of  the  piece.  After 
trying  it  twice  in  that  way  we  sang  together.  I  realized  how 
very  rich  and  sonorous  his  voice  was.  Then  I  observed  that, 
do  what  I  would,  my  notes  sounded  flat  and  monotonous 
while  his  were  full  of  inflections  and  accents,  though  all  on  one 
note.  I  felt  awkward  and  embarrassed  at  the  absurd  failure  I 
was  making  and  perspired  freely,  though  it  was  a  cold  day 
in  January.  Finally,  in  desperation,  I  threw  off  all  reserve 
and  entered  into  it  with  all  my  might,  resolved,  at  any  rate, 
to  mimic  his  sounds.    I  inflated  my  abdomen  tensely,  sang 


through  my  nose,  put  the  tremulo  stop  on  when  necessary,  and 
attracted  a  number  of  attendants  who  peeked  through  the 
screens  to  look  on,  in  despair,  no  doubt,  at  a  foreigner  dese- 
crating the  honored  precincts  by  such  infernal  howls.  Be  that 
as  it  may,  my  teacher  for  the  first  time  bowed  approvingly  at 
my  efforts,  complimented  me  when  I  got  through  my  first 
lesson,  and  told  me,  probably  in  encouragement,  that  I  would 
in  a  month's  time  be  able  to  sing  in  no  play.  Figure  761  shows 
the  attitude  of  the  teacher  and  pupil.   It  is  by  taking  actual 

lessons  in  the  tea  ceremony 
and  in  singing  that  I  may 
learn  many  things  from  the 
Japanese  standpoint.  The 
method  in  singing  is  to  de- 
press the  diaphragm,  mak- 
ing the  walls  of  the  abdomen 
as  tense  as  a  drum,  this 
acting  as  a  resonator.  The 
strain  on  the  voice  is  so 
great  that  a  singer  will  of- 
ten cough  in  the  midst  of  the  singing. 

I  was  interested  the  other  day  in  observing  the  behavior  of 
two  children  to  whom  I  showed  some  prints.  They  began  to 
count  the  number  of  objects  when  they  were  in  sequences,  as 
children  do  at  home.  Indeed,  the  more  I  see  of  children  here 
the  more  resemblances  I  find  to  our  children.  In  their  games 
there  are  some  striking  differences,  and  yet  many  of  the  games 
are  alike,  such  as  the  bounding  of  a  ball  on  the  ground  by 
patting  it  with  the  hand,  and  the  jackstones  played  with  little 

Fig.  761 


bags  filled  with  peas  and  beans  instead  of  stones.  There  is  no 
hoop  or  skipping-rope;  indeed,  in  the  latter  game  they  would 
shake  down  their  nicely  arranged  hair.  The  children  clasp 
their  hands  together  and  pound  them  on  their  knees  making  a 
peculiar  sound  which  they  call  "money";  our  children  do  the 
same  thing.  They  also  have  the  play  of  seeing  who  can  stare 
the  longest  without  smiling.  Takamine  told  me  that  when 
the  children  eat  an  orange  they  play  with  it  by  making  a  shal- 
low cup  with  a  segment  of  the  rind,  and  then,  nipping  off  the 
end  of  the  segment,  squeeze  a  few  drops  of  juice  into  the  cup, 
thus  pretending  to  drink  sake.  The  children  have  many  ways 
of  utilizing  such  objects  for  toys. 

In  Japanese  personal  names  there  are  many  like  Kichizae- 
mon,  Hachizaemon,  the  termination  zaemon  and  uyemon  be- 
ing quite  common,  at  least  among  the  potters  whose  names  I 
am  collecting.  These  names  mean,  respectively,  "left  guard 
gate"  and  "right  guard  gate."  Bei,  as  in  Rokubei,  means 
"  soldier  guard."  Many  of  their  names  indicate  a  soldier  origin 
of  the  family. 

Fuji  has  put  on  some  magnificent  appearances  lately.  It  has 
been  very  cold  for  some  time,  with  high  winds.  Fuji  is  covered 
to  the  base  with  snow,  and  for  the  last  two  nights  the  sun  in 
sinking  behind  the  mountain  has  illuminated  the  snow  which 
has  been  whirled  up  in  clouds  from  the  sides.  The  appearance 
of  the  dark  gray  mountain  in  shadow,  outlined  with  the  most 
brilliant  golden  border  and  a  rich  rose  halo,  has  been  a  sight  of 
remarkable  beauty.  Fuji  is  about  forty  miles  in  a  straight  line 
from  Tokyo,  and  I  have  a  wonderful  view  of  it  every  day  as 
I  ride  to  the  University,  and  every  day  it  is  beautiful  in  the 


changing  lights,  shadows,  snow  effects,  etc.  In  figure  762  the 
upper  drawing  shows  the  mountain  with  the  snow  illumined 
by  the  setting  sun;  in  the  lower  drawing  it  is  shown  as  illu- 
mined by  the  rising  sun,  with  shadows  of  clouds.  The  other 

Fig.  762 

morning  Fuji  was  in  deep  shadow  from  clouds  with  the  excep- 
tion of  irregular  areas  which  were  dazzling  white. 

I  went  through  the  cemetery  at  Uyeno  to-day  and  inquired 
for  Matsura's  grave  and  found  it  (fig.  763).  I  was  curious  to 
see  how  the  cutting  of  the  epitaph  I  wrote  had  been  done.  It 
was  finely  engraved  in  capital  letters,  the  gravestone  a  dark 
slate.  The  Japanese  epitaph,  written  by  one  of  the  students, 
is  thoughtful  and  significant.1 

"His  family  name  Matsura  and  given  name  Sayohiko.  His 
native  province  Tosa.  Early  entering  college  he  devoted  him- 
self to  study  of  biology.  By  diligent  labor  he  made  consider- 
able progress.  On  5th  day,  7th  month,  of  Meiji  9th,  aged  22, 
died  of  fever.  His  nature  was  actively  keen;  he  treated  men 

1  In  my  course  of  lectures  in  the  Lowell  Institute  I  read  this  epitaph,  and  that 
dear  man,  William  James,  expressed  great  interest  in  it  and  asked  for  a  copy. 


altogether  without  discrimination;  hence  he  was  lovingly 
sought  by  all.  His  friends  subscribed  to  erect  this  monument 
and  this  is  written  for  the  inscription :  — 

"  The  cherished  hope  is  not  yet  fulfilled, 
As  the  faded  flower  he  fell, 
Alas,  the  law  of  Nature ! 
Is  it  right,  or  is  it  wrong? 

"  Inscription  by  Shogoi  Kusakabe  Tosaku.  Erected  by  those 
of  Tokyo  Daigaku  interested,  8th  day  of  7th  month,  12th 
year  of  Meiji." 

For  the  last  week  I  have  been  hard  at  work  translating,  with 
an  assistant,  a  number  of  manuscript  volumes  of  Ninagawa 
relating  to  pottery,  which  the  family 
will  not  sell,  though  they  are  of  no  XvN 

possible  use  to  them.  In  them  I  find  a  \  y      \ 

great  deal  of  information  and  enough  if  =£*•  \ 

to  show  me  what  an  untiring  student  [|    hjijl  / 

of  pottery  he  was.  J|         _  j^ 

Dimples  in  higher  class  ladies  are  "^^S^^^^^J;- 
not  considered  pretty  because  they  fig.  763 

accompany  laughter,  and  laughter  is 

undignified;  among  servants,  however,  dimples  and  a  fat, 
robust  figure  are  regarded  favorably. 

On  February  2,  1883,  there  was  the  biggest  snow-storm 
for  many  years;  the  snow  was  nearly  a  foot  deep  on  a  level. 
It  required  two  men  to  drag  me  to  the  University.  The  chil- 
dren went  off  to  school  barefooted  on  their  clogs,  carrying 
their  stockings  in  their  sleeves  so  as  to  have  something  dry 

406  .  JAPAN  DAY  BY  DAY 

to  put  on  in  school.  It  is  curious  to  see  the  jinrikisha  men  and 
other  laborers  barefooted  and  barelegged  in  the  snow  and 
slush.  Directly  after  the  first  snowfall  came  another,  ac- 
companied by  a  high  wind.  The  snow  drifted  in  great  piles, 
and  even  in  Maine  the  storm  would  have  been  considered  a 
"rouser";  for  two  days  the  streets  were  impassable.  This 
storm  was  followed  by  cold  weather,  so  after  several  days  the 
snow  remains  in  great  drifts. 

It  is  interesting  to  see  how  the  art  tastes  of  the  people  are 
manifested  in  the  figures  they  make  in  the  snow.  A  very  com- 
mon figure  is  that  of  Daruma,  a  follower  of  Buddha,  often 
pictured  and  made  in  metal,  pottery,  or  carved  in  ivory;  a 
great  many  bridges  and  arches  are  made  and  lanterns  placed 
in  some.  In  one  case  I  saw  a  miniature  garden  with  path- 
ways, summer-houses,  stone  lanterns,  and  the  like.  Masses 
are  wrought  in  the  form  of  large  balls  of  mochi,  one  on 
top  of  another  and  diminishing  in  size.  A  very  common  pic- 
ture shows  two  large  pinnacles  of  rock  with  straw7  ropes  and 
pendent  straws  hanging  from  one  peak  to  the  other;  this  was 
beautifully  rendered  in  snow.  Also  the  sun  rising  out  of  the 
waves,  —  the  waves  gracefully  carved  and  the  sun  made  by 
pressing  snow  in  a  shallow  tub,  making  a  disk  like  a  big  cheese. 
These  and  many  other  designs  arrested  one's  attention  in  rid- 
ing through  the  streets.  People  are  walking  about,  most  of 
them,  particularly  women  and  children,  carrying  bamboo 
canes  to  support  themselves.  The  people  seem  perfectly  help- 
less in  the  presence  of  such  a  depth  of  snow,  and  there  seems  to 
be  no  effort  on  the  part  of  the  city  authorities  to  remove  it. 

I  have  already  taken  several  lessons  in  singing,  and  although 


I  have  a  fairly  quick  ear,  I  have  not  been  able  to  carry  away 
two  consecutive  notes,  or  to  recall  any  notes.  It  has  been 
very  interesting  to  see  how  different  their  music  is  from  ours. 
Their  manuscript  music  has  no  notation,  no  indication  of  any- 
thing but  inflections  indicated  by  short  lines,  level,  or  slanting 
upward  or  downward,  or  with  undulations  up  or  down.  My 
teaching  is  entirely  by  rote,  the  teacher  first  giving  the  line  and 
I  singing  after  him.  I  noticed  almost  immediately  that  he 
varied  slightly  each  time.  Sometimes  certain  notes  are  made 
sharp  and  again  the  same  notes  are  flattened.  In  my  mind 
Utai  is  not  singing,  but  inflectional  declamation,  not  un- 
like the  conversation  of  the  countrymen  of  Yorkshire.  Many 
years  ago  Dr.  Philip  P.  Carpenter,  brother  of  the  famous 
physiologist,  actually  rendered  into  musical  notation  conver- 
sations he  had  heard  among  the  farm  people  of  Yorkshire.  He 
sang  me  one  which  I  have  always  remembered.  The  music  I 
am  studying  is  written  with  short  dashes  pointing  downward, 
or  upward,  or  level.  My  teacher  at  the  outset  had  told  me 
that  I  must  keep  my  abdomen  distended,  —  a  constant  strain, 
—  with  the  result  that  my  voice  would  be  sonorous ;  it  was  a 
difficult  accomplishment  to  acquire.  The  various  forms  or 
schools  of  Japanese  music,  whether  vocal  or  instrumental,  are 
listened  to  by  a  foreigner,  first  with  bewilderment,  and  then 
greeted  with  laughter.  It  was  a  humiliating  experience  to  at- 
tend a  Japanese  entertainment  in  which  classical  music  was 
sung,  music  that  would  bring  tears  to  the  Japanese  eyes,  and 
have  it  greeted  by  the  Englishmen  in  the  audience  with  con- 
temptuous laughter.  You  hear  quaint  music  in  the  East,  music 
that  excites  your  interest,  music  that  prompts  your  feet  to  beat 


time,  but  Japanese  music  is  simply  unintelligible  to  a  foreigner. 
As  their  pictorial  art  was  incomprehensible  to  us  at  the  outset, 
and  yet  on  further  acquaintance  and  study  we  discovered  in 
it  transcendent  merit,  so  it  seemed  to  me  that  a  study  of 
Japanese  music  might  reveal  merits  we  little  suspected.  For 
that  reason  I  studied  Utai,  a  school  of  Japanese  music,  taking 
my  lessons  of  the  famous  teacher  Umewaka.  Professor  Ya- 
tabe,  a  graduate  of  Cornell,  while  thoroughly  approving  the 
adoption  of  many  features  from  abroad  and  admitting  their 
superiority,  nevertheless  insisted  that  the  Japanese  music  was 
superior  to  ours. 

Figure  764  is  a  hasty  sketch  of  a  sword-maker  in  Tokyo.  I 
find  no  memorandum  in  regard  to  it  and  at  this  late  date  can 
recall  nothing.  The  hammers  of  the  helpers  are  very  odd. 

I  have  already  alluded  to  the  love  of  collecting  among  the 
Japanese  and  have  briefly  mentioned  some  of  the  objects  they 
collect.  Since  that  record  I  have  seen  many  other  collections, 
and  they  comprise  pottery,  porcelain,  cloth,  swords  and  sword 
details  that  are  found  on  the  handle  and  scabbard,  autographs, 
coins,  stone  implements  and  beads,  brocade,  pieces  of  which 
are  stuck  into  books  as  are  stamps  in  stamp  collecting,  pic- 
tures, drawings,  books,  ancient  manuscripts,  old  furniture, 
such  as  cabinets  and  priests'  desks,  sticks  of  ink  and  ink- 
stones,  roofing  tiles,  lacquer,  and  metal  ornaments.  Very  few 
collect  natural  objects,  though  I  have  met  some  collectors  of 
insects,  shells,  and  plants. 

In  examining  Japanese  hand-work  of  any  kind  the  foreigner 
is  immediately  impressed  by  the  fact  that  all  surfaces  of  the 
object  are  equally  well  finished.  Whether  it  be  a  bronze  fig- 



^  ^  Iff— ^JL^  - 

Fig.  764 

ure,  lacquer  box,  inro,  or  netsuke,  the  base  is  finished  as  care- 
fully and  accurately  as  the  exposed  surfaces.  One  is  amazed 
to  find  the  ventral  portion  of  a  carved  insect,  or  the  base  of  a 
sculptured  animal,  finished  with  anatomical  accuracy.  A  good 
illustration  of  this  fidelity  in  work  is  often  seen  when  some 


family  is  moving  its  household  furniture,  not  much,  to  be  sure; 
yet,  when  the  bureaus,  low  desks,  lacquer  cabinets,  lacquer 
boxes,  etc.,  are  piled  together  on  a  cart,  one  notices  the  con- 
trast with  similar  furniture  vans  at  home.  Even  from  the 
house  of  the  rich  the  load  appears  fairly  squalid,  while  the 
Japanese  load  from  the  house  of  the  poor  suggests  anything 
but  squalor. 

The  Japanese  children,  and  for  that  matter  the  nation,  have 
no  such  thing  as  a  lead  pencil  or  chalk,  crayon,  writing-pen, 
or  fluid  ink,  except  what  they  make  themselves  by  rubbing  a 
hard  piece  of  India  ink  with  water  in  some  receptacle,  usually 
an  ink-stone.  A  writing-box  of  wood  or  lacquer  contains  an 
ink-stone  with  shallow  spaces  on  each  side  for  brushes  with 
which  they  write,  a  paper-knife,  stick  of  India  ink,  and  a  lit- 
tle vessel,  holding  water,  with  two  minute  openings,  one  of 
which  you  cover  with  your  finger,  thus  checking  the  flow  of 
water  from  the  other  opening.  Unless  the  ink  is  already  pre- 
pared, one  has  to  allow  a  few  drops  of  water  to  fall  on  the 
stone,  and  then  the  ink  is  rubbed  until  the  result  is  sufficiently 
black.  Then  only  can  one  write  a  letter,  which  is  done  on  a 
roll, — vertically,  of  course, — and  as  line  after  line  is  written  the 
paper  is  unwound  till  five  or  six  feet  may  be  unrolled  according 
to  the  length  of  the  letter.  It  is  then  torn  off,  wound  up  again, 
flattened  by  smoothing  with  the  hand,  and  slid  into  a  long, 
narrow  envelope  which  has  lately  come  into  use.  If  one  is  in  a 
rage  and  is  inclined  to  dash  off  an  angry  letter,  he  has  suffi- 
cient time  to  cool  off  in  getting  ready  to  write  it. 

A  device  known  as  yatate  (fig.  765)  takes  the  place  of  our 
fountain  pen.   It  is  usually  made  of  metal  and  consists  of  a 


tube  to  hold  the  writing-brush,  and  attached  to  the  top,  at 
right  angles,  is  a  receptacle  for  a  wad  of  cotton  saturated  with 
fluid  ink.  The  writer  can  get  ink  enough  on  his  brush  to  write  a 
few  characters.  The  artistic  work  seen  on  these  devices  almost 
equals  the  work  seen  on  the  sword-guards  and  other  metal  fur- 
nishings of  the  sword.  The  designs  are  infinite.  The  yatate  is 
thrust  into  the  obi,  the  ink-holding  portion  preventing  it  from 
sliding  through.  The  carpenter  has  a  device,  carved 
out  of  wood,  consisting  of  a  receptacle  holding  ink- 
saturated  cotton,  and  a  wheel  on  which  a  cord  is 
wound,  the  cord  passing  through  the  cotton  as  it 
is  wound  and  unwound.  The  cord  has  an  awl  at- 
tached to  it,  and  the  carpenter  makes  an  ink  line 
on  the  board  by  pulling  the  string  out  and  with 
the  awl  fastening  it  to  the  board  and  then  snapping 
it,  as  our  carpenter  does  his  chalk-line.  The  device 
should  be  adopted  by  our  carpenters,  as  it  makes 
a  sharp,  black,  durable  line. 

Mention  has  already  been  made  of  the  boy's  sub- 
stitute for  a  slate.  The  child  begins  the  practice  of 
writing  Chinese  characters,  using  a  large  brush  for 
the  purpose.  A  book  of  paper  sheets,  usually  six  by  nine, 
though  often  larger,  is  a  substitute  for  the  slate.  The  char- 
acters are  drawn  of  large  size  on  these  sheets  and  are  drawn 
over  and  over  again.  Only  one  side  of  the  paper  was  used  in 
the  book  here  figured,  consisting  of  thirty-two  leaves.  The 
freshly  written  character  shows  plainly  on  the  dried  ink- 
markings  of  the  day  before.  Figure  766  gives  the  appearance 
of  these  books. 

Fig.  765 

Fig.  766 


On  visiting  famous  temples  the  priests  present  you  with 
paper  slips,  and  sometimes  thin  wooden  tablets,  upon  which 

the  name  of  the  temple  and  other  char- 
acters are  written.  These  tokens  are 
fastened  to  the  side  of  the  house  en- 
trance to  ward  off  contagious  diseases 
and  evil  influences.  Figure  767  repre- 
sents one  of  these  tokens  from  the  tem- 
ple of  Nantaizan.  It  is  five  inches 

In  Tokyo,  and  presumably  in  the 
larger  cities,  a  little  wooden  tag  is 
worn  under  the  clothes  of  the  child, 
on  which  are  inscribed  the  name  of  the  child  and  the  house 
and  district  in  which  the  child  lives.  The  police- 
man simply  reaches  down  the  neck  of  a  lost 
child,  pulls  out  the  tag,  and  promptly  returns 
the  child  to  its  anxious  mother.  Figure  768  rep- 
resents the  tag  worn  by  Dr.  Takenaka  when  a 

One  of  the  many  features  that  attract  the  eye 
of  the  foreigner  are  the  hair  ornaments  of  the 
women  and  especially  of  the  little  girls.  With 
scarcely  an  exception  the  hair  is  formally  ar- 
ranged, usually  in  a  broad  knot,  or  some  other 
shape,  behind.  At  the  junction  of  this  knot  with 
the  head,  red  crape  is  tied,  and  at  this  place 
ornamental  hairpins  are  thrust.  These  are  called 
kanzashi.    Here  one  sees  the  ingenious  way  in  which,  with 

Fig.  767 



Fig.  768 

the  simplest  materials  —  cloth,  gold  paper,  delicate  spiral 

springs,  straw,  spangles,  red  coral,  etc.,  —  a  great  variety  of 

objects  are  made.    Quite  half  the  designs 

represent  flowers.   I  do  not  remember  ever 

seeing  a  natural  flower  worn  in  the  hair  nor 

on  the  person.    Many  of  them  represent  a 

story  or  act  of  some  kind;  a  child  painting 

a  kakemono  (fig.  769),  a  bird-cage  (fig.  770), 

a  bird  in  bamboo  (fig.  771).  Elaborate  as 

some  of  them  are,  the  cost  is  trifling  —  a 

cent  or  two.  Hardly  a  visit  is  made  without 

a  present  of  some  kind  being  offered,  and  these  kanzashi  are 

favorite  objects  for  that  purpose. 

In  Buddhistic  families  one  often  hears  a  blessing  asked  by 

the  host.  At  a  private  dinner  each  one  declines  the  seat  of 

honor  and  some  time  elapses  before 
the  guests  are  seated.  It  is  not  con- 
sidered polite  to  accept  articles  of  food 
when  offered  the  first  time,  but  only 

when  passed  the  second  time.    In  our  country  the  unin- 
formed Japanese  student  often  suffers  in  consequence  of  this 

form  of  good  manners.  They  depreciate  their  children  and 

themselves,  their  homes,  houses,  and 

possessions;  a  feature  due  to  Chinese 

cult.  Hokusai  often  signed  his  pictures 

with  characters  meaning   "a  stupid 


Prince  Nabeshima  invited  me  to  dinner,  and  as  Mrs.  Sam- 
uel Bright  was  visiting  us  she  was  also  invited  with  Mrs. 

Fig.  769 


Fig.  770 


Morse.  There  were  twenty  or  more  at  the  table,  and  Mrs. 
Bright  was  curious  to  know  the  religious  belief  of  the  gentle- 
men present.  It  was  a  somewhat  embarrassing  inquiry.  I  had 
explained  to  her  before  that  the  cultivated  Japanese  had  out- 
grown whatever  belief  in  Buddhism  or  Shinto  they  may  have 
had.  The  question  was  skillfully  presented  by  Prince  Nabe- 
shima,  and  without  exception  every  one,  though  with  many 
smiles,  confessed  his  freedom  from  religious  belief. 

With  the  exception  of  a  certain  region  in  Tokyo,  known  as 
the  Ginza,  the  sidewalk  is  unknown.  The  Ginza  for  a  certain 

distance  had  been  built  in  for- 
eign style,  with  two-story  brick 
blocks,  a  brick  sidewalk,  and  a 
curb.  Elsewhere  in  the  city  the 
carriageway  extends  from  one 
pIG>  771  side  of  the  street  to  the  other, 

and  is  slightly  rounded  in  the 
centre,  and  fairly  hard  and  smooth.  The  people  throng  into 
the  middle  of  the  road.  One  never  sees  people  keeping  step  in 
walking,  neither  men,  women,  nor  children.  Sometimes  two 
men  will  hold  hands,  or  one  will  have  an  arm  flung  over  his 
companion's  shoulder.  The  absence  of  rhythm  in  their  walk 
is  noteworthy,  as  with  our  people  even  school-children  keep 
step  in  walking.  One  realizes  at  once  that  the  Japanese  never 
dance  together  as  we  do.  The  waltz,  the  polka,  and  other  old- 
fashioned  dances  requiring  absolute  rhythm  in  their  move- 
ments, and  the  school  drill  of  marching  out  of  school  to  the 
music  of  a  piano,  all  contribute  to  the  marching  habit. 
Mr.  Ninagawa,  the  antiquarian,  who  has  been  mentioned 


elsewhere  in  these  pages,  and  who  died  in  1882,  frequently 
called  on  me.  Mr.  Kohitsu,  another  antiquarian,  was  an  occa- 
sional caller.  The  front  door  of  the  little  house  I  occupied 
opened  into  my  only  room,  which  functioned  as  a  library, 
workroom,  and  bedroom  as  well.  In  calling  upon  me  in  winter 
these  men  would  knock  on  the  door,  which  I  would  promptly 
open  for  them.  They  would  show  no  signs  of  recognition  of 
my  presence  until  they  had  removed  their  hats,  which  they 
would  place  on  the  step;  then,  untying  the  handkerchief  about 
the  neck,  folding  it,  and  placing  it  in  the  hat,  they  would  make 
a  few  profound  bows,  which  I  would  return,  and  then  they 
would  enter  the  house.  These  men  never  called  on  me  to- 
gether; whether  their  relations  were  strained  I  never  learned. 
I  was  amazed  that  the  various  experts  that  I  met  in  Japan 
seemed  always  unfamiliar  with  one  another's  work.  Nina- 
gawa  published  an  interesting  work  on  Japanese  pottery,  with 
remarkable  illustrations  in  lithography,  yet  the  various  ex- 
perts in  pottery  that  I  have  thus  far  met  seemed  utterly  igno- 
rant of  its  existence. 

An  indication  of  the  rational  character  of  the  Japanese  is 
seen  in  the  numbers  that  are  abandoning  the  queue.  The  stu- 
dents were  the  first  to  do  so.  In  the  country  one  sees  every- 
body wearing  the  queue;  also  in  the  city  among  the  lower 
classes.  Old  scholars,  too,  still  adhere  to  the  custom.  Nina- 
gawa  not  only  always  wore  the  queue,  but  his  outer  garment 
was  slit  as  if  he  still  carried  the  two  swords.  Mr.  Kohitsu,  a 
teacher  of  the  tea  ceremonies  and  a  pottery  expert,  while 
retaining  the  Japanese  dress,  told  me  that  he  gave  up  the 
queue  a  few  years  ago.   Old  men  with  very  little  hair  still 


manage  to  gather  the  few  hairs  on  the  back  of  the  head,  wax 
them,  and  construct  a  queue  the  size  of  a  toothpick.  On  one 
occasion,  in  a  crowd,  I  had  before  me  a  bald  head  with 
a  queue  of  this  description.  I  noticed  that  the  queue  was 
black,  so  it  must  have  been  dyed  or  stained  with  ink.  A  closer 
examination  revealed  the  fact  that  a  black  line  had  been 
painted  vertically  on  the  scalp  in  line  with  the  queue,  thus 
making  the  queue  appear  an  inch  longer.  A  mischievous  boy 
might  have  been  tempted  to  swing  the  genuine  queue  gently 
to  one  side! 

The  Japanese  have  an  interesting  way  of  waking  a  sleeper. 
Instead  of  loudly  speaking,  or  roughly  shaking  him,  the  per- 
son begins  to  tap  his  shoulder  in  the  most  quiet  manner, 
slowly  increasing  the  force  of  the  taps  until  they  become 
vigorous  slaps;  the  sleeper  finally  wakes  without  the  slightest 
shock  and  with  wits  fully  established.  Hospital  nurses  and 
others  should  adopt  this  method. 

A  marked  characteristic  of  the  Japanese  is  their  love  for 
nature.  They  not  only  enjoy  nature  in  all  its  aspects,  but  they 
enjoy  it  with  an  artist's  eye.  So  dominant  is  this  trait  that  the 
city  directory  of  Tokyo  devotes  a  few  pages  to  pointing  out 
places  in  the  parks  and  suburbs  where  nature  in  its  finest 
aspects  is  to  be  found.  The  following  is  a  translation  of  these 
pages  copied  from  the  "Tokyo  Times":  — 

For  snow  effects:  the  banks  of  the  Sumida  River,  Koishikawa, 
Kudan,  Uyeno,  and  Atagoyama,  during  the  later  winter. 

For  plum  blossoms:  Mukojima,  Asakusa,  Kameido,  latter  part  of 

For  cherry  blossoms:  the  banks  of  the  Sumida  River,  Oji,  Uyeno, 
Higurashi,  Koganei,  from  the  middle  of  April. 


For  peach  blossoms:  Osawa  village,  from  the  middle  of  April. 

For  pear  blossoms:  Namamugi  village,  during  the  latter  part  of  April. 

For  Yamabuki  (Kerria  japonica):  Mukojima  and  Omori,  in  April. 

For  peony:  Garden  of  Somei,  Terajima,  Meguro,  in  mid  May. 

For  fleur-de-lis:  Horikiri,  in  May. 

For  fuji  (wistaria) :  Kameido,  Meguro,  Noda,  latter  part  of  May. 

For  morning-glory:  gardens  of  Somei  and  Iriya,  from  the  middle  of 

For  lotus:  Mokuboji,  Uyeno,  Tameike,  Mukojima,  from  the  latter 
part  of  July. 

For  the  seven  flowers  of  autumn:  Terajima,  from  latter  part  of 

For  Hagi:  Buddhist  temple  of  Rengeji  at  Terajima,  and  at  Kameido, 
from  the  latter  part  of  August. 

For  chrysanthemums:  Meguro,  Asakusa,  Garden  of  Somei,  Sugamo, 
in  November. 

For  maple  leaves:  Konodai,  Oji,  Tokaiji,  Kaianji,  in  November. 

We  are  also  informed  in  this  connection  that  for  firefly 
hunting  we  must  resort  to  the  paddy-fields  in  Asakusa,  Oji, 
Koishikawa,  along  the  Sumida  River  and  elsewhere  in  the 
early  summer.  Oji  and  Meguro  are  mentioned  as  furnishing 
excellent  waterfall  fishing  in  the  same  season.  Various  places 
are  also  named  where  one  can  catch  "sweet  singing  insects." 

In  addition  to  what  appears  in  connection  with  the  "Hints," 
we  are  reminded  of  the  garden  of  Dangozaka,  celebrated  for 
chrysanthemums;  Tabata,  for  plum  blossoms ;Nezu  andHigu- 
rashi,  for  cherry  blossoms,  maples,  and  kirishima;  Aoyama, 
Asakusa,  for  its  waterfall  and  pine  trees;  Tsunokami,  Yotsuya, 
for  all  sorts  of  flowers;  Shinfuji,  Shibuya,  for  pretty  grasses; 
Susaki  Benten,  for  fishing  at  low  tide,  and  Takinogawa  for  its 
waterfall  and  maples. 

The  loyalty  of  the  people  to  residents  of  their  own  province 
is  noteworthy.   They  provide  lodging  and  food,  if  able  to  do 


so,  to  any  one  coming  from  their  own  province,  whether  rela- 
tion, friend,  or  total  stranger.  A  Japanese  friend  of  mine  told 
me  that  he  had  entertained  in  this  way  six  young  men  whom 

Fig.  772 

he  had  never  met  and  had  kept 
them  a  number  of  days. 

The  main  supply  of  animal 
food  is  derived  from  the  ocean. 
Nearly  every  creature  living  in 
the  sea  is  used  as  food  by  the 
Japanese.  The  vertebrate  fish  forms  the  larger  proportion  of 
food,  though  nearly  every  species  of  mollusk  of  sufficient  size 
may  be  found  in  the  market  as  well  as  the  cuttlefish ;  eggs  of 
the  sea  urchin;  a  worm-like  Sabella,  the  brachiopod  Lingula; 
Cynthia,  an  ascidian;  and  a  number  of  seaweeds.  Of  the  ver- 
tebrate fish  many  more  species  are  eaten  than  with  us.  Not 
that  we  do  not  have  as  many  species,  or  nearly  as  many 
on  our  coast,  but  our  taste  seems  to  be  confined  to  a  few 
kinds.  I  remember  as  a 
boy  flounders  were  never 
eaten.  Formerly  on  the 
coast  of  Maine  the  had- 
dock was  not  considered 
a  food  fish.  Nearly  all 
fish  caught  by  the  Japanese  is  brought  to  the  market  and 
is  sorted  and  sold.  Thousands  of  fishermen  in  their  little 
boats  and  men  and  boys  on  the  rocks  are  catching  all  kinds 
of  fish.  With  us  only  those  fish  that  can  be  caught  or  netted 
in  great  numbers  are  thought  worth  while  to  bring  to  the 
market;  hence  the  food  fishes  are  limited  to  a  few  kinds,  the 

Fig.  773 


principal  ones  in  New  England  being  the  cod,  haddock,  mack- 
erel, and  halibut.  We  are  extremely  limited  in  our  taste  for 
mollusks,  the  clam,  quahog,  oyster,  and  scallop,  and,  rarely, 
the  mussel,  forming  the  usual  supply.  The  periwinkle, 
an  imported  species,  may  be  found  in  the  market 
for  the  Italian  population.  It  is  commonly  eaten  in 
England,  and  is  sweet  and  nutritious.  As  in  many 
other  matters  each  province  in  Japan  has  its  special 
type  of  fishhooks.  Figure  772  represents  the  cod 
hook  in  the  provinces  of  Echizen,  Echigo,  and  Ugo. 
The  eel  hook,  which  is  tied  to  the  end  of  a  long  pole,  fig.  774 
an  ordinary  fish  knife,  and  a  hand  hook  for  sorting 
fish  are  shown  in  figure  773.  In  Iwashiro  the  fishermen  use 
a  hook  for  catching  bonito,  a  kind  of  mackerel.  The  stem  is 
a  mass  of  lead,  in  the  side  an  oblong  strip  of  pearl  is  intro- 
duced; and  at  the  end,  surrounding  the  hook,  are  strips  of 
stiff  paper  (fig.  774).  For  trolling,  a  wooden  fish  is  used,  with 
a  metal  keel  to  keep  it  upright  and  a  double  row  of  hooks  in 
the  tail.   The  model  is  browned  over  hot  coals  and  darker 

spots  are  burned  on  the  sides 

(fig.  775). 
The  bric-a-brac  dealers  in 
FlG  775  Japan,  as  in  all  other  parts  of 

the  world,  are  not  famous  for 
their  rectitude.  When  one  recalls  the  frauds  he  may  have 
purchased  in  Europe  or  America  in  the  way  of  old  furni- 
ture, oil  paintings,  especially  "old  masters,"  Egyptian  relics, 
etc.,  he  will  not  judge  too  harshly  the  Japanese  dealers  in 
"old  Satsuma"  (often  warm  from  the  furnace),  old  kake- 


mono,  and  the  like.  With  all  this  knavery  one  cannot  but 
admire  the  ingenuity  of  some  of  these  cheats.  As  an  exam- 
ple, a  dealer  will  find  some  old  house  with  a  quaint  garden 
in  the  suburbs  of  Yokohama  or  Tokyo.  If  he  can  induce 
the  occupant  to  move  out  for  a  few  weeks,  "bag  and  bag- 
gage," he  will  fill  it  up  in  an  appropriate  way  with  kake- 
mono, bronzes,  folding  screens,  lacquer  boxes,  and  the  like. 
If  he  can  persuade  the  owner  —  provided  he  is  a  dignified  old 
gentleman  —  to  play  the  part  of  a  decayed  daimyo,  who  by 
an  unfortunate  turn  of  affairs  has  become  poor  and  is  com- 
pelled to  sell  his  art  treasures,  the  trap  with  its  bait  is  com- 
plete. A  foreigner  just  landed  and  wild  for  choice  examples 
of  Japanese  art,  is  incidentally  told  by  some  dealer  that  he 
knows  of  a  retired  daimyo,  within  a  few  miles  of  the  city, 
who  is  compelled  by  stress  of  circumstances  to  part  with  his 
household  belongings,  and  a  rare  chance  is  offered  to  secure 
heirlooms  of  great  merit  and  antiquity — such  an  opportun- 
ity as  occurs  but  once  in  a  lifetime.  Jinrikishas  are  engaged, 
and  after  a  long  and  delightful  ride  he  arrives  at  the  modest 
house  of  the  supposed  daimyo.  The  dealer  goes  ahead  and 
announces  his  coming.  He  is  then  formally  presented  to  the 
venerable  old  man,  who  with  exquisite  politeness  offers  tea 
and  cake  and  possibly  a  little  sake.  He  is  abashed  by  the  im- 
pertinence of  his  intrusion,  and  while  preliminary  skirmish- 
ing goes  on  through  an  interpreter  his  eyes  greedily  roam 
about  the  room  selecting  the  objects  he  is  bound  to  possess, 
at  the  same  time  hypnotized  by  the  dealer  and  beguiled  by 
the  refined  and  deprecating  manner  of  the  dear  old  man.  He 
is  ashamed  to  modify  the  prices  modestly  mentioned  for  this, 


that,  and  the  other  object.  With  a  feeling  of  exalted  triumph 
he  rides  back  to  the  hotel  with  jinrikisha  loaded  with  pur- 
chases, sure  that  this  time  at  least  he  has  secured  rare  old 
treasures,  to  find  out  that  the  stuff  is  all  fraudulent  and  that 
he  has  been  most  egregiously  swindled.  The  trouble  taken  by 
these  dealers  and  the  ingenuity  they  display  are  manifested 
in  other  ways.  If  you  are  in  the  Government  employ,  or  a 
teacher  in  the  University,  and  have  a  regular  route  of  travel 
to  and  from  your  duties,  an  object  you  have  admired  and  bar- 
tered for  in  some  remote  part  of  the  city,  and  which  you  have 
refused  to  buy  on  account  of  its  price,  is  placed  in  the  hands 
of  a  dealer  whose  shop  is  on  a  street  through  which  you  daily 
pass.  The  price  is  lower,  and  the  chances  are  that  you  secure 
it.  With  suspicions  that  it  is  the  same  object  that  you  had 
refused  to  buy  in  another  part  of  the  town,  you  immediately 
visit  the  remote  dealer  to  find  that  the  piece  you  wanted  has 
been  sold.  If,  furthermore,  you  refuse  to  buy  the  object  and 
again  visit  the  remote  dealer,  you  find  the  object  in  his  pos- 
session with  a  still  lower  price.  I  have  had  this  experience 
several  times. 

An  old  dealer  by  the  name  of  Gonza,  who  had  helped  me 
greatly  in  Nagoya  by  guiding  me  to  various  dealers  of  bric-a- 
brac  in  that  large  city,  and  who  seemed  above  suspicion, 
attempted  to  swindle  me  afterwards  in  a  manner  that,  had  I 
not  been  familiar  with  Japanese  pottery,  would  have  resulted 
in  my  being  woefully  cheated.  I  had  copied  very  carefully  from 
an  ancient  manuscript  certain  incised  marks  of  some  of  the 
early  potters  of  Seto.  These  copies  were  sent  to  Gonza  with  the 
request  that  he  would  hunt  up  pieces  bearing  these  signatures 


and  the  highest  prices  would  be  paid  for  them.  After  the  lapse 
of  a  few  months  a  box  came  to  me  from  Nagoya,  with  a  letter 
from  Gonza  giving  a  history  of  these  old  potters,  and  samples 



Fig.  776 

of  their  work  in  the  shape  of  tea-jars,  bowls,  and  other  objects 
in  pottery,  with  marks  on  the  pottery  apparently  the  same 
as  the  copies  I  had  sent  him.  I  was  sufficiently  familiar  with 
Japanese  pottery  to  see  at  a  glance  that  the  pottery,  instead 
of  being  three  or  four  hundred  years  old  was  not  over  thirty 
or  forty.  With  soap  and  water  and  a  brush  the  first  applica- 


tion  brought  out  the  dirt  that  had  been  rubbed  in,  leaving 
the  incised  marks  clear  and  bright.  An  ordinary  lens  showed 
that  the  marks  had  been  scratched  in  the  hard-baked  object, 
whereas  genuine  incised  marks  are  done  in  the  clay  before  it  is 
baked  and  show  raised  clay  at  the  ends  of  the  lines.  I  imme- 
diately wrote  to  him  a  fierce  letter,  stating  that  all  the  marks 
were  fraudulent,  and  that  I  should  show  him  up  as  a  swindler 
in  my  contemplated  work  on  Japanese  pottery.  In  the  course 
of  a  few  weeks  I  got  a  letter,  with  a  water-color  drawing  on 
silk,  from  Gonza  (fig.  776).  The  following  is  a  rough  transla- 
tion of  his  letter  by  Mr.  Takenaka:  — 

Morse  Sensei  — 

Dear  Sir,  —  Sometime  ago  on  account  of  my  unexercised 
eyes  I  made  a  mistake  in  criticizing  potteries.  I  am  very 
much  ashamed.  To  ask  your  forgiveness  again  for  my  fault  I 
send  you  now  a  note  of  the  acknowledgment  of  my  error.  In 
the  picture  the  gentleman  sitting  in  the  chair  and  inspecting 
pottery  is  Morse  Sensei,  another  is  Mr.  Takenaka,  the  other 
is  Mr.  Kimura.  The  man  who  kneels  down  at  the  front  of 
them  and  who  is  imploring  pardon  is  Gonza.  At  last  I  pray 
you  to  be  kind  to  me  in  publishing  your  book  on  pottery. 
I  regret  very  much  that  I  acted  wrong  against  you  whenever 
I  think  of  the  book  you  are  going  to  publish. 

I  remain,  dear  Sir,  your  obedient  servant, 


The  poem  in  the  picture  reads  as  follows:  "In  the  world  al- 
most everything  is  so.  You  cannot  see  from  the  outside  the 
astringency  of  some  persimmons." 


When  I  returned  home  from  Japan  I  crossed  to  China,  and 
after  a  short  stay  in  that  country,  I  went  down  the  coast, 
touching  at  Annam  and  spending  some  little  time  on  the  Malay 
Peninsula  and  in  Java.  From  Yokohama  to  Shanghai  I  sailed 
with  Captain  Connor,  an  Essex  County,  Massachusetts,  boy. 
After  passing  through  Shimonoseki  Straits,  Captain  Connor 
pointed  out  to  me  a  rocky  and  precipitous  island,  and  said 
that  eleven  years  before  he  and  his  wife  were  on  a  vessel  that 
was  wrecked  on  this  island.  The  night  was  very  dark,  though 
the  sea  was  calm.  Rockets  of  distress  were  sent  up,  and  in  a 
short  time  fishermen  came  alongside  from  up  and  down  the 
mainland,  to  aid  in  any  way.  The  personal  property  of  the 
passengers  was  passed  over  the  sides  of  the  vessel  to  these 
rescuers,  who  disappeared  in  the  darkness.  In  the  morning 
a  Japanese  Government  steamer  drew  alongside,  and  taking 
the  passengers  and  crew  aboard,  landed  them  at  Nagasaki,  a 
distance  of  one  hundred  and  forty  miles  from  the  scene  of  the 
shipwreck.  The  passengers,  somewhat  anxious  about  their 
personal  property,  consisting  of  all  their  clothing  and  other 
items,  wondered  how  they  were  to  recover  it,  and  were  politely 
informed  by  the  officers  that  as  soon  as  the  Government 
could  post  notices  along  the  coast  road  indicating  some  places 
where  the  property  might  be  brought,  all  the  material  would 
be  gathered  and  returned.  Within  a  few  days  every  single 
item,  to  cuff  buttons  and  soiled  collars,  was  brought  to 
Nagasaki,  and  not  a  single  object  was  lost.  Captain  Connor 
added,  with  a  bitter  smile,  that  a  few  years  before  he  and  his 
wife  were  wrecked  on  the  coast  of  New  Jersey  in  the  month 
of  November.  It  was  very  cold  at  the  time.  It  is  needless  to 



mention  the  bitter  treatment  they  received  except  to  state 
that  they  were  robbed  of  everything. 

In  no  better  way  does  the  freedom  from  all  bigotry  show 
itself  than  in  the  way  in  which  the  Chinese  practice  of  medi- 
cine was  doomed  when  the  people  began  to  see  the  sound 
principles  of  the  foreign  practice.  The 
prompt  establishment  of  a  medical  college, 
and  the  inquiries  that  were  made  as  to 
where  Americans  were  sent  to  finish  their 
medical  education,  showed  the  sagacity 
of  the  Government.  It  was  found  that  our 
distinguished  physicians  and  surgeons  had 
studied  in  the  medical  schools  and  hos- 
pitals of  Berlin  and  Vienna.  Thereupon 
Germans  were  invited  to  teach  in  the  med- 
ical college  and  students  had  to  be  well 
grounded  in  the  German  language  before 
entering.  Furthermore,  a  chemical  lab- 
oratory was  established  in  Yokohama  for  the  purpose  of 
examining  all  drugs  that  were  imported  to  the  country  to 
ascertain  their  purity.  The  absurd  pharmacopoeia  of  the  em- 
pirical Chinese  practice  was  discarded,  although  in  the  coun- 
try one  would  often  see  hanging  from  the  ceiling  the  dried 
foetuses  of  deer  (fig.  777),  or  dried  centipedes,  and  other 
grotesque  absurdities  representing  the  materia  medica  of  the 

A  quack  is  called  a  bamboo  doctor,  probably  because  the 
bamboo  is  light  and  hollow. 

I  made  the  acquaintance  of  Mr.  Sugi,  head  of  the  Statistical 

Fig.  777 


Department  of  Tokyo,  and  found  him  a  very  intelligent  man, 
interested  in  the  antiquities  of  Japan,  tea  ceremonies,  and  the 
like.  From  him  I  secured  many  interesting  facts  regarding 
health  conditions  of  Tokyo.  Dr.  Baker,  of  Lansing,  Michigan, 
Secretary  of  the  State  Board  of  Health,  sent  me  his  report  for 
1879.  Among  vital  statistics  I  found  that  eighty-seven  mur- 
ders had  been  committed  in  that  year.  As  the  population  of 
the  State  of  Michigan  at  that  time  was  only  slightly  larger 
than  the  population  of  Tokyo,  I  asked  Mr.  Sugi  how  many 
murders  had  been  committed  in  Tokyo  for  the  year.  He 
said  none;  indeed,  only  eleven  murders  and  two  cases  of  poli- 
tical assassination  had  been  committed  in  Tokyo  in  the  last 
ten  years. 

On  inquiry  of  Mr.  Agee  and  others  in  regard  to  the  first 
public  lectures  in  Japan  it  was  difficult  to  secure  reliable  in- 
formation. The  renowned  Fukuzawa  informed  me  that  in  1871 
a  number  of  scholars  met  together  and  papers  and  essays  were 
read.  The  sessions  were  private.  In  1873-74  an  association 
was  formed  under  the  name  of  Mairokushi,  consisting  of  older 
scholars.  The  public  was  admitted  to  their  discussions.  Trans- 
actions were  also  published.  In  1874-75  Mr.  Fukushi  and 
Mr.  Numa  gave  a  few  lectures,  for  which  a  small  admission  fee 
was  charged.  In  the  latter  part  of  1875  a  lecture  association 
was  established  under  the  name  of  Kodankai.  Messrs.  Fuku- 
zawa, Obata,  Enouye,  Yano,  Agee,  and  other  scholars  met 
twice  a  month.  A  small  fee  was  charged  for  admission  to  the 
lectures,  and  at  first  much  opposition  was  shown  by  some  of 
the  members,  as  it  was  thought  highly  improper,  not  to  say 
discourteous,  to  ask  an  admission  fee.    Another  organization 


was  effected  in  1878,  known  as  the  New  Kodankai,  the  first 
meeting  being  held  on  September  21,  1878.  Mr.  Agee  at- 
tempted to  establish  public  lecturing  as  a  paid  profession,  after 
the  American  method.  Again  the  charging  of  an  admission 
fee  caused  the  resignation  of  some  of  the  members.  The  lec- 
tures were  given  on  Sunday,  and  four  or  five  lectures  were 
given  at  each  session,  with  an  intermission  of  a  few  minutes 
between  the  lectures.  Among  those  who  lectured  in  the  first 
course  were  Messrs.  Sugi,  Nishi,  Toyama,  Kawazu,  Kato, 
Agee,  Kikuchi,  Numa,  Fukuzawa,  Sato,  Fujita,  Nakamura, 
and  three  Americans,  Mendenhall,  Fenollosa,  and  Morse.  The 
lecturers  were  Japanese  and  American  professors  of  the  Im- 
perial University,  officials  of  Government  departments,  edi- 
tors, a  Buddhist  priest,  and  other  prominent  men.  The  lec- 
tures were  given  in  a  large  hall,  and  the  audience  averaged 
from  six  to  eight  hundred  and  showed  no  diminution  in  num- 
bers to  the  end.  It  was  interesting  to  see  the  auditors  squat- 
ting on  the  matted  floor,  —  not  closely  jammed  together,  — 
attentive  and  evidently  eager  to  understand  the  lectures  on 
evolution  in  religion,  in  the  solar  system,  and  in  the  animal 
kingdom.  The  platform  was  only  slightly  raised  above  the 
level  of  the  matted  floor.  There  was,  of  course,  no  artificial 
heat  in  the  hall.  At  times  it  was  so  cold  that  I  had  to  wear  my 
thick  winter  ulster  while  lecturing.  Compelled  to  be  in  my 
stockinged  feet,  I  endeavored  in  vain  to  stand  in  one  place, 
but  by  the  end  of  the  lecture  my  feet  were  very  cold.  At  the 
end  of  the  lecture  many  of  the  auditors  would  rise  to  exchange 
greetings  with  some  friends  in  other  parts  of  the  hall.  I  used 
to  watch  the  place  where  some  corpulent  auditor  was  sitting, 


and  if  he  rose,  I  would  find  the  hot  spot  on  the  mats  where  he 
had  sat  and  warm  my  feet  till  the  lectures  proceeded.  It  was 
a  curious  experience  in  my  early  lectures  in  Japan  to  have  a 
police  officer  armed  with  a  sword  sitting  in  a  chair  by  my  side 
and  facing  the  audience.  My  lamented  friend,  Mr.  Agee,  was 
known  as  a  radical,  and  he  interpreted  my  lectures.  He  might 
have  made  me  utter  the  most  seditious  sentiments,  so  far 
as  I  knew,  for  I  had  only  acquired  a  few  Japanese  words  and 
expressions.  Later  in  my  lecture  experiences  I  had  learned 
enough  of  the  language  often  to  grasp  the  meaning  of  my  in- 
terpreter's translation,  and  on  a  few  occasions  I  ventured  to 
correct  him.  The  pleased  and  sympathetic  expressions  of  my 
auditors  at  the  evidence  that  I  was  beginning  to  understand 
their  language,  were  gratifying. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  subjects  dealt  with  in  the  first 
course  of  the  Kodankai:  — 

Sept.  21.  Mr.  Toyama.  On  public  speeches  and  lectures. 

Mr.  Kawazu.  Advantages  and  disadvantages  of  a  represen- 
tative assembly. 

Mr.  Fujita.  Necessity  of  cooperation. 

Mr.  Nishi.  Congratulatory  address. 

Mr.  Fukuzawa.  Criticism  on  his  "Rights  of  the  Nation." 

Mr.  Morse.  Congratulatory  address. 
Oct.     6.  Dr.  Hasegawa  (of  the  city  hospital).  Evil  effects  of  drinking 
impure  water. 

Mr.  Numa.  Conflict  of  native  and  foreign  laws. 

Mr.  Shimaji.  On  value. 

Mr.  Kikuchi.  Evolution  of  the  solar  system. 

Mr.  Ouchi.  Advantages  of  admitting  women  to  more  social 

Mr.  Nishi.  Practice  makes  perfect. 

Mr.  Nakamura.  On  competition  and  cooperation. 

Mr.  Mendenhall.  Introductory  address. 
Oct.   20.  Mr.  Kikuchi.  Evolution  of  the  solar  system  (continued). 


Oct.   20.  Mr.  Morse.  Insect  life. 

Dr.  Kato  (Director  of  the  Imperial  University).  On  the 
opinions  of  Moto-ori  and  Hirata.  (Old  Japanese  scholars 
who  believed  that  Chinese  civilization  ought  to  be  disre- 
garded, as  the  Japanese  had  a  civilization  of  their  own.) 

Mr.  Toyama.  Association  of  ideas. 

Mr.  Sugi.  Moral  statistics. 
Oct.   27,  28,  31,  and  Nov.  2.    Mr.  Morse.    A  course  of  four  lectures 

on  Darwinism.    Evolution  of  the  animal  kingdom. 
Nov.  10.  Mr.  Agee.  On  the  army  and  navy. 

Mr.  Nishi.  Practice  makes  perfect  (continued). 

Mr.  Fenollosa.  Evolution  of  religions. 

Mr.  Ono.  Battle  of  words.  (Showing  the  persuasive  effect  of 

Mr.  Fujita.  On  the  Forty-seven  Ronins. 
Nov.  17.  Mr.  Fukuzawa.  Rights  of  the  nation  (extra  territoriality). 

Mr.  Kikuchi.  Future  of  the  solar  system. 

Mr.  Toyama.  Matters  relating  to  foreign  intercourse  cannot 
easily  be  altered. 

Mr.  Fenollosa.  Evolution  of  religions  (continued). 
Dec.     1.  Mr.  Kawazu.  Absurdity  of  Socialism. 

Mr.  Fenollosa.  Evolution  of  religions  (concluded). 

Mr.  Morse.  The  Glacial  Theory. 

Mr.  Tsuji.  On  the  fine  arts. 
Dec.  15.  Mr.  Agee.  On  assumed  virtue. 

Mr.  Kikuchi.  What  constitutes  a  good  government. 

Mr.  Fujita.  Necessity  of  checks. 

Mr.  Sugi.  Moral  statistics. 
Jan.      5.  Mr.  Kikuchi.  Evolution  in  general.  » 

Mr.  Toyama.  Illusion  of  the  senses. 

Mr.  Morse.  Laws  of  growth  in  animals. 

Mr.  Nakamura.  Good  and  evil  of  society. 

Mr.  Kato.  A  few  words  to  the  members. 

Mr.  Sato.  Cultivation  of  the  brain. 

Mr.  Agee.  On  the  evil  effects  of  rewarding  informers. 

An  insight  into  the  intellectual  activities  of  the  Japanese 
may  be  gathered,  not  only  by  the  books  which  have  been 
translated  into  Japanese  and  sold  by  the  thousands,  but  by 
the  subjects  dealt  with  in  these  public  lectures.  I  know  of  no 


public  course  of  lectures  in  the  United  States  to  compare  with 
them,  except  the  Lowell  Institute's  free  courses  of  lectures  in 

The  intellectual  character  of  the  audience  may  be  judged 
by  the  fact  that  it  sat  patiently  through  a  session  of  four  or 
five  one-hour  lectures  with  only  a  slight  intermission  between 
them.  What  lecture  audience  in  America,  or  in  any  other 
country,  could  stand  such  an  ordeal  as  that! 

The  official  positions  of  some  of  these  men  who  lectured  in 
this  first  course  of  the  association  are  as  follows:  Mr.  Fujita, 
editor  of  a  Tokyo  daily  paper;  Mr.  Nishi,  formerly  clerk  in 
the  War  Department;  Mr.  Fukuzawa,  famous  teacher,  repre- 
sentative in  new  local  assembly;  Mr.  Hasekawa,  doctor  in  the 
City  Hospital;  Mr.  Numa,  clerk  in  Genroin  (Privy  Council); 
Mr.  Shimaji,  Buddhist  preacher;  Mr.  Kikuchi,  Professor 
of  Mathematics,  Imperial  University,  Cambridge  wrangler; 
Mr.  Ouchi,  editor  of  a  Buddhist  religious  journal;  Mr.  Kato, 
director  of  the  Imperial  University,  famous  Dutch  scholar; 
Mr.  Toyama,  Professor  of  Philosophy,  graduate  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  Michigan;  Mr.  Sugi,  head  of  statistical  department; 
Mr.  Kawazu,  clerk  in  Genroin;  Mr.  Agee,  Professor  of  the 
Imperial  University;  Mr.  Ono,  clerk  in  Genroin;  Mr.  Tsuji, 
clerk  in  the  Educational  Department. 

In  the  fall  of  1882  the  Department  of  Education  invited  the 
head  teachers  of  the  various  kens  to  meet  together  in  Tokyo 
for  the  purpose  of  discussing  matters  connected  with  their 
work.  Among  other  questions  that  came  up  was  one  referring 

1  Our  public  lecture  courses  have  now  fallen  from  their  high  standard  of  thirty 
years  ago  to  lantern  shows,  musical  entertainments,  with  rarely  a  thoughtful  or 
scientific  lecture. 


to  the  teaching  of  physical  science  in  the  schools.  It  was  urged 
by  many  that  the  apparatus  for  this  purpose  was  far  beyond 
their  power  to  purchase,  and  without  the  apparatus  but  little 
progress  could  be  made.  Thereupon  the  pupils  of  the  Tokyo 
Normal  School  resolved  to  make  a  number  of  devices  to  il- 
lustrate how  cheaply  and  easily  many  of  the  instruments  re- 
quired for  the  study  of  physics  could  be  made.  Before  the 
session  ended  the  students  had  made  fifty-six  instruments, 
which  were  exhibited  on  the  platform,  with  a  list  of  the  mate- 
rials used  in  their  construction.  These  materials  consisted  of 
bits  of  glass  and  wire,  bottles,  corks,  bamboo,  stuff  that  could 
be  got  from  any  junk-shop.  From  the  list  of  devices  here  given 
it  will  be  seen  that  the  Japanese  are  not  only  apt  pupils  in 
acquiring  a  knowledge  of  physical  science,  but  that  they  dis- 
play a  great  deal  of  ingenuity  in  fabricating  the  proper  appar- 
atus for  its  illustration.  I  could  not  help  realizing  what  a 
grasp  of  the  subject  a  student  would  get  in  studying  out  and 
constructing  this  primitive  apparatus.  Such  an  example 
might  profitably  be  followed  by  our  students  at  home  with 
their  Yankee  ingenuity  and  skill  with  a  jack-knife,  and  with 
a  far  larger  assortment  of  materials  to  be  found,  even  about 
the  house. 

List,  of  devices 

1.  Balance. 

2.  Balance  with  weights. 

3.  Pendulum. 

4.  Centrifugal  machine. 

5.  Inclined  plane. 

6.  Centre  of  gravity,  double  cone. 

7.  Dropping-machine  with  pendulum. 

8.  Centre  of  gravity.  Equilibrist. 


9.  Lever  balance. 

10.  Heros  fountain. 

11.  Suction  pump. 

12.  Cohesion  figures. 

13.  Barker's  mill,  with  inclined  plane. 

14.  Forcing  pump. 

15.  Illustrating  air  pressure. 

16.  Geissler's  air  pump. 

17.  Illustrating  suction. 

18.  Air  receiver,  with  manometer. 

19.  Baroscope,  with  air  receiver. 

20.  Windmill. 

21.  Illustrating  suction. 

22.  Air  pump  exhausting  and  condensing. 

23.  Tuning-fork. 

24.  Vibration  of  bell. 

25.  Savert's  apparatus,  with  two  kinds  of  resonator. 

26.  Sonometer,  with  bow. 

27.  Wave  phenomena. 

28.  Resonator. 

29.  Pyrometer. 

30.  Expansion  of  solid. 

31.  Angle  mirrors. 

32.  Rumford's  photometer. 

33.  Efflux  of  gas. 

34.  Light  experiment. 

35.  Camera  obscura. 

36.  Continuation  of  light. 

37.  Diffusion  of  light. 

38.  Hollow  prism. 

39.  Expansion  of  gas,  with  index. 

40.  Expansion  of  liquids. 

41.  Illustration  of  thermometer. 

42.  Magnetic  needle. 

43.  Magnetic  needle,  with  stand. 

44.  Electric  pendulum. 

45.  Universal  discharger. 

46.  Electro  ball. 

47.  Electro  pendulum. 

48.  Discharger. 

49.  Insulating  stool. 

50.  Alarum  bell. 


51.  Electro  wheel. 

52.  Nairne's  electro  machine. 

53.  Ley  den  jar. 

54.  Galvanometer. 

55.  Galvanic  keys. 

56.  Gravitation  battery. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  the  objects  used  in  construction: 
copper,  brass,  and  iron  wire,  bamboo  in  various  forms,  thread 
and  string,  augers  and  gimlets*  saucers,  card,  zinc  and  tin 
plate,  lead  bullets,  old  seats,  shallow  wooden  tub,  lid  of  box, 
spinning-top,  thin  boards,  wine  bottles,  glass  tubing,  buckets, 
lamp  chimney,  paper  and  cardboard,  pieces  of  leather,  copper 
coins,  shell,  wine  glass,  tumblers,  rubber  tubing,  mercury, 
candles,  flask,  rubber  ball,  needles  of  various  kinds,  wheat 
straws,  lady's  scissors,  porcelain  bowl,  cups,  lantern,  abacus 
balls,  paper  tea  caddy,  priest's  bell,  draughting-board,  hook 
nails,  mirror  glass  and  ordinary  glass,  magnifying  glass, 
feather,  sealing  wax,  vitriol,  watch-spring,  small  bottles,  and 

The  rough  and  aggressive  Anglo-Saxons,  until  within  a  half- 
century,  have  held  the  most  erroneous  ideas  of  the  Japanese. 
It  was  thought  that  a  nation  whose  men  flew  kites,  studied 
flower  arrangement,  enjoyed  toy  gardens,  carried  fans,  and 
manifested  other  effeminate  customs  and  behaviors,  must  of 
necessity  be  a  weak  and  childish  people.  The  "Encyclopaedia 
Britannica"  of  1857  says:  "The  Japanese  at  one  time  enjoyed 
a  high  reputation  among  Eastern  nations  for  courage  and  mil- 
itary prowess.  This,  however,  is  no  longer  the  case,  and  we 
suspect  they  will  be  found  an  essentially  feeble  and  pusillani- 
mous people.  According  to  Golownin,  they  are  deficient  in 


courage,  and  in  the  art  of  war  mere  children.  This  can  scarcely 
fail  to  be  the  case  with  a  people  who,  by  all  accounts,  have  en- 
joyed peace  external  and  internal  for  more  than  two  centuries. 
A  courageous  and  patient  endurance  of  pain  and  suffering,  and 
even  a  contempt  of  death,  we  know  to  be  quite  consistent 
with  a  lack  of  active,  aggressive  courage."  It  is  not  necessary 
to  go  back  as  far  as  that,  however.  Lord  Curzon,  in  his  inter- 
esting book  entitled  "Problems  of  the  Far  East,"  published  in 
1894,  in  speaking  of  Japanese  aspirations  says:  "The  military 
parade  which  Japan,  taking  advantage  of  the  recent  disorder 
in  Korea,  is  making  in  that  country  as  these  pages  go  to  press, 
and  which  threatens  to  involve  her  in  serious  dispute,  if  not 
in  actual  conflict,  with  China,  is  a  later  outcome  of  the  same 
impetuous  Chauvinism."  He  further  says  these  demonstra- 
tions "bring  a  smile  to  the  lips  even  of  the  most  impassioned 
apologist  for  national  delirium."  Recent  events  have  shown 
how  superficial  was  the  judgment  of  the  Anglo-Saxon. 

The  two  great  nations,  China  and  Russia,  the  terror  of 
Europe,  were  both  thrashed  by  the  Japanese  within  a  period 
of  eight  years  (1894-1902);  their  fleets  utterly  destroyed,  and 
indemnity  secured  —  in  cash  from  China,  and  from  Russia 
the  southern  half  of  the  island  of  Saghalien.  England  for  the 
first  time  regarded  Japan  as  worthy  of  notice  and  formed  an 
alliance  with  her.   Really  the  ethics  of  a  mining  camp ! 

A  late  writer  on  the  Japanese  says:  "Togo's  people,  the 
Japanese,  are  a  race  of  patriots  —  toilers  and  warriors,  too. 
Their  characteristic  is  not  yet  fully  understood  by  the  peoples 
of  the  West.  They  have  been  represented  to,  us  by  many  su- 
perficial observers  as  a  race  of  imitators,  incapable  of  original 


action,  competent  only  to  select  the  best  inventions  of  other 
people  and  to  apply  these  inventions  in  an  awkward  manner 
for  their  own  use.  Nothing  is  further  from  the  truth.  No 
people  on  earth  is  keener  in  search  of  exact  knowledge.  No 
people  on  earth  is  animated  by  a  stronger  national  feeling. 
No  people  on  earth  is  capable  of  larger  individual  sacrifice  for 
the  common  good.  No  people  on  earth  excels  the  Japanese  in 
clarity  or  subtlety  of  logical  thought." 

In  closing,  the  reader  may  wonder,  after  the  manners  of 
the  Japanese  have  been  so  often  contrasted  with  those  of  our- 
selves, what  my  attitude  is  regarding  my  own  people.  I  be- 
lieve that  we  have  much  to  learn  from  Japanese  life,  and 
that  we  may  to  our  advantage  frankly  recognize  some  of  our 
weaknesses.  The  words  of  Mr.  O'Meara,  the  Police  Commis- 
sioner in  Boston,  have  deeply  impressed  me.  He  declared 
that  hoodlumism  was  the  greatest  menace  to  our  country.  I 
have  therefore  held  up  in  contrast  the  behavior  of  the  Jap- 
anese. My  comparisons  are  not'  invidious.  They  are  simply 
plain  statements  of  facts  as  I  saw  them  forty  years  ago.  To 
feel  this  weakness  of  ours  is  not  to  condemn  us  as  an  inferior 
people,  and  one  may  still  read  with  a  feeling  of  pride  and  belief 
such  appreciative  comments  about  America  as  Hall  Caine,  in 
"My  Story,"  writes.  "I  love  its  people  because  they  are  free 
with  a  freedom  which  the  rest  of  the  world  takes  as  by  stealth, 
and  they  claim  openly  as  their  right.  I  love  them  because 
they  are  the  most  industrious,  earnest,  active,  and  ingenious 
people  on  the  earth;  because  they  are  the  most  moral,  reli- 
gious, and  above  all,  the  most  sober  people  in  the  world; 
because,  in  spite  of  all  shallow  judgments  of  superficial  ob- 


servers,  they  are  the  most  childlike  in  their  national  charac- 
ter, the  easiest  to  move  to  laughter,  the  readiest  to  be  touched 
to  tears,  the  most  absolutely  true  in  their  impulses,  and  the 
most  generous  in  their  applause.  I  love  the  men  of  America 
because  their  bearing  towards  the  women  is  the  finest  chiv- 
alry I  have  yet  seen  anywhere,  and  I  love  the  women  be- 
cause they  can  preserve  an  unquestioned  purity  with  a  frank 
and  natural  manner,  and  a  fine  independence  of  sex." 




Acting,  I,  404-06. 

Actors,  I,  29,  fig.,  30,  fig.,  385,  fig.,  404-06. 
,/Affection  and  its  manifestation,  I,  384,  385; 
2,  202,  203. 

Agee,  Professor,  i, 364,  390, 414 ;  2, 426-30. 

Ainus,  dance  of,  2, 1 ;  poisoned  arrows  of,  2 ; 
offerings  to  the  gods,  2;  huts,  3,  fig.,  15, 
fig.,  21-27,  figs.;  women,  3,  4,  fig.,  19, 
20,  figs.;  and  bear  trap,  12;  children,  19, 
20,  figs.;  boxes,  21,  22;  village,  22,  fig., 
29;  weapons,  26,  fig.,  27,  fig.;  store- 
houses, 27,  28,  figs.;  mortars,  28,  fig.; 
boats,  28,  fig. ;  salutations,  29 ;  horses,  29- 
32,  figs.;  shrines,  33,  fig.;  gifts  of  various 
articles,  376,  377,  figs. 

Alphabet,  Japanese  and  Chinese,  I,  166  n., 
218,  219. 

America,  Hall  Caine  quoted  on,  2,  435,  436. 

Anchors,  2,  162,  163,  fig.;  Ainu,  377,  fig. 

Ancient  implements,  I,  311,  fig. 

Anniversaries,  2,  195. 

Antiquarians,  calls  from,  2,  414,  415. 

Ants,  speed  of  movement  of,  2,  195. 

Aomori,  2,  48. 

Aqueducts,  2,  275,  276,  fig. 

Archaeological  museum,  University,  Tokyo, 
beginning  of,  I,  311. 

Archery,  2,  211,  212,  334,  335,  361,  figs., 
362;  Korean,  296,  329;  Ainu,  355,  356. 

Arrows,  Ainu,  2,  27,  fig. ;  Japanese,  353. 

Art,  wonders  of  Japanese,  I,  252,  253,  figs., 
258-62,  figs.,  305,  fig.,  306,  fig.;  house- 
hold, 269,  270,  fig.;  hand-work,  2,  104, 
105,  figs. ;  fictile,  state  of  early,  376. 

Art  and  nature,  I,  252,  253. 

Artists  and  artizans,  I,  343. 

Aaakusa,  Tokyo,  I,  125,  266,  267,  269;  2, 

Asiatic  Society  of  Japan,  the,  I,  320,  359. 

Assassination,  a  political,  I,  376-79. 

Astronomy,  ignorance  of,  2,  165. 

Audience  in  theatre,  I,  28,  29. 

Awls,  I,  412,  fig. 

Axes,  I,  278,  fig. 

Azaleas,  I,  66,  83,  95. 

•Babies.  See  Children. 
Back,  pounding  the,  I,  318. 
Bags,  saddle,  I,  424,  fig. 

Baird,  Professor,  I,  36  n. 

Bairei,  Mr.,  2,  260-62,  301. 

Ball-playing,  2,  81. 

Bamboo,  uses  of,  I,  32,  53,  101,  108,  113, 

156,  fig.;  2,  145,  fig.,  162,  fig.,  276,  fig.; 

lumber  yards  of,  I,  119. 
Barbers,  peripatetic,  I,  53,  230;  outfit  of, 

230,  fig.;  movements  of,  378;  women,  2, 

Basket  of  candy,  2,  262,  fig. 
Baskets,  fish,  I,  35,  fig.;  orange,  2,  86,  fig.; 

Ainu  fish,  377,  fig. 
Basket-work,  I,  271-73,  figs. 
Bathhouse,  2,  162,  fig. 
fBaths,  public,  I,  97-101,  fig. 
Battledore  and  shuttlecock,  2,  87,  figs. 
Beads,  on  harness,  2,  163,  fig.;  rare  and 

valuable,  366,  figs. 
Beans,  I,  37,  fig. 

Beggars,  I,  21,  34,  49,  178,  179,  430. 
Bells,  method  of  striking,  I,  75,  80,  fig. 
Betto,  I,  9. 

Bigelow,  Dr.  William  Sturgis,  2,  208. 
Bills,  currency,  I,  318. 
Bills,  inn,  2,  36,  fig. 
Biological  society,  I,  340;  2,  214. 
Birds,  tameness  of,  2,  66,  fig.,  80;  trained, 

229-33,  figs. 
'Birth  superstitions,  2,  310. 
Biwa,  the,  I,  379,  fig.;  2, 121,  fig.,  394,  fig., 

Blacksmith's  shop,  I,  344,  fig. 
Blacksmiths,  I,  60,  378;  2,  292,  345,  fig. 
Blind  masseurs,  I,  20,  219,  220. 
Blindness,  I,  20,  50,  53. 
Blocks,  city,  I,  121,  150,  fig.,  383,  fig. 
Blow-guns,  I,  123. 
Blowing  bubbles,  I,  207,  fig.,  412. 
Bluffs,  undercut,  2,  32,  fig.,  40,  fig.;  erosion 

in,  70,  fig. 
Board,  cost  of,  2,  369. 
Boat,  adventure  in  a,  I,  101,  102,  fig.;  and 

crew,  186,  fig.; 2, 60,  fig.,  62,  fig.,  63,  figs., 

65,  figs.;  in  two  parts,  198,  figs.;  Ainu 

fishing,  377,  fig. 
Boat-bailer,  Ainu,  2,  377,  fig. 
Boat-making,  2,  258. 
Boatmen,  I,  1,  113,  131,  186,422,  fig.; 2,  65, 

fig.     See  Boat. 



Boats, 1, 1,  2,  fig.;  river,  111-14,  figs.; 2,  65, 
fig.;  in  river  festival,  I,  129-31,  fig.; 
names  of,  215;  fishing,  225,  fig.,  226;  2, 
16, 17,  figs.;  features  of,  1, 238,  fig.;  Ainu, 
2, 28,  fig. ;  Satsuma,  154,  fig.  See  Junks. 

Bones,  fragments  of,  2,  11,  fig. 

Books,  I,  120,  fig.,  162;  English,  in  Japa- 
nese, 2,  317,  318. 

Booths,  1, 348,  fig.,  350,  351,  fig.;  melon,  2, 
54,  55,  fig. 

Boots,  I,  384,  fig.;  Ainu,  2,  377,  fig. 

Botanical  Garden,  Tokyo,  I,  378,  379. 

Botany,  device  for  studying,  I,  396,  fig. 

Boundary  marks,  2,  54. 

Bouts,  wrestling,  I,  18,  268. 
lowing,  I,  330. 

Bowl,  with  arrow  design,  2,  167,  fig. ;  a  puz- 
zling, 395,  396. 

Box,  of  cake  and  candy,  2,  213,  214,  fig.; 
souvenir  of  Suo,  223,  fig.;  with  bands, 
397,  398,  fig. 

Boxes,  Ainu,  2,  21,  22. 

Boys,  names  of,  I,  213;  festival,  329,  371; 
Japanese,  compared  with  American,  362; 

•^"dress,  2,  122,  123,  fig.;  bringing-up,  366. 

Brachiopods,  I,  183,  427. 

Bread  in  form  of  salamander,  I,  257,  fig. 

Breakfast,  I,  145. 

Bric-a-brac,  collecting,  2,  104-07,  figs.; 
dealers  in,  419-23. 

Bridge,  swept  away,  1, 242, 243 ;  with  turtles, 
368,  fig.;  with  bed  and  abutments  pro- 
tected, 2,  286,  fig. 

Bridge  models,  I,  149. 

Bridge  pier,  model  of,  1, 149,  fig. 

Bridges,  1,71, 196,  fig.,  381,  382,  figs.;  stone- 
arched,  2,  141,  162,  fig.,  178,  fig.;  railless, 
142,  fig.;  stone,  177,  fig.;  arched,  257,  fig. 

Brooks,  Professor,  2,  8,  9,  10. 

Brooms,  I,  147. 

Bucket  and  dipper,  I,  331. 

Buckets,  I,  24,  fig.,  97,  fig.,  270,  fig.,  304, 
fig.,  305,  fig. 

Buddhas,  stone,  I,  85,  428,  429,  fig. 

Buddhist  burial,  I,  408-10,  figs. 

Buddhist  shrines,  I,  121,  168,  fig. 

Buddhist  temple,  Tokyo,  I,  125-28. 

Building  methods,  I,  12,  13,  fig. 

Bull  teams,  I,  234,  fig. 

Bulls,  I,  152;  2,  140. 

Bundles,  I,  371,  372,  fig.;  carrying,  389,  fig. 

Butter,  1, 120. 

Butterflies,  I,  85,  95;  paper,  299,  fig. 

Cabinet-makers,  I,  379,  fig. 
Cabinet-work,  2,  241,  figs. 
Caine,  Hall,  quoted  on  America,  2,  435, 

Cake,  presenting,  2,  311. 

Calendar,  2,  98,  fig.;  superstitions,  310,  311. 

Camphor  tree,  2,  175,  fig. 

Canals,  2,  382-84,  figs. 

Candles,  2,  233,  fig.,  234,  fig. 

Candlesticks,  I,  146,  fig.;  234,  figs. 

Candy,  I,  110;  2,  332;  in  revolting  forms,  I, 
257 ;  peddlers  of,  326-28,  fig. ;  a  present  of, 
395,  fig.;  mottoes,  2,  392,  fig.,  393. 

Cantilever,  I,  149,  fig. 

Cards,  students  playing,  I,  236. 

Cards  of  silkworm  eggs,  I,  109,  fig.,  110. 

Carnivals.  See  Fairs,  Festivals. 

Carp,  subject  for  decoration,  I,  329. 

Carpenters,  I,  60,  264,  265,  fig.,  373,  fig.; 
and  their  tools,  411,  412,  fig. 

Carts,  man-drawn,  I,  9,  fig.;  matsuri,  298, 
299,  figs.;  dirt,  388,  389,  fig.;  2,  303,  304, 

Castle  moat,  I,  13,  136,  328,  fig.,  329;  2, 

Castle  of  Hideyoshi,  2, 196,  197,  figs. 

Castle  of  Nagoya,  2, 254,  fig.,  255. 

Catholic  missionaries,  2,  134,  135. 

Cats,  I,  363. 

Cave  of  centipedes,  2,  169-72,  fig. 

Cave  shrine,  a,  I,  165,  fig.,  166. 

Caves,  mortuary,  2,  174;  of  Kabutoyama, 

Ceiling,  wood  for,  2,  341. 

Cemeteries,  I,  20,  409,  410;  2,  46,  404. 

Centipedes,  cave  of,  2,  169-72,  fig. 

Chaire,  2,  119,  120,  figs. 

Chambermaid,  I,  341,  fig. 

Chamber-work,  I,  237,  238,  fig. 

Change,  word  for,  I,  -234. 

Chanty,  of  Japanese  boatmen,  1, 1,  3,  186, 
422;  2,  64,  fig.;  of  pile-driving  men,  I,  4; 
2,  283;  of  cart-men,  I,  9;  of  workmen,  77, 
115, 346, 380 ;  2, 82, 292 ;  of  carriers,  1, 171  ; 
of  fishermen,  171. 

Charms,  2,  348,  349. 

Cherry  blossoms,  I,  118. 

Chess,  Japanese,  I,  61,  210,  331,  fig.;  de- 
scribed, 163,  fig.,  164. 

Chessboard,  I,  163,  fig. 

Chessmen,  I,  163,  fig.,  164. 

Child,  drawing  of,  by  Matsumura,  I,  224, 

Children,  carried  on  the  back,  1, 10,  23,  fig., 
26, 41, 52,  fig.,  108, 114,  fig.,  153,  fig.,  201, 
fig.,  202,  fig.,  391,  fig.;  good-behaviour %/ 
of,  10;  2,  100;  heads  shaved,  i,  10,  22, 
199,  201,  fig.,  372;  2, 138,  fig.;  present  at 
every  kind  of  activity,  I, 26 ;  Japan  a  para- 
dise for,  41, 299, 351 ;  engage  in  work,  41, 
42;  beckoning  to,  52;  drawing  experience 
with,  56;  legs  short  in  proportion  to  arms, 



65;  group  of,  109,  fig. ;  making  mud  cakes, 
*J^7;  good-manners  of,  128;  incising 
names,  147;  abdominal  protuberances  of , 
155;  modeling  temple,  181,  182;  dressed 
for  company,  198,  199,  fig.;  with  insects 
on  strings,  258;  games  of,  296,  297; 
Ainu,  2,  19,  20,  figs.;  pretty,  75,  76;  in 
the  theatre,  100;  dancing,  122,  fig.;  at 
fair,  369;  Japanese,  resemblances  to 
American,  402,  403;  tags  of,  412,  fig. 

Children's  fair,  I,  350,  351,  fig. 

Chimneys,  I,  182,  fig. 

Chinese,  in  Japan,  1, 277, 285, 286,  fig.;  com- 
pared with  Japanese,  370. 

Chinese  accountants,  I,  147-49. 

Chinese  characters,  I,  54,  90,  fig.,  166,  fig., 
171,  218,  219,  265,  369,  fig. ;  2,  82,  83,  fig., 
110-16,  306,  307,  318;  conciseness  of  sen- 
timent expressed  by,  244;  used  in  letters, 

Chinese  classics,  reading,  1, 183. 

Chinese  medicine,  2, 425. 

Chinese  sounds  and  inflections,  1, 368, 369. 

Chitose,  2,  14,  fig. 

Chiuzenji,  trip  to,  I,  81-89;  in  winter,  89; 
little  clothing  worn  in,  89;  ascent  of  Nan- 
tai  from,  89-104. 

Chiuzenji,  Lake,  I,  86,  91,  95. 

Cholera,  I,  336;  2,  153,  244,  245. 

Chopper,  I,  374,  fig. 

Chopsticks,  I,  33,  34;  use  of,  142,  fig.,  143. 

Christening,  ceremony  resembling,  I,  154. 

Circulating  library,  I,  120,  fig. 

Circus,  i,  16. 

Cleanliness  of  Japanese,  1, 42-44,  61. 

Cleansing  potatoes,  I,  265,  fig.,  278. 

Clerk,  inn,  2,  36,  fig. 

Clogs,  I,  3,  fig.,  8. 

Clothing,  of  Japanese  boatmen,  I,  1,  422; 
of  jinrikisha  men,  6,  105;  of  tea-firers,  26; 
of  carpenters,  31 ;  of  Japanese  on  the  road, 
46;  little  worn  in  Chiuzenji,  89;  man 
mending,  203,  fig.;  Japanese  and  Amer- 
ican, 274-77,  fig. ;  of  Japanese  and  Chinese 
teachers,  276,  281;  Japanese,  described, 
302,  303,  figs.,  319;  ill-fitting,  384,  fig.; 
winter,  2, 84, 85,  figs.,  107,  fig. ;  boys',  122, 
123,  fig.;  cooler  than  ours,  199;  appro- 
priateness of,  201 ;  of  nobles'  school-chil- 
dren, 204;  Korean,  220,  296-98,  figs. 

Cloud  effects,  1, 150. 

Club,  entertainment  at,  2, 373-76,  fig. 

Coins  with  holes,  I,  41,  fig. 

Collecting  bric-a-brac,  2,  104-07,  figs. 

Collectors,  and  collecting,  Japanese,  2, 106, 
107,  408. 

Colman,  Samuel,  I,  64. 

Compass,  names  of  points  of,  2, 228. 

Composition  room,  2, 110-14,  figs. 
Concert,  a  Japanese,  1, 398-402,  figs. 
Confectionery.  See  Candy. 
Conflagrations.  See  Fires. 
Conjurors,  1, 341,  342,  fig.,  392,  393,  fig. 
Contribution  box,  2,  232,  349. 
Conventionalized  natural  objects,  I,  145. 
Conversation,  ejaculations  and  sounds  of,  I, 

Cook,  the,  I,  207,  fig. 
Corbicula,  I,  87. 
Costume.  See  Clothing. 
Cotton  factory,  a,  2,  270-73. 
Courtesy,  I,  117,  177;. a  governor's,  2, 168, 

Crabs,  2, 145,  fig. 
Cradles,  basket,  2, 49,  fig. 
Cremation,  I,  20;  2,  335-38,  figs. 
Crematory  at  Senju,  2, 335-38,  figs. 
Criminals,  I,  247. 
Crow,  tameness  of,  2,  66,  fig.,  80. 
Cryptomeria,  I,  58,  106. 
Cup,  sak6, 1, 38,  fig. 
Curious  crowd,  a,  I,  439,  fig. 
Curtain,  theatre,  1, 30. 
Curzon,  Lord,  quoted,  2,  434. 
Custom  house,  I,  419,  426,  fig. 
Customs  officers,  I,  2. 
Cut,  a  mountain,  2, 57,  58,  fig. 
Cuttlefish,  I,  35,  fig.,  109,  162. 

Daggers,  Ainu,  2,  26,  fig.,  27. 
Daikoku,  2,  87,  fig. 
Daikon,  I,  36,  37;  2,  311. 

Daimyo,  residence  of  a,  I,  333,  fig. 

Daimyos,  the,  1, 14,  312. 

Dancing,  1, 387,  392, 401 ;  of  Ainus,  2, 1. 

Dancing  girls,  I,  300. 

Darwinism,  lecturing  on,  I,  339,  340,  415. 

Death,  sign  of,  2, 295,  fig. 

Decorations,  I,  22,  252,  253,  figs. 

Decorative  art,  I,  252,  253,  figs.,  258-62, 
figs.,  305,  fig.,  306,  fig. 

Deer,  tame  wild,  2,  275,  295. 

Defacement  of  buildings,  1, 199. 

Deformities,  1, 116. 

Dentistry,  I,  40. 

Devotion,  religious,  2,  47. 

Dimples,  2,  405. 

Dinner,  the  first,  I,  143,  144,  fig.;  a  family, 

^386,  387;  with  the  Governor,  2,  156-60; 
a  parting,  213;  given  by  Japanese  profes- 
sors, 215,  216;  in  a  cotton  factory,  272, 
273,  fig.;  given  by  Prince  Fushuni-no- 
Miya,  365. 
i  dinner  customs,  2,  413. 

Dinner  entertainment,  a,  I,  389-93,  figs. 



/Dinners,  farewell,  I,  359,  364-67;  formal, 

365-67,  380,  382,  385. 
Dipper,  bamboo,  2,  145,  fig. 
Directory,  city,  nature  in  the,  2, 416,  417. 
Directory  makers,  1, 121. 
Dirt,  method  of  lugging,  I,  117,  fig.,  389; 

carried  in  saddle-bags,  424,  fig. 
Dirt  carts,  I,  388,  389,  fig. 
Dirty  town,  a,  1, 106,  107. 
Diseases,  I,  21,  39,  40,  127,  128. 
Dismounting  on  the  road,  an  old  custom,  2, 

50,  51. 
Dogs,  I,    193,  194,  388;  names    of,  214; 

"Kumhere,"  246;  of  Yezo,  2,  18. 
Dolls,  2,  366. 
Dolmens,  2,  182. 
Door-plates,  I,  412,  413,  fig. 
Dormitories,  1, 360,  361;  2,  351,  352. 
Dragonflies,  I,  86;  on  strings,  258;  sport 

with,  2,  289. 
Drawers,  I,  373,  fig. 

Drawing-school,  Bairei's,  2,  260-62,  301. 
Drawings,  of  mountains,  I,  215,  216,  fig.; 

with  brush,  224. 
Dredging,  183-85,  224,  227,  426,  427,  fig., 

439;  2,  47,  137,  154. 
Dress.  See  Clothing. 
Drowning  accident,  2,  73. 
Drums,  I,  391,  fig. 

Drying  device  for  clothing,  I,  186,  187,  fig. 
Dwarfing  trees,  I,  125. 

Earthquakes,  I,  161,  334,  335,  395,  396;  2, 

Eating  on  the  floor,  I,  143,  144,  fig.;  2,  37, 

Education,  I,  282. 

Educational  Museum,  Tokyo,  I,  281,  282. 
Eggs,  I,  37;  2,  57,  fig. 
Eldridge,  Dr.,  I,  39,  178,  181. 
Emperor's  birthday,  2, 343,  344. 
Emperor's  garden,  the,  2,  341-43. 
English,  studied  in  Japan,  2, 115,  116. 
English  books  in  Japanese,  2,  317,  318. 
Engravers,  wood,  I,  265,  266,  fig. 
Enoshima,  zoological  station  at,  I,  138-41; 

place  of  resort,  156;  position  of,  162,  fig.; 

map  of  island,  174,  fig.;  street  in,  192,  fig.; 

at  midnight,  195;  collecting  at,  205,  209; 

the  author's  life  at,  245,  246;  temple  relics 

at,  246,  247. 
Enouye,  Count,  2,  343. 
Enouye,  Professor,  I,  364,  390,  414. 
Envelopes,  2, 192,  194,  239,  305,  fig.,  410. 
Epitaph,  2, 404, 405. 
Erosion,  2,  70,  fig. 
Eta  class,  the,  2,  355. 
Evolution,  lecturing  on,  I,  339,  340. 

Ewatayama,  2,  59,  63,  fig. 

Executions  and  executioners,  1, 312;  2,  347, 

Eye  troubles,  I,  63. 
Eyebrow,  name  of,  2,  78. 
Eyelashes,  name  of,  2,  78. 

Fairs,  I,  122;  2,  89,  348-50;  children's,  i, 

350,  351;  flower,  394;  children  at,  2,  369. 

See  Festivals. 
Falconry,  2,  381-88,  figs. 
Fan  racks,  I,  21,  fig. 
Fans,  I,  145,  154,  155,  363;  winnowing,  2, 

69,  fig. 
Farewell  dinners,  I,  359,  364-67. 
Farmers,  matting  on  shoulders,  I,  152,  fig. ; 

sweeping  the  road,  153,  fig.;  working  in 

rice-field,  153,  fig. 
Farmhouses,  I,  11,  47,  50,  51,  fig. 
Farr,  Mr.,  I,  150. 

Female  characters  in  the  theatre,  I,  30. 
Female  Normal  School,  Tokyo,  burned,  2, 

378,  fig. 
Fences,  2, 139,  242,  fig. 
Fencing,  2,  206,  207,  217,  figs.,  218,  figs. 
Fenollosa,  Professor,  I,  402. 
Fertilizing,  I,  10,  fig.,  23,  24. 
Festivals,  street,  I,  122,  298,  299,  figs.,  429, 

430;  river,  129-31,  fig.;  2,  263;  in  honor  of 
^ancestors,  1, 201 ;  children's,  299 ;  for  boys, 

329,  371;    at  Wakayama,   2,  290,  291. 

See  Fairs. 
Fingers,  names  of,  2, 78. 
Fire  alarm,  I,  131,  fig.;  a  precautionary,  2, 

39,  fig. 
Fire  bowls,  I,  401;  2,  392. 
Fire  companies,  I,  132,  133;  2,  38,  100. 
Fire  engine,  1, 132,  fig.,  134,  fig.;  2,  127,  fig. 
Fire-engine  house,  2,  38,  fig.,  293,  fig. 
Fire-fighting,  1, 131-35,  figs, ;  2, 125-28,  figs. 
Fire  pipes,  1, 132,  133,  fig. 
Fire-ruined  house  with  labels,  2,  119,  fig., 

127,  fig. 
Fire  talisman,  2,  53. 
Fire  vessels,  1, 7,  27,  51,  386. 
Firemen,  1, 134,  fig.; hats,  358,  fig.; presents 

to,  2,  119,  fig.,  127,  fig.;  heat  endurance 

of,  124;  skill,  126. 
Fireplace,  2,  25,  fig.,  35,  fig.,  63,  fig. 
Fireproof  buildings,  I,  12,  31,  32,  178,  fig., 

182,  fig.,  222-24,  fig.,  430,  fig. 
Fires,  1, 12,  13,  31, 32,  61,  119, 182,  222-24, 

fig.;  2,  38,  123-28,  figs.,  378,  fig.,  398;  de- 
scribed,  I,  131-35,  figs.,  355-58,  figs.; 

care  to  avoid,  413. 
Fireworks,  for  day  and  night,  I,  368. 
Fish,  in  markets,  I,  34-36,  figs.;  netting, 

113,  114,  fig.;  raw,  eaten,  144,  185;  at 



boys'  festival,  329,  371,  fig.;  in  Ainu  huts, 
2, 21,  24,  25,  figs. ;  method  of  smoking,  57, 
fig.;  hopping,  174;  and  fishing,  418,  419, 

Fish  hooks,  2,  419,  figs. 

Fish  knife,  2,  419,  fig. 

Fish  peddling,  I,  25. 

Fisherman's  lunch,  a,  I,  185. 

Fishermen,  2,  61,  fig. 

Fishermen's  huts,  I,  217,  218,  fig.,  421,  fig.; 
2,  65,  fig. 

Fishhooks,  2,  419,  figs. 

Fishing,  I,  62,  fig. 

Fishing  boats,  I,  225,  fig.,  226;  Satsuma,  2, 
149,  fig.;  Ainu,  377,  fig. 

Fishing  nets,  2,  66,  fig. 

Fish-women  at  Otaru,  I,  437. 

Flags,  I,  89,  fig.,  90,  fig.,  166,  fig. 

Flails,  I,  66,  fig. 

Flax,  preparation  of,  2,  356,  fig. 

Fleas,  wild  and  domestic,  I,  87;  nuisance, 

Flies,  1, 51,  206. 

Floor,  eating  on  the,  1, 143, 144,  fig. ;  sleeping 
on  the,  161. 

Floors,  2,  330,  fig. 

Flower  fair,  I,  394. 

Flower-holders,  I,  271-73,  figs.,  304,  fig., 
305,  figs.,  330,  331,  figs. 

Flower-pot  holders,  I,  394,  fig. 

Flowers,  I,  66,  91, 118, 140,  372;  2, 330,  331. 

Flute,  2,  224. 

Food,  I,  63,  87,  88, 120,  227;  seems  tasteless 
and  insipid,  63;  of  the  lower  classes,  87, 
88;  offerings  of,  121;  manner  of  serving 
"and  eating,  141, 142, 391,  fig. ;  dinner,  143, 
144,  fig.;  breakfast,  145;  Japanese,  less 
nutritious,  less  rational,  and  less  easy  to 
digest  than  ours,  162;  a  fisherman's  lunch, 
185;  a  bill  of  fare,  193;  fruits  and  vege- 
tables, 197,  198;  grasshoppers  as,  344, 
345;  2,  324,  325;  at  a  farewell  dinner,  I, 

*/364,  365;  at  a  family  dinner,  387;  at 
Otaru,  439-41;  New  Year's,  2,  93,  fig.; 
a  lunch,  102,  103,  fig.;  from  soya  beans, 
287,  figs.;  at  Mr.  Okuma's,  395;  animal, 
418,  419. 

Fool,  word  for,  2,  341. 

Foot-bridges,  I,  381,  382,  figs. 

Footlights,  I,  29. 

Footmen,  I,  9. 

Forceps,  bamboo,  2,  162,  fig. 

Foreigners,  courtesy  to,  I,  117;  restrictions 
upon,  118,  119;  views  of  a  masseur  on, 
220;  rule  as  to  place  of  residence,  316;  at- 
tract attention,  292. 

Fourth  of  July,  celebrating,  I,  102-04,  413. 

Fowl,  domestic,  1, 53. 

Fox,  superstitions  connected  with,  2,  315. 

Fraud  among  bric-a-brac  dealers,  2, 419-23. 

Frogs,  I,  87. 

Fruit,  1, 37, 197,  198,  300,  fig.,  379. 

Fujisawa,  1, 167,  207,  208,  241. 

Fujita,  2,  71. 

Fujita,  Mr.,  2,  427-30. 

Fujiyama,  I,  93,  fig.,  140, 188, 189, 331, 332; 

conventionalized,   145,  fig.;  meaning  of 

name,  214;  drawings  of,  215,  216,  fig.; 

snow-covered,  2, 403,  404,  fig. 
Fukui,  Mr.,  I,  311-14. 
Fukuoka,  2,  50. 
Fukuyo,  Mr.,  1, 352,  359. 
Fukuzawa,  Mr.,  his  school,  2,  205-07;  lec- 
•tures,  426-30. 
funeral,  I,  408-10,  figs.;  customs,  2,  309; 

honorary,  356-60,  figs. 
Furniture,  I,  7, 8, 78, 187-89,  figs. 
Futon,  I,  87. 

Gallantry,  I,  8. 

Games,  I,   123,    157-59,   162-64,  210-12, 

296, 297, 366;2,  80, 87,  figs.,  372, 373,  fig., 

402,  403. 
Garden,  a  government,  I,  380-82,  figs.;  of  a 

tea-house,  390,  fig. ;  the  Emperor's,  2, 341- 

Garden  stones,  I,  119. 
Gardening,  1, 117, 118. 
Gardens,  I,  246. 

Gate,  automatically  closed,  2, 276. 
\Gateways,  picturesque,  2,  397. 
Geisha  girls,  2, 352,  353. 
Genibaku,  2,  7,  fig. 
German  language,  I,  210. 
Gestures,  2, 351. 
Ginza,  the,  2, 414. 
Girls,  bathing,  I,  83;  dressed  for  company, 

198, 199,  fig.;  names  of,  213;  dancing,  300; 

geisha,  2,  352,  353. 
Glaciation,  I,  85. 
Glass,  jingling,  1, 51,  fig. 
Go,  the  game  of,  I,  157-59,  210. 
Godovms,  1, 32, 178,  fig. ;  2, 362,  fig.,  378. 
God-shelf,  1, 121,  168,  fig. 
God-sticks,  2,  26. 
Gojio,  2,  293. 

Goldfish  holder,  I,  389,  fig. 
Gongs,  wooden,  I,  425,  fig. 
Gonza,  2,  247,  350,  421-23. 
Good-manners  of  Japanese  children,  I,  128. 
Government  garden,  a,  I,  380-82,  figs. 
Grant,  U.  S.,  I,  71  n.;  dinner  to,  2,  200-02. 
Grapes,  I,  278,  279,  fig. 
Grasshoppers,  peddled,  I,  120;  on  strings, 

258;  as  food,  344,  345;  2, 324,  325. 
Graves,  2,  361. 



Gravestones,  1, 360,  fig.,  361,  figs. 
/Greeting,  Japanese,  2,  202,  201. 
Griffis,  Dr.  W.  E.,  I,  121  n. 
Guide-posts,  I,  106. 
Guitar,  2, 262,  fig. 
Gutters,  I,  69,  105. 

44 Ha"  and  "Hei,"  I,  184. 

Hair,  women's,  I,  68,  279,  fig.,  280;  2,  108- 

10,  figs.,  119,  fig.,  129,  130,  figs.;  tousled, 

I,  302,  fig.,  398;  girl  doing  up,  304,  fig.; 

the  queue,'  397,  fig.,  398;  2,  415,  416; 

banged,  20,  figs.,  129;  of  Ainu,  30,  fig.; 

children's,  129, 130,  figs. ;  ornaments,  412, 

413,  figs. 
Hairpins,  2,  412,  413,  figs. 
Hakama,  the,  2,  122,  123,  fig. 
Hakodate,  landing  at,  I,  417;  harbor,  417, 

418,  figs.,  421,  fig.;  the  town,  418,  figs.; 

call  on  the  Governor  of,  418,  419;  author 

accommodated  in,  419,  420;  2,  45,  fig.; 

from  Sapporo  to,  13—43,  figs. 
Haliotis,  I,  35,  fig.,  109,  162. 
Hamamatsu,  2,  246. 
Hamao,  Dr.,  Vice-Director  of  University,  I, 

281,  364. 
Hands,  games  with,  I,  210-12;  2,  372,  373, 

Hanging  flower-holders,  1, 271-73,  figs. 
Hansuke,  2,  256. 
Hara-kiri,  I,  404., 
Harp,  I,  399,  fig. 

Harris,  Mr.,  consul  at  Hakodate,  I,  417. 
Hasekawa,  Mr.,  2,  428,  430. 
Hashi-ishi,  I,  58,  69,  fig.,  96,  102,  103. 
Hats,  I,  50,  128,  153,  fig.,  189,  fig. 
Hattori,  Professor,  I,  364,  386,  390. 
Hattorigawa,  2,  181. 
Hawkers,  2,  384,  fig. 
Headlands,  2,  163,  figs. 
Healthfulness  of  Japan,  1, 23,  39 ;  2, 426. 
Hedges,  I,  66,  83,  117. 
"Hei"  and  "Ha,"  I,  184. 
Heike  gani,  2,  145,  fig. 
Hens,  I,  53. 
Hepburn,  Japanese  and  English  Dictionary, 

I,  219. 
Hideyoshi,  Castle  of,  2, 196,  197,  figs. 
Higo,  2,  143,  146-48,  figs.,  163,  fig. 
Hikisawa,  2,  393,  fig. 
Hiroshima,  2,  263. 

Historical  collection  at  Nara,  2, 182, 183. 
Hiyamugi,  2,  262,  fig. 
Hoes,  I,  65,  fig.,  307,  figs. 
Holes,  way  of  mending,  i,  55. 
Holidays,  I,  65. 
Hollyhocks,  I,  66,  118. 


Honesty  of  Japanese,  I,  37,  38,  167,  316, 

Hoodlumism,  lack  of,  2, 338,  339,  435. 

Hook,  fire,  2,  38,  fig.,  fish,  419,  figs. 

Horseback  riding,  2,  4-9,  13-15,  29-35,  42, 

Horse-shoes,  I,  22. 

Horses,  I,  61;  names  of,  215;  Ainu, 2, 29-32, 
figs.;  falls  from,  42;  care  of,  54. 

Horticultural  Hall,  Industrial  Exhibition,  I, 

Hospitality,  X,  7;  Yatsushiro,  2,  167;  Iwa- 
kuni,  273,  274. 

Hotels,  I,  56;  2,  257,  fig.  See  Inn,  Inns. 

House,  Mr.,  I,  178. 

House,  of  artist,  1, 330;  old,  430,  fig. ;  in  Ya- 
tsushiro, 2, 167;  of  janitor  of  observatory, 
220,  fig. 

ouse-construction,  2,  216,  217,  fig.,  293. 
ousehold  art  of  Japanese,  I,  269,  270,  fig. 

Household  decorations,  x,  145. 

Household  shrines,  1, 121,  168,  fig.,  229,  fig. 

Houses,  I,  6-8,  31,  32,  61,  333;  fireproof,  12, 
31,  32, 178,  fig.,  182,  fig.,  222-24,  fig.,  430, 
fig.;  along  Tonegawa  River,  114,  fig.; 
around  Tokyo,  116;  near  Enoshima,  140; 
open,  176,  334;  before  and  after  Revolu- 
tion of  1868,  315,  316;  Ainu,  2,  21-27, 
figs.;  along  Kitakami  River,  68,  figs.; 
with  polished  floors,  326. 

humanity,  Japanese  born  with  attributes 
of,  I,  44. 

Huts,  fishermen's,  1, 217,  218,  fig.,  421,  fig.; 
2,  65,  fig.;  Ainu,  3,  fig.,  15,  fig.,  21-27, 

Ices,  2,  256. 

Ignorance  of  Japanese  on  many  subjects,  I, 

Ikkoto,  Mr.,  i,  175,  176. 

Illiteracy,  I,  120. 

Image,  wooden,  I,  127. 

Impedimenta,  method  of  carrying,  I,  82, 

Imperial  Gardens,  Tokyo,  I,  337,  338,  fig. 

Imperial  Museum  in  Uyeno  Park,  Tokyo, 

Imperial  University  at  Tokyo,  foreign  pro- 
fessors in,  their  residences,  I,  14;  visit  to, 
15;  author  professor  at,  120,  139;  author 
delivers  lecture  at,  138,  139;  salary  of 
Professor  at,  paid  to  fraction  of  cent,  234; 
beginning  of  work  at,  281;  reception  to 
foreign  professors  of,  281;  nationality  of 
the  foreign  professors  of,  281 ;  the  author's 
servant  at,  283,  fig.;  life  at,  284,  285;  plan 
of  main  building,  319,  fig.;  dormitories, 
360,  361. 



Indians,  American,  and  the  Japanese,  I, 

Indigo,  2,  68. 

Industrial  art  museum  at  Tokyo,  I,  149. 

Industrial  Exhibition,  I,  248-51,  figs.,  254, 
255,  258-62,  figs.,  270,  286,  287,  fig.,  295, 
359,  360. 

Industry  of  Japanese,  1, 19,  20,  68;  2, 51,  52. 

Ink,  2,  410,  411. 

Inland  Sea,  sailing  on,  2,  132-34,  fig.,  266. 

Inn,  in  a  mountain  village,  I,  70,  78,  figs.; 
at  Nowata,  109;  room  at,  187-89,  figs.; 
at  Chitose,  2, 14,  fig.;  at  Tomokomai,  15; 
kitchen,  35,  figs.,  36. 

Inns,  I,  54,  63,  107,  fig.,  203,  fig.,  204;  2, 
244;  chamber-work  at,  I,  237,  238.  See 

Insane  asylum,  2,  224,  347. 

Insane  poor,  I,  360. 

Inscriptions,  in  taverns,  I,  54,  103;  in  tea- 
houses, 67,  fig.;  translating,  2,  82,  83,  fig. 

Insects,  1, 71,  81,  82, 86;  collecting,  102, 103, 
fig.;  peddled,  120;  on  strings,  258. 

Intelligent  chore-man,  an,  I,  191,  fig.,  192, 

Interesting,  the  word  for,  2,  316,  317. 

Intoxication,  2,  55,  56,  279. 

Iris,  blue,  2,  53. 

Irrigation,  I,  46,  116;  2,  51,  fig.,  284. 

Ishidoro,  I,  151,  fig.;  2,  75,  fig. 

Itakura,  judge,  2,  400. 

Itinerant  musician,  I,  331,  fig. 

Ito,  Dr.,  botanist  and  President  of  Botani- 
cal Society,  I,  136,  fig.;  2,  107. 

Iwakuni,  I,  267-70,  273,  274. 

Izumi,  2,  286. 

Japan,  the  paradise  of  children,  I,  41,  42, 
299;  great  thought  and  care  bestowed 
upon  dress  in,  277;  Chinese  in,  277;  nearly 
a  third  of  its  annual  budget  spent  on  edu- 
cation, 282 ;  inferior  position  of  women  in, 
282,  283;  northern  coast  of,  416,  fig.;  after 
an  absence  of  two  years  and  eight  months, 
2,  208;  a  glimpse  of  old,  269,  270. 
Japanese,  nolitenesa  of.  I,  8,  19,  28,  33,  44, 
VlOO,  117,  131,  177,  194,  195,  251,  386;  2, 
56,  57,  73,  138,  347;  little  gallantry 
observable  among,  I,  8;  industry  of, 
19,  20,  68;  2,  51,  52;  decorative  im- 
pulses of,  I,  22;  healthfulness  of,  23,  39; 
reverse  jmstpms  of,  25,  221,  373,  fig.; 
tneiFTnanner  of  sitting,  27,  60.;  honesty 
of,  37,  38,  167,  316,  317;  2,  265,  266, 
424;  temperance  of,  I,  38;  cleanliness 
of,  42-^4"4\  01;  physical  individuality  of, 
43;  physical  peculiarities  of,  43;  born  with 
attributes  of  humanity,  44;  early  hours 

of,  46;  excellent  taste  of,  54,  67;  artistic 
character  of,  55;  country  ppiplc,  charac- 
teristics of,  56;  chess,  61,  163,  fig.,  164; 
views  of,  on  exposing  the  body,  97-101; 
their  love  for  natural  objects,  123,  124, 
figs.,  355;  their  faces  without  strongly 
marked  expression,  124;  characteristics 
of  laboring  classes,  125;  chUdj^n^jjQod- 
mannerej,  128;  students,  157-59;  alpha- 
bet,l66n.,  218,  219;  2, 110-15,  figs.;  gen- 
tle  character  qfT  i,  196;  desirous  to  ac- 
quire knowledge,  221,  222;  are  timid  as 
sailors,  224,  225;  kindness  to  children, 
228;  childishness  of,  229;  soldiers,  232; 
characteristics  of,,  245,  246;  their  love  of 
nature  and  power  to  embody  simple  mo- 
tifs in  decorative  art,  252,  253 ;  toleration 
for  eccentricities  of  dress  or  behavior, 
274,  275;  their  considerate  treatment 
all,  275;  hair  of  men,  502,  fag.,  31 
described,  302,  303,  figs.,  319;  Chinese 
compared  with,  370;  and  American  In- 
dians, 371 ;  language,  376-78,  fig. ;  habits, 
resemblance  to  those  of  other  nations, 
378;  clothing,  ill-fitting,  384,  fig.;  willing- 
ness to  learn,  387,  388;  alertness  of,  408; 
of  Otaru,  436,  437;  collectors,  2, 106,  107; 
officials,  promptness,  137;  hostile  demon- 
strations, 245;  sense,  282;  names,  307, 
308;  society,  317;  national  character  of, 
415;  love  of  nature,  416;  courage,  433-35. 

Japanese  Hydrographic  Survey,  I,  255. 

Jars,  2,  119,  120,  figs. 

Jarves,  J.  J.,  quoted,  I,  270.  ' 

Jimmu  Tenno,  tomb  of,  2,  294. 

Jinrikisha  men,  politeness,  I,  33,  44;  speed, 
58,  137,  140,  322;  row  with,  108;  drink- 
ing tea,  109;  tattooing  among,  124;  in 
Kobe,  2, 129,  130;  cause  a  tumble,  296. 

Jinrikishas,  I,  4,  fig.,  5,  fig.,  6,  fig.,  22,  34, 
105,  fig.,  244,  fig.;  2,  129;  of  Kagoshima, 
161,  fig.;  pleasures  of,  183. 

Jokes,  practical,  I,  411. 

Jugglers,  I,  341,  342,  fig.,  392,  393,  fig. 

Jujitsu,  2,  218. 

Junks,  I,  238,  fig.,  422-44,  figs.;  2, 131,  fig.; 
148,  figs.,  149. 

Kabutoyama,  caves  of,  2,  319,  323. 

Kaempfer,  Dr.,  I,  127. 

Kaga  Yashiki,  I,  14,  15;  author's  residence 

in,  256,  fig.,  257;  gateway  and  entrance, 

316, 338,  fig. ;  changes  in,  after  three  years, 

Kago  traveling,  I,  81,  84,  figs.;  2,  239,  240, 

242,  243,  fig. 
Kagoshima,  2,  151,  161,  162;  to  Shimabara 

Gulf,  164. 



Kagoshima  Bay,  2,  148,  150,  163,  fig. 

Kaimondake,  2,  152,  fig. 

Kakemono,  bands  of,  2,  371,  372. 

Kamakotan,  2,  6,  fig. 

Kamidana,  I,  121,  168,  fig. 

Kanzashi,  2,  412,  413,  figs. 

Kashiwagi,  Mr.,  2,  362-65,  371. 

Kato,  Dr.,  Director  of  University,  I,  281, 

365, 427, 429, 430. 
Kawagoe,  2, 319, 323-25. 
Kawazu,  Mr.,  2,427-30. 
Kibigaku,  I,  398.  f 

Kichizayemon,  2,  298. 
Kii,  2,  287,  288. 
Kikkawa,  Mr.,  2,  222-24,  269. 
Kikuchi,  Professor,  i,  386;  2,  427-30. 
Kindergarten,  a,  2,  235. 
Kindling,  I,  49. 

Kissing  in  public,  I,  99,  297,  298. 
Kitakami  River,  sail  down,  2,  60-67,  figs. 
Kitchen,  the,  1, 207,  fig. ;  of  inn,  2, 35,  figs. ,  36. 
Kitchen-midden,    a,  I,  287-89,  301,  308, 

352,  353,  386;  2,  82,  102. 
Kite-flying,  2,  142,  fig.,  390,  391,  figs.,  399. 
Kitei's  pottery,  2,  301. 
Kites,  2,  81,  87,  figs.,  96-98,  figs.,  175,  179, 

fig.,  389-91,  figs. 
Kite-shop,  2,  388-90,  fig. 
Knots,  I,  203;  2,  120,  fig. 
Knox,  Mr.,  I,  178. 
Kobe,  2,  129-32,  figs.,  180;  sail  to,  2,  279, 

Kodankai,  2,  426-29. 
Kohitsu,  Mr.,  2,  392,  fig.,  415;  genealogy, 

Komagatake,  1, 421;  2, 41,  fig.,  44,  45,  fig. 
Korea,  2,  281. 
Korean,  language,  2,  328;  pottery,  328. 
Koreans,  2, 220,  281, 282,  296-98,  figs.,  327- 

29,  353. 
Korigawa,  2,  181. 
Korschelt,  Mr.,  I,  159. 
Koto  player,  2,  121,  fig. 
Kumamoto,  2,  164,  165,  173. 
Kura,  I,  178,  fig. 
Kuroda,  Prince,  2,  381,  396. 
Kyoto,  2, 183;  trip  to,  239-56;  artistic  centre 

of  Japan,  258-60. 

Lacquer  trees,  2,  54,  fig. 

Lacquer-work,  I,  258-62,  figs.,  287,  fig.,  305, 
fig.,  306,  fig.,  329. 

Ladders,  I,  132,  fig.; 2,  101, 102,  fig. 
d^Lady,  smoking,  2,  74,  fig.,  sketch  of,  78,  79, 

Lanterns,  paper,  I,  122,  fig.,  123,  fig.;  at 
fires,  134;  2,  38,  fig.;  stone,  I,  151,  fig.; 
2,  75,  fig.,  275,  fig.;  temple,  I,  170,  171, 
fig.;  in  procession,  2,  72,  73;  for  festival 
of  the  dead,  195,  fig. 

Latrines,  1, 78,  fig. 

Lectures,  1, 283-85,  315,  359,  385,  386;  pub- 
lic, 413-15;  on  Evolution,  339,  340,  fig.; 
at  Nobles'  School,  2,  202,  204;  at  Mr. 
Fukugawa's  school,  205;  for  shipwrecked 
fishermen,  209 ;  under  the  auspices  of  the 
Biological  Society,  219;  before  Fish  Com- 
mission, 227;  announcement  of,  324,  fig.; 
at  Mr.  Okuma's  school,  394;  at  Univer- 
sity, 395;  public,  in  Japan,  426-30. 

Leeches,  I,  87. 

Le  Gendre,  General,  I,  352. 

Leland,  Professor,  I,  402. 

Letter  of  student  to  author,  I,  221,  222. 

Letters,  i,  219;  2,  305,  fig. 

Lighting  of  fire,  I,  185. 

Lighting  of  rooms,  I,  183. 

Lingula  anatina,  2,  144. 

Lips,  held  apart,  I,  110. 

Lookouts,  2,  17,  fig. 

Lotus,  I,  136,  fig. 

Lower  classes,  conduct  of,  I,  374. 

Loyalty  to  members  of  own  province,  2, 417, 

Lumber  yards,  I,  119. 

Lyman,  Dr.  Benjamin  Smith,  2, 121,  167. 

Laboratory,  at  Enoshima,  I,  139,  144,  160, 
173-75,  fig.,  178,  fig. ;  building  and  equip- 
ping, 180,  fig.,  181;  interior,  209,  fig.;  of 
the  University,  319,  fig.;  at  Hakodate, 
419,  420,  426,  fig.;  2,  45,  fig.;  at  Otaru, 
I,  438,  439,  figs.;  at  Nagasaki,  2, 137. 

Laborers,  1, 346,  fig.,  347,  380;  of  the  author, 
352,  fig. ;  sitting  cross-legged,  2,  179,  fig. 

Laboring  classes,  characteristics  of,  1, 125. 

Macaroni,  2,  83,  fig. 

Machida,  Mr.,  2,  353. 

Magatama,  2,  366,  fig. 

Magnum,  Mr.,  2,  178. 

Mail,  I,  63,  fig.,  208,  209;  2, 180,  181. 

Mairokushi,  2,  426. 

Mallory,  Colonel  Garrick,  I,  166  n. 

Man-drawn  carts,  I,  9,  fig. 

Mangosteen,  1, 198,  fig. 

Manure,  for  fertilizing,  I,  10,  fig.,  23,  24; 
from  the  street,  disposal  of,  153,  fig. 

Map,  a  relief,  2,  203. 

Markets,  I,  34-37,  figs.,  300;  2,  79,  fig. 
^Marriage,  I,  314,  315. 

Married  women,  teeth  blackened,  I,  110. 

Masks,  I,  385,  fig. 

Masseurs,  I,  20,  57,  219,  220. 

Mats,  for  beans,  I,  37,  fig.;  floor,  57,  62,  63, 
fig.;  for  lugging  dirt,  117,  fig.,  345,  fig., 
346,  389;  of  glass  rods,  143,  fig. 



Matsumura,  Mr.,  1, 176,  184,  190,  fig.,  191, 

212,  229;  sketch  of  child  by,  224,  fig. 
Matsura,  Mr.,  I,  352,  360,  361;  death  and 

funeral,  408-10,  figs.;  epitaph, 2, 404,  fig., 

Matsura  Takashiro,  Mr.,  2,  365. 
Matsuri  carts,  I,  298,  299,  figs. 
Matsushima,  2,  70. 
Measures,  2,  179,  figs. 
Medical  College,  2,  221. 
Medical  practice,  I,  40. 
Medicine,  Chinese,  2,  425. 
Medicine  peddler,  I,  348,  349. 
Melon  booths,  2,  54,  65,  fig. 
\/Men  and  women,  distinctions  between,  I, 

Mendenhall,  Professor,  I,  402. 
Mercury,  transit  of,  I,  374. 
Microscope,  exhibiting  a,  I,  235. 
Mills,  I,  55,  fig. 
Missionaries,  2,  134,  135. 
Misu,  Mr.,  2,  268,  271. 
Mitsui's  silk  store,  2,  116-18,  figs. 
Miyajima,  2,  266,  274-77. 
Miyaoka,  Mr.,  i,  388;  2,  210,  211,  219,  221, 

305,  337. 
Moat,  Castle,  1,13, 136,328,  fig.,  329; 2, 102. 
Mochi,  2,  95,  figs.,  96,  fig. 
Models  of  mines,  bridges,  etc.,  I,  149,  fig. 
Modesty  and  immodesty,  I,  97-101. 
Mogi,  2,  139,  141,  figs.,  142,  figs. 
Mollusks,  I,  35. 
Mem,  I,  411. 
Money-brokers,  I,  349. 
Monkeys,  I,  267,  332. 
Monoliths,  I,  382,  fig. 
Monument,  a,  I,  428,  fig. 
Monuments  to  the  god  of  mercy  to  horses, 

I,  64,  fig. 
Mori,  2,  40. 
Morioka,  2,  58. 

Mororan,  2,  32,  33,  fig.,  35,  38,  40,  figs. 
Mortar,  Ainu,  2,  28,  fig. 
Mortuary  caves,  2,  174. 
Mosquito  netting,  I,  57,  199. 
Mosquitoes,  1, 160, 199;  2, 345. 
Mototarumizu,  2,  155. 
Mottoes,  in  taverns,  I,  54,  103;  2, 244;  can- 
dy, 393,  fig.,  394. 
Mountain  peaks,  I,  82,  fig. 
Mountain  village,  a,  I,  69-71. 
Mountains,  names  of,  I,  213,  214;  drawing, 

215,  216,  fig.;  traveling  among,  2,  41-43, 

48,  49. 
Murders,  2,  426. 
Murray,  Dr.  David,  1, 13-15, 180, 181,  365- 

Museum  of  Natural  History,  I,  145,  245. 

Music,  I,  115,  295,  296,  302,  359,  360,  380, 
391,  392,  fig.,  398-402,  figs.; 2, 99,  224-26; 
343,  344,  394,  395,  407,  408. 

Music  girls,  I,  391,  fig. 

Musicians,  and  musical  instruments,  I,  291, 
292,  fig.,  301,  302,  fig.,  399,  400,  figs.; 
2, 121,  122,  figs.,  394,  fig.,  395,  fig.;  itiner- 
ant, I,  333,  fig. 

Mustache  sticks,  2,  2. 

Nagasaki,  approach  to,  2,  135,  136,  figs.; 
harbor,  136-38;  streets,  138,  152;  people, 
138;  return  to,  177,  178. 

Nagoya,  2, 246-54;  castle  of,  254,  fig.,  255. 

Nakedness,  I,  97-101. 

Namboo  Fuji,  2,  59,  63,  fig. 
ifaames,  of  boys  and  girls,  I,  213;  of  moun- 
tains, 213,  214;  of  dogs,  214;  of  horses, 
214;  of  rivers,  214;  of  wrestlers,  214,  215; 
of  boats,  215;  of  certain  parts  of  the  body, 
2,  78;  of  signs  of  zodiac,  228;  of  points  of 
compass,  228;  personal,  307,  308,  403. 

Nantaisan  (Nantai),i,  86;  ascent  of,  89-93, 
figs. ;  on  the  summit  of,  93,  figs. ;  descent  of, 
94-104,  figs. 

Nara,  2,  182,  294,  295. 

Nature,  knowledge  of,  2,  205 ;  love  of,  416. 

Nature  and  art,  I,  252,  253. 

Naval  College  Exhibit,  I,  254. 

Neck,  name  of,  2,  78. 

Negishi,  Mr.,  author  entertained  at  the 
home  of,  2,  319-22. 

Nets,  I,  113,  114,  fig.;  2,  66,  fig.;  method  of 
hauling,  X,  216,  217,  fig.;  Ainu  scoop,  2, 
377,  fig.;  hawkers',  384,  fig.;  for  catching 
falcons,  385-87,  figs. 

New  Year's  Day,  2, 91-95,  figs. 

New  Year's  decorations,  2,  90,  91,  figs. 

Newsmen,  I,  380,  fig. 

Newspaper  article,  I,  353,  fig.,  376,  377,  fig.; 
2,  111,  fig. 

Newspaper  cut,  2, 114,  fig. 

Newspaper  office,  description  of,  2,  110-15, 

Nicknames,  1,  361. 

Night,  an  uncomfortable,  I,  239,  240. 

Nightgowns,  I,  87. 

Night-lamps,  I,  57,  fig. 

Night  noises,  I,  161. 

Nikko,  trip  to,  I,  45-56;  temples,  69-76, 
figs.;  height,  81. 

Ninagawa  Noritani,  2,  106,  107,  190,  414, 
415;  obsequies  of,  356-60,  figs.;  ms.  vol- 
umes of,  405. 

Nishi,  Mr.,  2,  427-30. 

Nishikawa  Rokubei,  2,  397,  fig. 

Nobles'  School,  2,  202-04. 

Nomagasaki,  2,  146,  fig. 



Nowata,  inn  at,  I,  109;  pronunciation  of, 

Numa,  Mr.,  2,  428,  430. 
^Nursing,  I,  8,  27,  40,  60,  95,  176,  fig.,  262. 

Oars,  I,  2,  fig. 

Oaths,  I,  39,  264. 
^Offerings,  to  the  dead  Shogun,  I,  293,  fig.; 
to  the  dead,  2,  46. 

Okamui,  I,  433,  fig.,  452,  fig. 

Okubo,  Count,  assassination  of,  I,  376-79. 

Okuma,  Mr.,  school  and  summer  house,  2, 
394,  395;  city  house,  396. 

Omnibuses,  I,  137. 

Omori,  kitchen-midden  at,  I,  287-89,  301, 
308,  352-54,  386;  2,  82,  102. 

Ono,  Mr.,  2,  429,  430. 

Onomura,  2, 166, 167. 

Onsendake,  2,  175,  fig. 

"Opening  of  the  River,"  1, 129-31,  fig. 

Orange-holders,  2,  86,  fig. 

Oranges,  2, 85,  86,  figs. 

Orchestra,  I,  30,  399,  fig.,  407;  2,  99.  See 

Osaka,  2, 190,  195-98,  figs.,  302. 

Otaru,  boat  voyage  to,  1, 431-34,  figs. ;  f  acili-i 
ties  furnished  author  at,  435;  harbor  and 
shore,  436,  figs. ;  appearance  of  people  at, 
436,  437;  Ainus  at,  2,  1-4,  figs.;  view  of, 
through  a  tunnel,  5,  fig.;  journey  from, 
to  Sapporo,  4-9,  figs. 

Otsu,  2,  256. 

Ouchi,  Mr.,  2,  428,  430. 

Outdoor  bakery,  I,  350,  351,  fig. 

Ox-teams,  2,  130. 

Pack-bulls,  I,  61. 

Pack-horses,  I,  153,  fig. 

Packing,  2,  346. 

Pack-saddle,  2,  240,  fig. 

Padlock,  2,  295,  fig. 

Palanquins,  I,  81,  84,  figs. 

Pantomime,  I,  273,  274,  fig.,  298. 

Paper,  composition  of,  I,  156. 

Paper  lanterns,  I,  122,  fig.,  123,  fig. 

Paper-polishing,  I,  373,  374,  fig. 

Parsons,  Professor,  I,  352. 

Passports,  I,  118,  119. 

Paste,  2,  84,  fig. 

Peaches,  I,  37,  118,  228. 

Pearl-shell  cutting,  2,  344,  fig. 

Pears,  1, 37, 198;  displayed  in  tubs,  300,  fig. 

Pease  porridge  hot,  I,  368,  369,  fig. 

Peddlers,  1, 119,  206,  207,  fig.;  cries  of,  206, 

326;  of  candy,  326-28,  fig. ;  medicine,  348, 

Phosphorescence,  2,  150,  151. 
Physical  individuality,  1, 43. 

Physical  science,  teaching  of,  2,  431-33. 

Pictures,  I,  160,  237. 

Pigeons,  I,  126. 

Pile-driver,  I,  3,  4,  fig.;  2,  282,  283,  fig. 

Pilgrims,  1, 105,  106,  170,  fig.,  175,  fig.,  177, 
192;  2,  246;  in  boat,  I,  205,  206,  fig.; 
sketching  eagle,  254. 

Pillows,  I,  8,  57,  62,  figs.,  161,  176,  fig.,  189, 
fig.,  237,  238,  fig. 

Pincers,  2,  179,  fig. 

Pines,  dwarf,  I,  248,  249,  fig.;  2, 104,  fig. 

Pipes,  I,  7,  fig.;  2,  296,  373,  fig. 

Pistols,  i,  111,  112. 

Plane,  carpenter's,  I,  373,  fig. 

Plant-stands,  X,  124,  fig.,  304,  fig. 

Plants,  I,  11,  383,  384. 

Play.   See  Theatrical  performances. 

Ploughs,  2, 138,  fig.,  161,  fig.;  Kii,  288,  fig.; 
varieties  of,  331,  332,  figs. 

Plum  trees,  2,  103,  104,  fig. 

Plums,  I,  198. 

Poem,  man  reciting,  I,  106. 

Poles,  telegraph,  1, 60;  2, 54,  fig. ;  and  poling, 

I,  101,  102,  fig.,  112,  fig.,  113,  fig.,  114, 

t    fig. ;  as  guides  in  snow,  2,  50. 

'Politeness,  1, 8, 19,  28,  33,  44, 100, 117,  131, 

194,  195,  251,  386;  2,  56,  57,  73,  138,  347. 

Pomegranate  flower,  I,  50,  66. 

Pond,  2,  382,  383,  fig. 

Poorhouse,  I,  360. 

Postmaster,  I,  167,  fig. 

Post-office,  I,  167,  fig. 

Posts,  I,  77,  fig. 

Potato  shops,  I,  278. 

Potatoes,  I,  198;  cleansing,  265,  fig.,  278. 

Potteries,  at  Kyoto,  2,  184-91,  figs.,  193, 
figs.;  Tada,  269,  270;  Imado,  354. 

Pottery, unglazed,  I,  294,  fig.,  308-11,  figs.; 
prehistoric,  334;  Omori,  353,354,  figs.; 
art  hand-work,  2, 104,  105,  figs.;  jars,  119, 
120,  figs.;  old,  curious  objects  of,  156, 
figs.;  bowl  with  arrow  design,  167,  fig.;  in 
cave  at  Onomura,  169-72;  for  foreign 
trade,  185-87,  fig.;  scarce,  after  three 
years,  210;  unglazed,  lathe-turned,  Ya- 
mato,  294;  Korean,  328;  in  early  times, 

Pottery,  Rokubei's,  2,  298,  fig.;  the  Raku, 
298-300,  fig.;  Yeiraku's,  300;  Zoroku's, 
300,  301;Kitei's,  301. 

Pottery  party,  2,  399,  400,  fig. 

Practical  jokes,  I,  411. 

Prairie,  2,  49. 

Prayer  casket,  I,  269,  fig. 

Praying-posts,  I,  429,  fig. 

Presents,  I,  394,  395,  fig.;  2,  94,  fig. 
|/Pride,  sign  to  indicate,  2,  282. 

Priest,  a  sleepy,  2,  69. 



Priests,  I,  292,  figs.,  293. 
Procession,  a,  2,  72,  73. 
Prompter,  I,  30. 

Proof  and  proof-reading,  2, 114,  fig.,  115. 
Protective  coloring,  1, 80. 
Proverbs,  2, 227,  228. 
vPublic  baths,  I,  97-101,  fig. 
Public  story-tellers,  I,  200,  fig.,  201. 
Pumps,  sprinkling,  1, 153,  fig. 
Punctuation,  2,  305. 

Queue,  the,  I,  397,  fig.,  398;  2,  36,  65,  fig., 

415,  416. 
Quivers  and  arrows,  Ainu,  2,  27,  fig. 

Racks  for  carrying  grain  or  grass,  I,  66,  fig. 

Raku  pottery,  2,  298-300,  fig. 

Ramma,  2,  241  n. 

Rapper  of  story-teller,  I, 231,  232,  fig. 

Raspberries,  I,  71. 

Reading,  Japanese  manner  of,  1, 147 ;  2, 351 ; 

of  Chinese  classics,  1, 183;  by  child,  426. 
Reception  at  tea-house,  2,  379,  380. 
Reeling  silk,  I,  250. 
Relics,  temple,  I,  126. 
Religious  belief,  2,  413,  414. 
Resonators,  I,  231,  fig. 
Restaurants,  I,  279. 
/Retirement,  occupation  after,  2,  316. 
y*teverse  customs,  I,  25,  221,  373,  fig. 
Revolting  forms  of  edibles,  1, 257,  fig.,  258. 

See  Food. 
Rice,  varieties  of,  I,  68;  manner  of  serving 

and  eating,  142;  at  festival,  202,  203. 
Rice  dust.  2,  238. 
Rice  exchange,  2,  302,  303. 
Rice-fields,  I,  9,  10,  fig.,  11,  46,  fig.,  50,  fig., 

68,  116,  367;  2,  51,  fig. 
Rice-pounding,  1, 55,  fig.;  2,  238,  figs. 
Ridge-poles,  I,  64, 65, fig.,  116, 119,  182, fig.; 

2,  53,  fig.,  258.    See  Roofs. 
Riverbanks,  protecting,  with   bamboo,   I, 

River  travel,  2,  60-67,  figs. 
Rivers,  names  of,  I,  214. 
Road  experience,  2,  77. 
Roads,  I,  47,  58,  82. 
Rokubei's  pottery,  2,  298,  fig.,  397. 
Roofs,  I,  61,  64,  65,  fig.,  109.  182,  fig.; 2, 53, 

fig.;  of  Ainu  houses,  23,  figs.,  33;  treat- 
ment of  Izumi,  286;  thatched,  294,  fig., 

308;  city,  371. 
Rooms,  I,  77,  78,  fig.,  107,  fig.,  187-89,  figs., 
f  317,  fig.,  330,  360,  361;  2,  220,  fig.,  221, 

339,  fig.,  363,  fig.,  364. 
Root  in  front  of  drinking-booth,  I,  124,  fig. 
Rope,  I,  203. 
Rudder,  I,  423,  fig. 

Saddle  bags,  I,  424,  fig. 

Saddles,  I,  424,  fig.,  425,  fig. 

Saigo,  General,  I,  382. 

Sails,  1, 113,  225,  fig.,  226;  2,  63,  fig. 

Sakanoshita,  2,  256. 

Sake,  I,  38;  cup,  38,  fig.;  measure  and  tub, 
2,  179,  fig.;  drinking,  316. 

Sakurajima,  2, 151,  fig. 

Sakurajima  yama,  2, 151,  fig. 

Salt,  2,  311. 

Salt-water  carriers,  I,  36. 

Salutations,  Ainu,  2,  29. 

Samisen  and  player,  I,  391,  fig.; 2, 121,  122, 
fig.,  375,  fig. 

Sammaibashi,  2,  239. 

Samurai,  I,  214,  303,  312,  313,  330,  363;  2, 
370;  lower  and  upper,  1, 314. 

Sand  artists,  I,  346,  fig.,  347. 

Sandals,  I,  3,  fig.,  8. 

Sanitation,  I,  23. 

San-ju-san-gen-do,  2,  332-34,  fig. 

Sankishi,  Kosaka,  2,  226,  figs. 

Sapparo,  journey  from  Otaru  to,  2, 4-9,  figs. ; 
streets,  9;  college,  9;  vessels  and  frag- 
ments, 9,  10,  fig.;  farm,  10;  mountains 
near,  11,  figs.;  journey  to  Hakodate  from, 
13-43,  figs. 

Sarcophagus,  2,  168,  fig. 

Sasaki,  Mr.,  I,  352;  2,  42. 

Satsuma,  2,  146-48,  figs.,  163,  fig. 

Satsuma  bottle,  2,  160,  fig. 

Saws,  I,  412. 

Scene,  theatrical,  I,  405,  fig. 

School,  an  artist's,  2,  261,  fig. 

School  apparatus,  exhibit  of,  I,  255. 

School-children,  I,  362. 

School-houses,  I,  47,  48,  fig.,  124. 

Schools,  1, 124. 

Scoop  net,  Ainu,  2,  377,  fig. 

Screens,  1, 108,  109,  156,  fig. 

Scribes,  I,  139,  fig. 

Scrubbing,  I,  51. 

Sculling,  I,  1,  2. 

Scythes,  I,  383,  fig. 

Seals,  I,  265,  fig.,  324,  fig. 

Sea-sickness,  word  for,  2,  341. 

Seaweed,  as  food,  I,  88;  gathering,  2,  5,  6, 

Sendai,  2,  70. 

Servants,  I,  407,  408;  attitudes,  2,  37,  fig.; 
devotion  of,  393. 

Service,  a,  2,  93,  fig. 

Sewing  machines,  I,  33. 

Shark,  chasing  a,  I,  225. 

Shaving,  the  head,  I,  10,  22,  199,  fig.,  201, 
fig.,  372,  398;  2,  138,  fig.,  the  face,  I,  53, 
230,  231. 

Shell,  pearl,  attached  to  box,  2,  262,  fig. 



Shell-heap,  result  of  coast  upheaval,  2, 155. 

Shell-heaps.   See  Kitchen-midden. 

Shells,  I,  85;  collecting,  101;  2,  137,  138; 
screens  made  of ,  1, 108 ;  roof  covered  with, 
109;  at  Enoshima,  141,  205,  209;  as  re- 
sonators, 231,  fig.;  at  Yezo,  427,  428; 
snail,  2, 28;  differences,  82. 

Shell-work,  I,  157,  figs. 

Shelter,  hawkers',  2,  387,  fig. 

Shimabara,  2,  175-77. 

Shimabara  Gulf,  Kagoshima  to,  2, 164. 

Shimaji,  Mr.,  2,  428,  430. 

Shimonoseki,  2,  133,  fig.,  179,  180. 

Shimonoseki,  Straits  of,  2, 133,  fig.,  179. 

Shin,  name  of,  2,  78. 

Shingles,  I,  61. 

Shinto,  shrines,  I,  121,  168,  fig.;  faith,  com- 
munion of,  290-95,  figs. ;  burial,  408-10, 

Shirakawa,  2,  71,  72. 

Shirako,  2,  319. 

Shiraoi,  2,  22,  fig. 

Shizuoka,  2,  245. 

Sho,  the,  I,  291,  fig.,  399,  figs. 

Shoe  and  umbrella  shop,  I,  344,  fig. 

Shoe  closet,  2,  392,  fig. 

Shoemaker,  Chinese,  I,  285,  fig. 

Shogun,  offerings  to  the  dead,  I,  293,  fig.; 
the  days  of  the,  375. 

Shop  signs,  I,  296,  322-25,  figs.,  374;  2,  48, 
fig.,  83,  fig.,  84,  fig. 

Shops,  I,  6-8,  fig.,  78,  128;  2, 116-19,  figs.; 
by  night,  I,  135. 

Shorin,  I,  329,  330. 

Shovels,  I,  307,  fig.;  2,  326,  fig.,  332,  fig. 

Show  cases,  making,  I,  375. 

Shrines,  I,  11,  47-49,  92,  figs.,  93;  house- 
hold, 121,  168,  fig.,  229,  fig.;  erected 
near  striking  natural  features,  165;  cave, 
165,  fig.,  166;  pilgrimages  to,  170,  fig.; 
Ainu,  2,  33,  fig.;  in  stores,  118,  fig.,  119; 
stone,  142,  fig.;  picturesque,  175.  See 

Sidewalks,  2,  414. 

Signs,  inn,  I,  140;  shop,  296,  322-25,  figs., 
374;  2,  48,  fig.,  83,  fig.,  84,  fig.;  names  of 
institutions,  I,  412. 

Silk,  reeling,  I,  250. 

Silk  store,  a  famous,  2,  116-18,  figs. 

Silkworm  eggs,  cards  of,  I,  109,  fig.,  110. 

Silver  bronze,  a,  I,  255,  fig. 

Singers,  outfit  of,  I,  231,  232,  fig.;  with  or- 
chestra, 400,  401. 

Singing,  I,  115,  380;  lesson  in,  2,  401,  402, 
fig.,  406.  See  Chanty. 

Singing  workmen.  See  Chanty. 

Sinks,  I,  96,  fig.,  227,  fig. 
•fitting,  Japanese  method  of,  I,  27,  60. 

Slate,  substitute  for,  2,  411,  fig. 

Sleeper,  method  of  waking,  2,  416. 
I /Sleeping,  I,  57,  62,  fig.,  78,  161,  230;  2,  67, 

Sleight-of-hand,  I,  392,  393,  fig. 

Slums,  2,  370. 

Smallpox,  I,  21,  39,  219;  sign  to  ward  off, 

Smoking,  I,  7;  2,  62,  fig.,  74,  fig. 

Smoothing  and  ironing,  2,  368. 

Snails,  hunting  for,  2,  11-13;  speed  of  move- 
ment of,  194,  195. 

Snailshells,  2,  28. 

Sneezing,  2,  312. 

Snow  in  Tokyo,  2, 101,  405,  406. 

Snow  shovels,  2,  101,  fig. 

Societies,  student,  I,  361. 
|  /Social  customs,  I,  313-15. 

Sode-gaki,  2,  366-68,  fig. 

Soil,  fertilizing,  I,  10,  fig.,  23,  24. 

Soldiers,  I,  232. 

Soup,  I,  88,  142,  387;  2,  395. 

Souvenirs,  I,  78,  79,  fig.,  156,  157,  fig. 

Soya  beans,  preparation  from,  2,  287,  figs. 

Specimens,  transference  to  Tokyo,  I,  244, 
fig.,  245. 

Spiders  and  spider-webs,  I,  80,  81,  figs. 

Spinning-wheels,  I,  50. 

Sprinkling,  pump  used  for,  I,  153,  fig. 

Stable,  2,  156,  fig. 

Stacks,  straw,  2,  283,  fig. 

Stage,  theatre,  I,  28-30,  figs.;  2,  99. 

Stage-ride  to  Nikko,  I,  45-56. 

Stages,  outdoor,  I,  301,  302,  fig. 

Stamps  for  collection,  I,  150. 

Standards  of  fire  companies,  I,  133,  134, 
fig.,  357,  358,  fig. 

Stands  for  plants,  I,  124,  fig. 

Steam  launch,  I,  426,  427,  fig. 

Steamboat  trip,  from  Yokohama  to  Hako- 
date, I,  416;  from  Hakodate  to  Otaru, 
431-34,  figs. 

Steamer,  2,  47,  fig. 

Stilts,  2,  81,  fig. 

Stockings,  I,  8. 

Stomachs,  Japanese,  2,  354. 

Stone-arched  bridges,  2,  162,  fig.,  178,  fig. 

Stone  images,  I,  428,  429,  fig. 

Stone  lanterns,  1, 151;  2,  75,  fig.,  275,  fig 

Stone  shrines,  2,  142,  fig. 

Stone  walls,  2,  139,  fig. 

Stone  yards,  I,  119. 

Storehouses,  Ainu,  2,  27,  28,  figs. 

Stores,  2,  116-19,  figs. 

Story-tellers,  public,  I,  200,  fig.,  201;  outfit 
of,  231,  232,  fig.;  professional,  2, 374,  375. 

Stoves,  charcoal,  2,  339,  fig. 

Strainer,  bamboo,  2,  276,  fig. 



Straw,  articles  made  of,  2,  90,  91,  figs. 

Strawberries,  I,  66. 

Street  cries,  I,  21. 

Street  fights,  2,  370,  371. 

Street  jugglers,  I,  341,  342,  fig. 

Street-names,  I,  121,  150,  383,  fig. 

Street-repairing,  2,  125. 

Street  scenes  in  Tokyo,  I,  262-64,  343-51, 

Street  sweepers,  I,  153,  fig. 

Street  traffic,  I,  137. 

Street-watering,  I,  24,  fig. 

Streets,  how  laid  out,  I,  150,  fig.;  appear- 
ance of,  2,  414. 

Student  sorting  specimens,  I,  302,  fig. 

Students,  I,  157-59,  183,  210;  ambitious, 
221;  playing  cards,  236;  rooms,  360,  361; 
societies,  361;  life,  362;  their  method  of 
wearing  the  hair,  398;  2,  415;  their  daily 
schedule,  351,  352;  ingenuity  of,  431-33. 

Sugi,  Mr.,  2,  425-27,  429,  430. 

Sumida  River,  I,  129. 

Sundays,  I,  31,  177. 

Sunstroke,  I,  24. 
Superstitions,  2,  228,  229,  308-16,  369. 

Swallows'  nests,  I,  50,  51,  fig.,  106;  2,  258, 

Swearing,  I,  39,  264. 

Sweet  potatoes.  See  Potatoes. 

Sword-maker,  2,  408,  fig. 

Swords,  old,  2,  222,  223. 

Syringe  for  preparing  tokoroten,  I,  88,  fig. 

Tablets,  lacquered,  I,  258-62,  figs.,  287,  fig. 

Tag  worn  by  children,  2,  412,  fig. 

Takahashi,  2, 143,  144,  figs. 

Takahashi  River,  2,  164,  174. 

Takamine,  Mr.,  I,  384;  2,  30,  31,  354,  355. 

Takamine,  Mrs.,  2,  212. 

Takenaka,  Mr.,  2,  324. 

Tanada,  Mr.,  2,  131. 

Tanaka,  Mr.,  I,  365. 

Tangerines,  2,  85,  86,  figs. 

Tanimura,  Mr.,  2,  399. 

Tanks,  I,  102,  103,  fig. 

Tannery,  2,  291,  fig. 

Targets,  I,  123. 

Tarumae,  2,  19,  fig. 

Taste  of  Japanese,  I,  54,  67. 

Tattooing,  I,  124,  125. 

Tea,  as  mark  of  hospitality,  I,  7;  growing, 
11;  firing,  25-27;  for  export,  26;  for  home 
consumption,  27;  how  drunk,  52 ;  drunk  on 
all  occasions,  192;  method  of  making,  218, 

Tea  ceremony,  a,  2,  248-54,  figs.,  344,  392. 

Teacups,  2,  167,  fig. 

Tea-firing  buildings,  I,  25-27. 

Tea-house,  dinner  entertainment  at,  1, 389- 
93,  figs.;  reception  at,  2, 379,  380. 

Tea-houses,  I,  66,  67,  141,  145,  146,  279. 

Tea-places,  I,  151,  152,  fig. 

Tea-scoops,  2,  219,  fig. 

Teeth,  of  the  Japanese,  1, 40;  of  married  wo- 
men, blackened,  110,  285;  names  of,  2, 
78;  in  cremation,  338;  blackening,  the  pro- 
cess, 339,  340,  fig. 

Telegraph  poles,  I,  60;  2,  54,  fig. 

Temperance  of  Japanese,  I,  38. 

Temple,  leading  to  Nantai,  I,  89,  90;  in 
Asakusa,  Tokyo,  125-28,  266,  267,  269; 
in  Enoshima,  relics  in,  246, 247;  service  in, 
289-95,  figs.;  plan  of,  292,  fig.;  people  en- 
tering, 2,  46;  at  Miyajima,  275;  at  Ka- 
wagoe,  325. 

Temple  lantern,  1, 170,  171,  fig. 

Temple  tokens,  2,  412,  fig. 

Temples,  I,  47;  Nikko,  69-76,  figs.;  fairs 
near,  2,  89.  See  Shrines. 

Terraces,  2,  140. 

Thatched  roofs,  I,  61,  64,  65,  fig. 

Theatres,  I,  27-30,  figs.,  402-04,  fig.;  2,  99, 
100,  fig. 

Theatrical  performances,  I,  241,  242,  404- 
07,  figs. 

Ticket  of  admission  to  lecture,  2,  219,  fig. 

Tiles,  2,  306. 

Tobacco,  I,  7. 

Toes,  names  of,  2,  78. 

Tokonoma,  2,  394. 

Tokoroten,  I,  88. 

Tokyo,  the  name,  1,11,  86;  arrival  at,  12; 
sights  of,  12,  31,  32;  building-methods  in, 
12,  13;  Dr.  Murray's  office,  13;  yashiki, 
14;  Imperial  University  at,  15;  the  wrest- 
lers at,  16-19;  alone  in,  19;  glaciated 
boulders  at,  20;  street- watering  in,  24; 
the  Imperial  Museum  in,  31;  jinrikishas 
in,  34;  departure  from,  45;  temple  in 
Osakusa,  125-28,  266,  267,  269;  industrial 
art  museum  at,  149;  picturesque  points 
of,  233;  sights  in,  262-64,  343-51,  figs.; 
view  of,  279,  280,  335,  fig.;  the  foreigner 
and,  375 ;  snow  in,  2,  101 ;  health  condi- 
tions of,  2,  426. 

Tokyo  Athletic  Club,  I,  320,  321,  fig. 

Tokyo  Female  Normal  School,  2,  235-37. 

Tokyo  Normal  School,  2,  431. 

Toleration  for  eccentricities  of  dress  or  be- 
havior, I,  274,  275. 

Tomatoes,  I,  37,  198. 

Tomb  of  Jimmu  Tenno,  2,  294. 

Tombs,  I,  72-76,  figs. 

Tomokomae,  2,  15-19,  figs. 

Tonegawa  River,  a  trip  down,  I,  110-16, 



Toothbrushes,  1, 146,  fig. 

Toothpick  holders,  I,  396,  397,  fig. 

Tops,  I,  157,  fig.;  2,  81,  fig.,  87. 

Tori4, 1,  48,  49,  90,  fig. ;  2,  290,  fig. 

Tortoise-shell,  2,  179,  figs. 

Towing,  2,  67,  fig. 

Toyama,  Professor,  I,  15,   162,   175,  176, 

190,  fig.,  212,  219,  314,  386;  2,  427-30. 
Toyohachi,  2,  246. 
Toys,  I,  156,  157,  fig.;  mechanical,  2,  79- 

Trains,  I,  11. 

Translating  inscriptions,  2,  82,  83,  fig. 
Transplanting  trees,  I,  347. 
Traveling  by  night,  1, 196. 
Trays  for  offerings,  1, 293,  fig.,  294,  fig. 
Tread-wheel,  I,  46,  fig.,  116. 
Trees,  I,  58, 59,  figs.,  117, 337,  fig. ;  dwarfing, 

125 ;  transplanting,  347 ;  2, 84,  fig. ;  lacquer, 

54,  fig.;  picturesque,  175,  fig.;  camphor, 

175,  fig. 
Tricks,  1, 366,  392,  393,  411;  2,  158,  159. 
Trolling,  2,  419,  fig. 
Trumpets,  I,  157,  fig. 
Tsugaru  Straits,  I,  431. 
Tsuji,  Mr.,  2,  429,  430. 
Tubs,  I,  270. 
Turtles,  2,  302,  fig. 
Twine,  I,  203. 

Type  and  type-setting,  2, 110-15,  figs. 
Typhoon,  a,  I,  171,  172,  174,  fig.,  175,  fig 

178,  192,  354,  355. 

Umbrella  and  shoe  shop,  I,  344,  fig. 
Umbrellas,  I,  236,  fig. 
Undercutting,  2,  32,  fig.,  40,  fig. 
University.  See  Imperial  University. 
Upraised  beach,  2,  155. 
Usuyama,  2,  40,  fig. 
Utsunomiya,  I,  56;  2,  74. 
Uyeno  Park,  Tokyo,  I,  248,  289. 

Vaccination,  I,  21,  39. 

Vegetables,  I,  36,  37,  197,  198;  cleansing, 

265,  fig. 
Venders,  street,  I,  21. 
Vessels,  Japanese,  423,  fig.,  424. 
Village,  Ainu,  2,  22,  fig.,  29. 
Violets,  name  for,  2,  340. 
Violin  and  koto,  2,  212,  213. 
Visiting  cards,  2,  327,  fig. 
Volumes,  designations  of,  2,  228. 

Wakanoura,  2,  289. 
Wakayama,  2,  287-93. 
Wall-paper  designs,  I,  155,  156,  fig. 
Walls,  stone,  2,  139,  fig. 

War  prints,  I,  269. 

Wash  sinks,  I   227. 

Watchmen,  private,  I,  20. 

Water,  lack  of,  in  houses,  I,  96;  salt  and 

fresh,  220. 
•^Water-carriers,  I,  25,  36. 
Water-wheel,  used  as  tread- wheel,  1, 46,  fig., 

116;  for  irrigation,  2,  284,  fig. 
Watering  of  streets,  I,  24,  fig. 
Watermelons,  I,  197. 
Wax,  vegetable,  manufacture  of,  2,  52,  53, 

Wax  figures,  I,  267. 
Weapons,  Ainu,  2,  26,  fig.,  27,  fig. 
Weather-vane,  2,  234,  fig. 
Weaving,  I,  50;  2,  242,  fig. 
Webs,  spider,  I,  80,  81,  figs. 
Weeder,  2,  285,  fig. 
Wells,  I,  8;  2,  277,  278. 
Well-sweeps,  I,  60;  2,  155,  fig.,  162,  181, 

283,  284,  fig. 
Wertheimber,  Mr.,  I,  178. 
Williams,  Dr.  S.  Wells,  I,  166  n. 
Wilson,  Professor,  I,  15;  his  son,  17,  18. 
Windlass,  2,  18,  fig. 
Windows,  I,  67,  fig. 
Winnowing-fans,  2,  69,  fig. 
^Women,  and  men,  distinctions  between,  I, 

114;  inferior  position  of,  in  Japan,  282, 

Wood,  for  fire,  I,  343. 
Wood  engravers,  I,  265,  266,  fig. 
Wood-turners,  I,  266,  fig. 
Wooden  sounding-devices,  I,  425,  fig. 
Woodwork,  I,  78,  251,  252,  figs.,  305,  306, 

fig.;  2,  68,  figs. 
Woolen   fabrics,    Japanese  wonder  at,    I, 

Work,  cheapness  of,  I,  379. 
Workmanship,  fidelity  in,  2,  408-10. 
Workmen.   See  Laborers. 
Workroom  and  workmen,  1, 190,  191,  fig. 
Worms,  procession  of,  2,  226,  227,  figs. 
Wrestlers,  I,  16-19,  figs.,  268;  names  of, 

214,  215. 
Writing,  Japanese  method  of,  I,  173. 
Writing  and  marking  devices,  2,  410,  fig., 

Writing  material,  2, 410. 
Writing-paper,  2,  194,  410. 

Yagi,  2,  294. 

Yamato,  2,  294,  295. 

Yashiki,  1, 14,  375. 

Yatabe,  Professor,  1, 139,  352. 

Yatate,  2,  410,  fig.,  411. 

Yatsushiro,  2,  166. 

Yedo.  See  Tokyo. 



Yedo,  Bay  of,  islands  in,  I,  19;  map,  162, 

Yeiraku's  pottery,  2,  300. 

Yezo,  I,  416;  2,  48,  figs. 

Yokkaichi,  2,  255,  256. 

Yokohama,  landing  at,  1, 1,  2;  first  morning 
in,  3;  workmen  in,  3,  4;  first  impressions 
of  wandering  through,  4;  market  in,  34; 

Japanese  and  Chinese  at,  147-49 ;  ground 
laid  out  in  rows  of  squares,  150. 
Yumoto,  I,  94-96,  101,  102,  fig. 

Zodiac,  signs  of,  names,  2,  228. 
Zoological  Laboratory,  I  319,  fig. 
ZoSlogical  Museum,  2,  211. 
Zoroku's  pottery,  2,  300,  301. 

U    .    S    .    A 

4  c? 










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